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The Catholic 

Theological Union 


Chicago, IN. 

Fortnightly Re view 


Founded, Edited and Published 







V lvi. l\ \ LI 

o\S. 0° 


The Catholic 

Theological Union 


Chicago, III. 



100', Solvent 

A Progressive Catholic Fraternal Insurance Society under strict supervision of 
the State Insurance Department of Illinois now offers 


The following tables are based on the Combined Actuarial Experience Tables 

Ordinary Life Certificate — Monthly Rate 25 cents 

Amount payable Schedule of Benefits 

if certificate lias Age next birthday at date of certificate 

»>een in force for 2 A 4 ."• 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1(5 

1st months $17 20 24 29 38 7)0 Oil 77) 80 78 77) 7.'5 70 GS 65 

2nd ti months 34 41) 48 58 70 00 125 150 100 155 150 145 140 135 130 

1 year 40 48 58 70 90 125 150 165 

2 yean 4> 58 70 90 125 165 175 
.{year- :,s 711 <||l [25 165 is;, 

7ii 90 125 105 195 

5 vears 90 125 165 200 

•.-- 126 L66 205 

• r» . it;:, 210 

- trs 215 

Term of Age 16 — Monthly Rate 15 cents 

Amount payable Schedule of Benefits 

if certificate has A g e next birthday at date of certificate 

been in force for 2 3 4 5 li 7 S 10 11 12 111 14 15 16 

monthi |17 20 24 29 35 42 50 60 71 83 96 110 125 125 125 

2nd G months 34 40 48 58 70 S4 100 120 142 100 192 220 250 250 250 

I rent 40 4* 58 70 84 100 120 142 166 L92 220 250 250 250 

4 s 58 70 84 100 120 142 100 192 220 27,0 250 250 

58 7n 84 MM 120 142 166 192 220 250 250 250 

4 yean 7n 84 LOO 120 142 166 192 220 250 250 27,0 

Syeain ^4 100 120 142 166 192 220 250 250 250 

•rs inn 120 142 166 192 220 27,0 250 250 

enw 120 14L' 168 192 220 250 250 250 

142 UK', 192 220 250 250 27,0 

166 192 220 250 250 250 

10 years 192 220 250 250 250 

11 ye^rs 220 251 1 250 260 

»a-s 250 260 260 

13 yean 260 250 

251 ' 

These benefits ;■•<■ oulj for children \\ bo belong to the immediate families 
of members of tin- W. < '. i T . 

i: ties foi Men and Women based on Standard Mortality Tables. 

1 01 Farther Information apply to Headquarters of t he W. ('. II., 
Illinois State Bank Bollding, Qaiucy, III. 

I W. Hl.< KI.NK \MI\ JB. WM. B. OTT, 

Supreme President Supreme Secretary 


The Fortnightly Review 



January 1, 1919 

Fray Junipero 

A fallen roof beside a tawny trail, 

A moldered cross upon a haunted hill, 

And, out at sea. a gleam of ghostly sail, 
These are for recollection of him still. 

Cities are builded where his sandals trod, 
Yet not forgotten at the golden goal 

Is he who won so fair a land for God, 
Who came to slake the desert's thirsting 

A thousand vales with endless bloom aflame, 
A thousand mountain peaks white-crowned 
with snow 

Still linger on that grey Franciscan's name 
Who loved their deathless beauty, long ago. 

The newer race that destiny has thrust 
Upon the highways of his heart's desire, 

Lifts up his fallen altars from the dust, 
And wakes to life their long forgotten tire. 

Forever shall the memory of him be, 
Forevermore his name be loved the best. 

Who walked with Christ beside the sunset sea, 
And set the star of empire in the West. 
John S. McGroartv 


Cardinal Bourne on Capitalism 
and Social Justice 

Those who have regarded certain ex- 
pressions in the Fortnightly Review 
as "too radical," are invited to read the 
following extracts from a recent pas- 
toral letter of Cardinal Bourne, Arch- 
hishop of Westminster. He says: 

"It is well for us to recall that the 
present social dislocation has arisen 
precisely hecause the teaching of the 
Catholic Church had heen forgotten. In 
the sixteenth century England hroke 
away from the religious unity of Eu- 
rope. The popular faith was violently 
ousted, and the spiritual authority of 
the Pope rejected. In course of time 
religious individualism gave place to 
religious indifference, and the twentieth 
century found the hulk of the people in 
this land frankly uninterested in church 
or chapel. 

"But the old Catholic social ideals 
and practices had also vanished ; and 
here, too, a fierce individualism pro- 
duced disastrous consequences. England 
came under the dominion of a capital- 
istic and oligarchic regime, which would 
have been unthinkable had Catholic 
ideals prevailed, and against which the 
working classes are now in undisguised 

"Capitalism began really with the 
robbery of Church property in the six- 
teenth century, which threw the eco- 
nomic and social advantage into the 
hands of the land-owning and trading 
classes. The industrial revolution in the 
eighteenth century found England al- 
ready in the hands of the well-to-do 
classes. Since then the effect of com- 
petition uncontrolled by morals has 
been to segregate more and more the 
capitalist from the wage-earning classes, 
and to form the latter into a proletariat, 
a people owning nothing but their labor- 
power and tending to shrink more and 
more from the responsibilities of both 
ownership and freedom. Hence the in- 
creasing lack of self-reliance and the 
tendency to look to the State for the 
performance of the ordinary family 

"The English oligarchic spirit took its 
rise from the same sources as English 
capitalism, and by the beginning of the 
twentieth century was closely bound up 
and dependent on it. The territorial 
oligarchy had by then thoroughly fused 
with the commercial magnates, and the 
fusion had produced plutocracy'. While 
the Constitution had increasingly taken 
on democratic forms, the reality under- 
lying those forms had been increasingly 
plutocratic. Legislation under the guise 
of 'social reform' tended to mark off all 
wage-earners as a definitely servile 
class. The result, even before the war, 
was a feeling of irritation and resent- 


January 1 

ment, which manifested itself in spo- 
radic strikes, but found no very clear 
expression in any other way. 

"During the war the minds of the 
people have been profoundly altered. 
Dull acquiescence in social injustice has 
given way to active discontent. Ihe 
very foundations of political and social 
life, of our economic system, of morals 
and religion, are being sharply scruti- 
nized ; and this not only by a few 
writers and speakers, but by a very 
large number of people in every class 
of life, especially among the workers. 
( Uir institutions, it is felt, must justify 
themselves at the bar of reason ; they 
can no longer be taken for granted 

"It is here that Catholic guidance, if 
offered with understanding and sym- 
pathy, is likely to commend itself. But 
this means that Catholics must clear 
their own minds of prejudice, and must 
deliver not their own message, but the 
-age of the Catholic Church. If 
their minds are formed in accord, for 
instance, with the great Encyclicals of 
Leo XIII., they will seize the opportu- 
nity with courage and with a great trust 
in the people, and a still greater trust 
in God. They will work for social 
stability and liberty, for justice and 
charity, and help to draw together in 
national unity the sundered and embit- 
tered classes." 

These words, if uttered anonymously, 
might seem to suggest a revolution. Yet 
they are a call, not to revolution, but to 
n formation. The revolution will come, 
not by heeding these words, but by 
ring them. .Meanwhile, whether 
men lay them to heart or not, they are 
fearless wisdom worthy of the successor 
of Anselm and Becket 

The Elective System of Education 

Time and again we have, in these 

nsured the "elective system" 

ed to it the time- 

• ed < atholic plan of a prescribed 

curriculum for the youthful student, 

1 upon his requirements and talents. 

ting to note that the war 

led to a desire for reconstructing 

American college and university, 

and that among the demands voiced is 
the abolition of the elective system. 
Thus Professor Frederick J. Teggard, 
of the University of California, says 
in an article contributed to Vol. XXI, 
No. 1075 of the Public: "The elective 
system which since [the awakening 
that followed upon the Civil War] has 
been the dominant feature of our uni- 
versities, was not, and has not become, 
a constructive policy; in reality, it is a 
confession of failure, an open acknowl-' 
edgment of our inability to harmonize 
the conflicting interests represented in 
the new situation. Our college faculties 
have done nothing, up to the present 
moment, towards assuming their due 
responsibility for presenting students 
with a reasoned course of studies." 
And again : "The tendency towards pre- 
scribed curricula leading to definite 
occupations is growing, and all that is 
required, to effect a veritable revolution 
in our universities is to extend this 
procedure to cover every type of com- 
munity service, and, on the other hand, 
to let it be understood that the univer- 
sity can recognize only such men and 
women as are prepared to equip them- 
selves for a definite career." 

The last phrase indicates an unhealthy 
exaggeration, such as all reactions are 
apt to run into. Professor Teggard 
needs but to study Newman's "Idea of 
a University" to perceive that scholar- 
ship is worth cultivating for its own 
sake, and that a university is precisely 
the place to cultivate it. Nor should the 
idea of the prescribed in opposition to 
the elective course be urged in the uni- 
versity. The high school and the college 
are the places where the course of study 
ought to be determined by the teacher 
and not by the pupil. When the latter 
has acquired the general elements of 
culture, he may be left to make his own 
choice at the university. 

A little "reconstruction" along tra- 
ditional lines would not hurt most of 
our higher institutions of learning. 


— The man who gets the most of it, seldom 

the best of it. 
— Winn writing to our advertisers, please 
tell them that you saw their advertisement 

in the Fortnightly Review. 



"Anti-Popery" in Colonial America 

After a long delay Father Thomas 
Hughes, S.J., has published the second 
volume of his monumental "History of 
the Society of Jesus in North America." 
It deals with the period from 1645 to 
1773 and is, like its predecessor, very 
scholarly, very ponderous, and rather 
polemical in tone. The volume is more 
than a history of the Society of Jesus 
during the period mentioned. It is an 
exhaustive history of Catholicity in 
North America from the days of 
Cromwellianism in England to the time 
of the severance of the American 
colonies from Great Britain, for mis- 
sionary work in this portion of the 
New World was at that time almost 
exclusively a Jesuit enterprise. 

"We have not to read far to realize," 
says a reviewer of the book in the 
Records of the American Catholic His- 
torical Societv of Philadelphia (Vol. 
XXIX, No. 2), "that being a 'Papist' 
in British Colonial America was about 
as comfortable as professing Christian- 
ity under Diocletian. In Virginia, for 
instance, 'Popish recusants' were dis- 
abled from holding any public office. 
'Popish' priests were subject to depor- 
tation within five days of their appre- 
hension, recusants were fined £20 for 
each month of absence from the Angli- 
can parish chapel, and as half of the 
fine went to the informer, there was 
some zest in hunting down Catholics. 
Massachusetts guaranteed liberty of 
conscience for all Christians 'except 
Papists.' The same freedom of wor- 
ship prevailed in Georgia. New York 
gave no toleration to adherents of the 
Roman Catholic religion. Pennsylvania, 
the most liberal of the colonies, allowed 
Catholics to practice their religion, but 
only privately ; they were not compelled 
to attend heretical religious services, 
but no one could hold office without 
taking- an oath abjuring all belief in 
Transubstantiation, the Sacrifice of the 
.Mass, and the invocation of Saints. It 
is surprising to learn that Maryland, 
despite its Act of Toleration of 1649, 
was no paradise of freedom for Cath- 
olics, and that Cecil Lord Baltimore 
was no hero in the cause of religious 

liberty. There was, of course, through- 
out the colonies, special hatred of the 
dangerous 'sect' of Jesuits." 

From Massachusetts down to Georgia 
and the West Indies, what the condi- 
tions of life were for the Catholic 
priests and the laity may be conveyed 
in one word, "anti-Popery," of which 
Father Hughes says : 

"The force of anti-Popery lay in 
causes of too deep a significance, and 
was exerted by means of laws too 
many, too universal and fundamental, 
to admit of any such superficial ex- 
planations as that the anti-Catholic 
sentiment was a thing casual, local, or 
a mere access of transient emotion" 
(p. 6). 


The "Movie" Problem 

Our recent article, "Unobjectionable 
Films," (F. R., XXV, 22) brought us 
several interesting and two valuable 

One is from a Benedictine Father 
who has charge of a parish in north- 
western Missouri. He says among other 
things : 

"Are you sure the films contained in 
the approved lists of the Pennsylvania 
State Board of Censors, one of which 
you reprint, are fit for production in 
"Catholic halls? I found that some of 
the photo plays recommended by State 
boards were not entirely unobjection- 
able from the Catholic point of view. 
. . . Will you please inform me whether 
you are willing to publish lists of really 
good and unobjectionable films which 
we pastors can show to our people? In 
that case I will from time to time send 
you such a list which I can guarantee on 

the strength of personal inspection 

You omit the names of the manufactur- 
ers as unessential. This. I think, is a 
mistake. They are, if not essential, at 
least extremely useful. Without know- 
ing the name of the manufacturer I 
have to write to a dozen companies, and 
even then may not get what I want." 

We immediately answered that until 
better means of publicity could be found 
the Revif.w was willing to publish guar- 
anteed lists of good photo plays. Our 


January 1 

reverend correspondent thereupon sent 

us the subjoined list, saying: 

"1 send you enclosed a list of pictures 
which we have shown here and which 
can safely DC shown in any Catholic 
hall. You may publish them, without 
my name, and invite Other pastors to 
send you similar lists from time to tune. 
This is at proem the only way to get 
good movies, until the Catholic Art As- 
sociation [see F. K.. XXV. 24. p. 373] 
can supply us with more pictures, — 
which may take a good while. 1 am 
constantly investigating this important 
matter and writing all around for good 
pictures and shall let you know what I 
have found now and then." 


Miss George Washington. 5 reels, quite good 
ogti a little too free. K.C.F.F.C. 

S Wild Lite. 7 reels, quite good, 
educational. Monarch. 
Arsene Lupin. ; reels, fine detective story. 

Si^n of the Cross, 5 reels, a beautiful reli- 
: aire. K.C.F.F.C. or Paramount, 
■t'al. an inoffensive religious picture, 3 
reeb Monarch. 

5 re b. a baseball feature, quite 
good. Monarch. 
The Litte American, 6 reeb. a good war pic- 
ture. anti-German. K.C.F.F.C. 

! Copperheld, 7 reels, very good. Mon- 

A Peck of Pickles, ? reels, very good and 

comical. Mutual. 
P.uffalo Mill. ? r<< b. harmless, though not 
very in tere s ting. Monarch. 

Igtl t lie Wall, a fine detective story. 6 

imical picture. Mutual. 
Wild and Woolly, : y tine Kansas 

Citv Feature Film Co. or Paramount. 
The Tl-.r-r Pals, 5 reels, \cry fine and comi- 

» >!d Dutcl g »od and comical. Mutual. 

mg for the Moon, 5 reels, good, teach 

His Picture in the Papers, 5 reels, good and 
ferno, fair, but not ior the gepcral 


The Warrens of Virginia, 6 reels, a fine mili 
tary play. Paramount. 

Virginian, ; reels, ihowing farm life. 

pti and hi- a religious 

pl.v. • it merit, hut harmless. 


■ n Play. 6 r<< I • im dinni. 


The Nation's Peril, good, 5 reels. Paramount. 

Prince and Pauper. 6 reels; good. Param. 

Cinderella, 5 reels, good. Paramount. 

Little Mary Sunshine. 5 reels, a very good 
picture, also for children. Pathe. 

George Baban, 7 reds, good, hut some por- 
tions had to he cut out. Paramount. 

David llarum, 5 reeb. very good. Param. 

Are you" a Mason? 5 reels, excellent and 
most comical. Paramount. 

Kilmeny, very good, 5 reels. Paramount. 

Poor Little Peppina, 6 reels, a wonderful pic- 
ture. Paramount. 

The Dawn of Freedom, 6 reels, very tine and 
instructive hut a little too high for the com- 
mon people. Vitagraph. 

Tears and Smiles, 5 reels, very touching, yet 
comical. Pathe. 

Mary Pickford in Rags, 6 reels, good. Param. 

The Rosary, 6 reels, a good, rather religious 
picture. Vitagraph. 

The White Sister. 6 reels, passable. Vitagr. 

Beloved Rogues, 5 reels, very comical. Mut. 

Lonesome Town, 5 reels, good and comical. 

A Million for Mary, 5 reels, side-splitting. 

K.C.IvF.C. means "Kansas City Feature 
Film Co. This Company sells the Paramount 
pictures, which can be gotten in every large 
city. Also the Vitagraph, Mutual, Monarch 
and Triangle have offices in all large cities. 

The other communication which we 
recived on the important subject of 
clean "movies" was from Mr. Anthony 
Matre, K.S.G., National Secretary of 
the Catholic Federation of the United 
States. Mr. Matre writes: 

"In the issue of November 15th you 
publish a list of films recommended by 
the Pennsylvania State Board of Cen- 
sors, and you recommend Catholic 
weekly papers to publish these lists for 
the information, and perhaps guidance, 
of the Catholic public. Permit me to 
offer a little friendly criticism in this 
connection : 

"In my experience during the past 
nil years as a member of the Public 
Morals Commission of the Catholic 
Federation, I find that it is most diffi- 
cult to recommend films without per- 
sonally viewing them, or without the 
1 ndorsement of some clergyman or 
responsible ( atholic layman. There are 
.1 number of films recommended by 
well-meaning people of our censorship 
boards, which, if produced in Catholic 
halls, would be far from edifying. If 



our Catholic editors would rely upon 
the view of some of these well-meaning 
censors and publish their lists, they 
would oftentimes be obliged to blush 
with shame should they view the films 
personally, and would feel obliged to 
offer apologies to their readers for hav- 
ing published a list of films which they 
could not personally vouch for. 

"The Catholic Federation has from 
time to time published a list of objec- 
tionable films in its Bullet in for the sole 
purpose of having Catholic societies see 
to it that none of these films be pro- 
duced in their communities. The results 
wer»: fruitful. It would, however, be a 
mistake to publish a list of objection- 
able films in Catholic weekly papers, as 
it might have a tendency to exite the 
morbid curiosity of some people. It 
would, however, be most recommend- 
able to publish a list of good films that 
have been passed upon by rigid Cath- 
olic censors. I enclose the names of 
some films that have been produced in 
Catholic halls and bear the recommenda- 
tion of a Catholic priest who personally 
saw them. It might be well to publish 
this list." 

Curiously enough, Mr. Matre's list 
contains only two plays not comprised 
in the list printed above, viz. : 

The Vicar of Wakefield, passable (name 
of manufacturer not given). 

Hero of Submarine D-2, good. Vitagraph. 

On the margin is the following pro- 
viso : "The clergyman who sent in this 
list states that 'these films are worthy 
to be shown anywhere, in spite of some 
lesser objections from which hardly 
any film seems to be free.' " 

Perhaps Mr. Matre's informant and 
our correspondent are one and the same 
person. Surely, there must be others, 
priests and laymen, who have gathered 
valuable experience on this subject. 
Will they not co-operate with the Fed- 
eration and with the Fortxkiktlv Re- 
view and other periodicals, to supply 
our Catholic parishes with good films, 
thereby protecting the people against 
trashy and indecent productions and 
creating a demand for something better 
than the rot shown in so many of our 
motion picture theatres. 

A Golden Jubilee Souvenir 
The golden jubilee souvenir of Sa- 
cred Heart Church, Calumet, Mich., 
commands our special interest for three 
reasons : first, because of its intrinsic 
beauty and excellence ; second, because 
of the fact that the parish was organ- 
ized by the Rev. Edward Jacker; third, 
because it is in charge of the Francis- 
can Fathers, who are for several rea- 
sons near and dear to our editorial 
heart, and, fourth, because a good deal 
of the history and many of the cuts 
appearing in this book have been fur- 
nished by Father Antoine Ivan Rezek, 
4he historiographer of the Diocese of 
Marquette, and a friend and subscriber 
of the Fortnightly Review. It is an 
interesting chapter in the religious his- 
tory of the copper fields that is un- 
folded here, and in the numerous por- 
traits we behold more than one dear 
old friend. Father Jacker is a pioneer 
priest to whom the present generation 
has not done justice. We have in our 
possession a copy of Finotti's "Biblio- 
graphia Catholica Americana," with a 
holographic dedication to Father 
Jacker, in which the author refers to 
the latter's "industry in preserving 
monuments of Catholic history in the 
U. S." (The volume, by the way, con- 
tains many interesting additions and 
corrections by the author, written, as 
he tells Fr. Jacker, "in bed, and under 
Morphia's influence.") 

Rut more about this interesting relic 
on some other occasion. The present 
note is written to call attention to the 
jubilee souvenir of the Calumet parish, 
which has been, since 1890, in charge 
of the Franciscans of the Cincinnati 
Province. The book is one of the finest 
productions of its kind that has recent- 
ly come to our notice, and we con- 
gratulate the parish and its zealous 
pastor upon having perpetuated the 
jubilee celebration by such a worthy 
literary monument. Ad uiultos faustis- 
simosque annos! 

— The man who is going to Heaven pever 
tries to take up all the road. 

— Impatience dries the blood sooner than 
age or sorrow. 


January 1 

The Menace of Race Suicide 
"Race suicide," either by contracep- 
tives or abortion, is unfortunately gain- 
ing ground rapidly even among Cath- 
olics. Tins despicable vice is dread- 
fully contagious. The Church alone 
can check it by means of the control 
she has over her children through the 
confessional. If race suicide is not 
promptly checked among us, Catholics 
are most certainly doomed to be a help- 
ss minority in this country and may 
expect persecution whenever a power- 
ful majority takes it into its head to 
them, be it for religious, social, 
political, or economic reasons. 

The I*. S. is situated in the temper- 
ate /<»ne and can easily support five 
hundred millions of people when all 
her soil is cultivated and all her 
natural resources are put under con- 
tribution. The wealth of this nation 
a hundred years hence is beyond cal- 
culation. \\ ho will control it? Will it 
be used to promote the welfare of a 
Christian people, or to check the work 
of Christ's Church throughout the 

It is a well known fact that the 

human family will nearly double in 

number each generation, unless the 

of growth is impeded by 

famine, war. or pestilence, or, worse 

than all three of these, by race suicide, 

1 . rmans justly call "Kinder- 

i " The Catholic population of the 

da) i> about 20.000.000. If 

[ ures were doubled, say, every 

fifty years.— 20. 40, 80, 160 millions — 

what a Btrong and powerful group we 

should be' The force of numbers and 

wealth is irrestistible, whether for 

good or evil. Statistics show that in 

any the population increased two 

one-half per cent annually up to 

'I he ( atbolie population of 

I ■ rinany continues to grow 

is natural rate, but the Protestant 
population in the northern sections 

-I its rate to one and one-half 

ting to the census of 

and 1910 'I hi alarmed the 

Evangelical Alliance. They made an 

•ion and found that Socialism 

• States like Prussia and 

Saxony was largely responsible. The 
Socialists advised their followers to 
avoid the responsibility of marriage 
and refuse to furnish the government 
with "cannon fodder." 

A Benedictine father, pastor of a 
parish in the State of Indiana, in mak- 
ing out his annual report some ten 
years ago. found that the number of 
baptisms had decreased to 92, from an 
average of 150 to 160 in previous 
years. The number of marriages had 
been quite normal. He instructed his 
curate, and together the two priests 
began to question young married 
women in the confessional, without, 
of course, making the innocent ones 
any wiser. They found that many 
wives believed that the use of contra- 
ceptives, and even abortion, was not a 
sin serious enough to be mentioned in 
confession, and that the practice of 
race suicide had been introduced into 
the parish by a woman from Cincin- 
nati who, upon the occasion of a visit 
to local relatives, had instructed a few 
in evil practices and given them the 
addresses of two professional abor- 

Later a missionary was called in to 
give the married women of the parish 
a retreat. lie used no kidgloves in 
handling the subject of race suicide, 
and when the pastor made out his next 
annual report, he found 164 baptisms 
recorded, and the record has remained 
normal ever since. 

A woman who has one child can 
have as many more as God and nature 
are willing to bestow upon her, pro- 
vided their laws are not interfered 
with. This rule has exceptions, of 
course, and we all know of Christian 
families who have for years vainly 
prayed to be blessed with children. I'.ut 
the condition we find in so many of 

our parishes, where most married 

couples have but one child, or at most 
two children, is decidedly abnormal 
and indicates the prevalence of evil 


A prominenl physician in I.os 
\ngeles recently found among twenty- 
live families of his practice, selected 
at random, the wives being under 




forty-five years, eighteen children. 
"Stop immigration for twenty years," 
he said, "and the American people will 
hang their heads in shame." 

Our only hope is in the Catholic 
Church. She is not afraid to preach 
the right doctrine and has the means 
to enforce it through the confessional. 
Let us all realize the importance of 
rooting out the great and menacing 
evil of race suicide! J. J. P. 

We renew our cordial recommenda- 
tion of this important and interesting 
magazine. ( Catholic University of 
.America; $3 per annum). 

The Catholic Historical Review 

The October number of the Catholic 
Historical Review is of exceptional 
interest. It opens with a paper on 
Stephen Girard, the great merchant- 
prince, patriot, and philanthropist, 
from which we see that Girard was 
horn, baptized, and reared in the Cath- 
olic faith, but became a Freemason 
and fell away from the Church in later 

Bishop Hopkins contributes an arti- 
cle on the Catholic Church in British 
Honduras, past and present, and Mr. 
James A. Robertson describes at length 
the famous Aglipay schism in the 
Philippine Islands, of which he seems 
to fear a recrudescence. 

Of the book reviews that dealing 
with Farley's Life of Cardinal McClos- 
key is not up to the Review's usual 
high standard. The notice of Sister 
Agnes McCann's study of Archbishop 
I'urcell contains some interesting but 
not altogether correct information on 
that prelate's financial tragedy. 

One of the editorial "Notes," which 
arc, as usual, brimful of interesting 
matter, calls attention to Father John 
Kothensteiner's recent Fobtnightly 
Review paper "On the Writing of 
Parish Histories," which is character- 
ized as "well-written and instructive," 
and to a little volume on "How to 
Write the History of a Parish," by the 
kev. Dr. Cox. an English clergyman 
(London, 1895). In connection there- 
with, the editor of the Review, Dr. 
Cuilday, briefly sets forth his own ideas 
on the subject, which, needless to say. 
are well-digested and of great practical 

Apropos of Farmers' Unions 
A Wisconsin pastor writes to us : "I 
would call your attention to a subject 
which seems to me of vital importance 
for the future. It is the farmers' unions. 
I- was born and raised on a farm, have 
been working in country parishes ever 
since my ordination, and have observed 
with interest the development of these 
unions. There is no questioning the 
farmers' ability to combine, and, in my 
opinion, the chance of a more formid- 
able combination than is to be found in 
eapital and labor, is here. During the 
past year the American Society of 
Equity has developed in this State with 
almost alarming rapidity. At present 
the State union is conducted on entirely 
different lines than the 'Non-Partisan 
League' of Minnesota and Dakota. The 
only reason for the difference is to be 
found in the different leaders. I would 
suggest that influential Catholics begin 
to take a hand in this matter. To con- 
demn indiscriminately is wrong and 
stupid. The right to organize cannot 
be denied to the farmers, and no power 
can stop them from making use of it. 
The deplorable conditions in Minnesota 
and the Dakotas appear to me to be 
largely owing to the fact that men with 
Socialist tendencies took advantage of 
the situation, while conservative leaders 
were either apathetic or hostile. In my 
parish I encouraged the farmers to 
organize ; they made me an honorary 
member of their union and consult me 
on every important question that arises 
in connection with it. Wisconsin has 
many strong country parishes. Would 
it not be possible and advisable to try 
to break down the prejudice which 
many of our pastors and some of our 
newspapers have on this matter? It 
may he a delicate and difficult task, but 
that ought not to prevent action. If 
nothing is done, this movement will 
develop so that in a few years it will be 
impossible for us to exercise any kind 



January 1 

01" control over it. The Union will 

.d over all the central and western 

States and thousands of Catholic farm- 

S will belong to it without proper 
guidance and exposed to dangerous 
currents of opinion." 

The question raised by our reverend 
correspondent is indeed difficult. If the 
fanners' union of which he speaks has 
nothing in its scope or character that 
would make it a forbidden society for 
Catholics, ami if Catholic farmers can 
hope to obtain real benefits by joining 
it. we can see no reason why they 
should hold aloof. It is better to go in 
in considerable numbers, as our corre- 
spondent suggests, and thus to gain the 
influence of numbers and early affilia- 
tion. On the other hand we must not 

- -ight of the fact that, beginning 
with the ( irange. no farmers' organiza- 
tion, how promising soever its start, has 
( ver fulfilled the expectations of its 
founders or succeeded in making itself 
a permanent force in public life. They 
all seem doomed to fail, perhaps be- 
cause they are too narrow and selfish. 

We should like to hear the opinions 
of others who have given this subject 
thought and study or who feel that they 
can throw new light on any of its vari- 
ous aspects. 

Need of Democracy at Home 
It is l>ecoming more evident from 
day to day that the working people of 
this country, no less than those of En- 
gland, are having their eyes opened to 
ruth that democracy, like charity. 
ought to begin at home. 

If we really take tbc objective of the 

'/.. a writer in the 

Republic, one of our foremost 

Vol. XV, Xo. 193, p. 

. "we must sooner or later be led, 
e British workers, have been led. to 

ask with deepening insistence: Are we 

not tOO within the hands of an autocracy 
' f our own, with a power in our state 

d, though exercised in a different 
that of the military autoc- 
racy in Prussia ? . . The worker- have 
learned thai the mere right to vote for 
one political party at againsl another is 

a cruel irony when both parties, , 

when sincerely anxious to execute the 
will of the mass, are helpless in the grip 
of a social and economic system really 
controlled by a power outside politics. 
. . . Trades Unionism of the older type 
is almost . . . powerless to enable the 
workers to determine the quality and 
form of the society in which they are 
the greater part. . . . For although indis- 
criminate rhetoric has deprived the fact 
of some of its force, it is nevertheless 
a fact that the present position of pri- 
vate property and capital, and their re- 
lationship to political, industrial, legal, 
social, educational ( in which are in- 
cluded, of course, such elements as the 
newspapers, the 'movie,' and the 
drama), religious and eleemosynary in- 
stitutions, gives real control, in the 
things that often matter most, into the 
hands of a little class of favored indi- 
viduals — an economic autocracy — as 
truly as political power was held by the 
political autocracy of Prussia. Can 
democracy, self-government, be regard- 
ed as much more than a meaningless 
parade while economic control — control 
over the means of sustenance — is in the 
hands of a tiny minority holding this 
power irresponsibly ; not, that is, by 
virtue of any right which has been 
democratically conferred upon them by 
the governed, but by the privilege of 
inheritance, or the result of accident, 
or even chicanery. and anti-social fraud? 
( an that be a real democracy in which, 
throughout great provinces, a few men, 
by virtue of their control of industrial 
conditions, have power over the lives 
of millions, immeasurably greater than 
that which, in fact, the Kaiser exercised 
over the lives of P'olish and Alsatian 
peasants? Or in which power, prestige, 
leisure, culture, self-government, social 
deference, are i^iven to this small eco- 
nomic autocracy while the great mnss 
arc to be content with an entirely dif- 
ferent quality of life, a different cul- 
ture, accepting the stigma of inferior- 
ity, content to train their children to be 
mere servants and band-maidens? Does 
ir alter the conditions for the better that 
it is open for an infinitesimal propor- 
tion of the greal mass, usually by the 
1 xercise of exceptional self-assertive- 




ness, a capacity ruthlessly to push aside 
weaker competitors, to exchange a ser- 
vile condition for one in which they 
will profit by social injustice?" 


Year Book of the Diocese of Toledo 

We have received the Official Year 
Book and Seminary Report of the 
Diocese of Toledo, O., for the year 
ending Oct. 1, 1918. This Year Book 
regularly contains statistics of the dio- 
cese, pictures of new church, school, 
and hospital buildings, brief biograph- 
ical sketches of deceased clergymen, 
and other interesting matter. From the 
general statistical survey on page 180 
we gather that the diocese of Toledo 
now has 118 secular and 45 regular 
priests, 35 ecclesiastical students, 101 
churches with. resident priests, 76 paro- 
chial schools with 16,721 pupils, 3 pa- 
rochial high schools with 225 pupils, 1 
college for boys with 359 pupils, 3 aca- 
demies for girls with 1,009 pupils, 2 
orphanages with 410 orphans, 3 hos- 
pitals, etc. The total Catholic popula- 
tion is 112,639. 

The Year Book for 1918 devotes no 
less than 121 of its 191 pages to a re- 
port of various diocesan collections, in 
which every person who has given one 
dollar or more is mentioned by name. 
It appears to us that this valuable space 
could be employed to much better ad- 


A critic of Dr. Coffey's "Epistemol- 
ogy" in the Irish quarterly, Studies 
(Vol. VII, No. 25, p. 163) justly says 
that, outside of epistemology, in 
which the Louvain School has done its 
chief work, "it is not certain that Xeo- 
Scholasticism has quite justified itself." 
He adds : "We have seen, labelled as 
Neo-Scholastic, some very old Scholas- 
ticism supplemented by some elemen- 
tary physics." 

This affords us an opportunity to say 
a word or two about Mercier's "Manual 
of Modern Scholastic Philosophy." re- 
cently translated into English by T. L. 

Parker and S. A. Parker, O.S.B. It is 
not a work written for specialists, but 
a traitc elcmentairc. As such it is serv- 
iceable, though the cosmology and the 
psychology are not up to date. The 
facts of radio-activity and the elec- 
tronic disintegration of matter, c. g., 
have been in the foreground of physical 
research for almost twenty years, and 
experimental psychology has made 
rapid strides since Cardinal Mercier 
occupied the professorial chair. But 
on the whole this text-book is so much 
more modern than any other at pres- 
ent available in English that we must 
be thankful to have it, even in a de- 
fective translation. It beautifully com- 
plements, though it cannot supplant, 
the old reliable Stonyhurst Series. The 
"Manual" is in two stout volumes, 
which sell at $3.50 each. ( B. Herder 
Book Co.) 

Free Entry to Churches 

Canon 1,181 of the new Code of 
Canon 'Law says: "The entry to 
churches for all sacred rites is to be 
entirely free, and all custom to the con- 
trary is abolished." There can be no 
question that this law binds all. In 
view of the express reprobation of any 
contrary custom, it is impossible to 
appeal to such for an excuse for not 
obeying. On the other hand, as the 
](ev. Dr. Adrian Fortescue points out 
in the Tablet (No. 4089). "the canon 
cannot be urged beyond what it says. 
It demands only that entry be free to 
all services. That is not the same thing 
as saying that there are to be no seat- 
rents at all. As far as this canon goes, 
there seems nothing to forbid a man 
paying any price for a special seat, if 
he chooses to do so, as long as there is 
free room for him and for everyone 
without payment. Only it seems that 
what so far has been the custom of 
some churches must now be reversed. 
Instead of the normal thing being that 
people pay for their place, with a kind 
of exceptional place for the poor at the 
hack of the church, the normal thing 
must be no payment ; though there is 
nothing to forbid payment for some 
special place, as an exception." 



January 1 

German in England and America 

Wc are pleased to be able to credit 
the Nation (N. Y., Xo. 2782) with the 
following sensible remarks on the sub- 
ject indicated in the beading: 

"In School Life for September 19 we 
note an interesting statement, based on 
information furnished by Ambassador 

ige, c incerning German instruction 
in Great Britain. It appears tbat out 
of the 104° secondary schools in Eng- 
land and Wales in receipt of grams 
from the Board of Education, German 
night in 370. This compares with 
in 1911-12. All the important 
public schools, some 65 in number, con- 
tinue to make provision for instruction 
in < ierman, and the same thing is true 
of the six universities and the six con- 
stituent colleges of the University of 
London. Whatever decrease in German 
hing has taken place is said to be 
due largely to the necessities of mili- 
tary service. It is to be hoped that the 
-<iber second thought of our qwii peo- 
ple will soon begin to assert itself in 
regard to the question of foreign-lan- 
_•• teaching. It is not an edifying 
spectacle to see legislatures in a fit of 
rage prohibiting instruction in the Ger- 
man language throughout whole States, 
Dvernors and councils of defence 
forbidding the use of the tongue in 
gatherings of three or more persons. 
Whatever reasons existed for teaching 
' ierman before the war have in general 
strengthened In the events of the 
irs : we ought not to act 
Nice angry children." 

A New England priesl who was 

familiar with the affairs of the defunct 

Heart Review writes to us: 

"What Mr. Denis J. McCarthy wrote 

you about thi / Heart Review 

R., XXV, 21. p. 325 J was correct; 
but your well-chosen words about its 

li true." 'I he 

same eminent clergyman jays: "In 

of the annual subscription I am send- 
ing you a check for $50 for a life sub 

SCription. It would be a ^reat loss to 

' liurch did your Review die now." 

notes and gleanings 

— An interesting commentary on the 
manner in which the world adjusts it- 
self even to so abnormal a thing as war 
might be drawn from a comparison be- 
tween the books published in the fall 
of 1918 and those which appeared at 
the corresponding season three years 
ago. Then when the catastrophe which 
had befallen mankind was still new 
enough in its horror to make its reality 
difficult to grasp, but old enough to 
have furnished a hundred phases for 
discussion, volumes on the conflict 
drove books of all other kinds to cover. 
Now in a list of exceptional length the 
war makes an amazingly scant showing, 
whereas works of a type familiar in 
ante-bellum days flourish with the 
strength of yore. 

— The erection of a handsome new 
library building, costing a quarter of a 
million dollars, has given the Univer- 
sity of Notre Dame, Indiana, the op- 
portunity to introduce a course in the 
management of libraries, the only one 
of its kind, we believe, conducted under 
Catholic auspices in this country. 

— Benjamin Strong, president of the 
Federal Reserve Bank of Pittsburgh, 
has kept clippings of the war news 
liom Aug. 1, 1914, and is still pasting. 
As it now stands, his collection, whicb 
includes everything about the war 
printed in three important newspapers, 
tills 127 volumes of 400 pages each and 
requires the services of a dozen persons 
to keep it up to date. It will continue 
to grow until peace is finally concluded, 
w hen the volumes will go to Princeton 
University. We doubt, however, 
whether they will be worth much to the 
future student, for in the first place 
our newspapers are printed on paper 
which will not last long, and, secondly, 
the news they publish is extremely 

-The London 'rimes' "History and 
Encyclopedia of the War," we see from 
a criticism in the Month (No. 653), is 
bigoted, and Catholics can place no 
manner of trust in its record when 
dealing with the Church. 




—The New Republic (XVII, 211) 
asks these pertinent questipns : "Are the 
decisions which will confront mankind 
during the next few months to he made 
hy the people themselves, after freely 
conferring and discussing with the full 
knowledge of facts, or by governments 
— many of which will lack popular 
mandate — having the power to withhold 
essential facts from the knowledge of 
the people, to forbid the conference and 
contact of those most concerned? Are 
freedom of speech and of the press — 
the things which we are demanding as 
the very sign and symbol of fitness of* 
others for self-government — the things 
we ourselves shall respect ? Or, are the 
decisions of the war waged to make the 
world safe for democracy to be made 
by methods as autocratic and Prussian 
as any which have marked peace-mak- 
ing since the constitutional era began in 
Western Europe?" Away with the 
censorship and governmental propa- 
ganda ; let us have "open covenants 
openly arrived at," and a true people's 
pace ! 

— The Mt. Angel Magazine, pub- 
lished by the Benedictines Press of St. 
Benedict, Ore., after many fruitless 
efforts, finally obtained permission 
from the government to change into a 
weekly and now appears regularly as a 
sixceen-page sheet, medium size, choke- 
ful of good reading matter like its pre- 
decessor, the St. Joseph's-Blatt, which 
went under during the war. The new 
paper styles itself "a national Cath- 
olic weekly," and as it starts in with 
over 30,000 paying subscribers scatter- 
ed throughout the Union, it doubtless 
wears its subtitle honestly. That it 
will serve the Catholic cause valiantly 
and efficiently we have no doubt, for 
at its editorial helm is good Brother 
Celestine, O.S.B., whose journalistic 
ability is as unquestionable as his 
orthodoxy and zeal. Ad multos annos! 

— Apropos of our remark on Can. 
1.262 of the New Code of Canon Law. 
which recommends the separation of 
men from women in church, Father 
J . A. Diepenbrock writes to us from 
Westphalia, Mo.: "The custom of 

separating the sexes has not yet fallen 
entirely into desuetude. Here in 
Westphalia, for instance, (in fact, as 
far as I know, throughout Osage Co., 
Mo.) it has been observed ever since 
the foundation of the parish, about 
eighty years ago. The boys and men 
have their places on the epistle side, 
the girls and women theirs on the 
Gospel side. The seats are all free." 
This practice puts the churches of 
Osage County squarely in accord, not 
only with Can. 1,622,, but also with 
Can. 1,181 of the Code, on which we 
comment on page 11 of this issue. 

— It will be interesting to see what 
kind of a report is made by the British 
educational mission which is now tour- 
ing the U. S. The Nation (No. 2785) 
hopes that these English experts will 
note, not only the big endowments and 
imposing apparatus of many of our 
higher institutions of learning, but like- 
wise the autocracy of the average uni- 
versity president, the relative impotence 
of the faculties, the scandalous inequal- 
ity and general insufficiency of salaries, 
the persistent discrimination between 
men and women in co-educational in- 
stitutions, the egregious disparity in 
material equipment between natural 
science departments and departments 
such as languages or history, and the 
widespread and insidious impairment 
of intellectual freedom. "A judicial 
statement of the facts in the case by a 
competent British mission," says our 
contemporary, "would perhaps make 
the American public realize more fully 
why university teaching in this country 
is not yet an entirely satisfactory 

— The Month (No. 653) quotes a 
number of extracts from the Rev. Al- 
ban Butler's "Travels through France 
and Italy." The famous author of the 
"Lives of the Saints" made this tour in 
1745-6, and his description of it was 
published shortly after his death. It 
has never been reprinted and is there- 
fore quite rare. The little book is valu- 
able as giving an honest Catholic En- 
glishman's impressions of continental 
society at a period immediately preced- 
ing the great Revolution. Among the 



January 1 

curiosities it contains is Butler's picture 
of the then reigning Pontiff, the great 
Pope Benedict XIV. He is described 
as courteous, affable, and of graceful 
presence, but a lover of jokes "rather 
too much." Dear old Alban. with all his 
virtues, was utterly devoid of a sense 
ol humor, though he is often enough, 
a>s the Month writer says, "uncon- 
sciously amusing to his readers." A 
life of Alban Butler is a desideratum 
in our literature and would repay the 

— Msgr. Bickerstaffe-Drew ("John 
Ayscough"), in his "Pages from the 
Past," published serially in the Month, 
expresses an opinion on Disraeli's nov- 
els which agrees with that of many 
ethers. "I doubt," he says, "if anybody 
but the antiquarian will continue to 
read them long. 1 can imagine the stu- 
dent of maun d' autrefois reading 
them in a future age. but if he imagines 
that in them he finds the life of the 
Victorian age he will be cheated. There 
life in them: they are marionette- 
md you see the strings and the 
In.nd pulling the strings all the time. 
There is no individual movement, only 
applied motion from the hand that 
pulls: there is no expression, and the is sheer ventriloquism, all out of 
ime mouth." 

— The attacks of the eugenists on the 
grity and autonomy of the family 
have led to the formation, in England, 
"Mother-' Defence League," the 
general objects of which are "to defend 
the right> of motherhood, to secure jus- 
•n the treatment of the working- 
mot! ppose measures which in- 
• control of the family or 
which unduly interfere with the natural 
rights of parents in the custody of their 
children, and to ascertain and represenl 
the views of working-mothers with re- 
ocial measures affecting them." 
Month, to which we are indebted 

for this information < No. f>52). regards 

the t; - a justifiable read ion 

nst the I certain "acien 

to foist their un- 

• rning the family 
human destiny generally, upon the 
munity at larg 

— A reviewer in the Irish Studies 
(Vol. VII, No. 27, p. 538) censures 
Prof. Stuart P. Sherman for paying 
excessive tribute, in his book "On Con- 
temporary Literature," to the weak- 
nesses of passing fashion and the vox 
f'opitli by praising Mark Twain beyond 
his deserts. "A not inconsiderable 
section of the American reading pub- 
lic," the critic says, "wish to see the 
author of 'Huckleberry Finn' greeted 
as a great — nay, as the great — Ameri- 
can writer; but a critic of Mr. Sher- 
.man's rank ought to recognize prac- 
tically how little honor is done to na- 
tional taste bv the incensing of so crude 
an idol." 

— "Rapid Transit Chess," as it is 
called, is becoming so popular through- 
out the world that tournaments are 
held under its rule, which requires a 
move every ten seconds or a forfeit of 
the game. At first this form of play 
was thought to injure the game, but 
such seems not the case, for the regular 
chess masters are to-day masters of 
this also. It teaches the player to see 
and think quickly and in that way 
saves much time, but its popularity is 
probably due more to the fact that' a 
large tournament can be completed in 
one evening than to any other reason. 

Capable Catholic physician wanted in a prosperous 
town in Kansas. Must speak German. A splendid 
opening for the right sort of a man. Apply to 
J. M. Schaefer, Hays, Kansas. 

Position wanted by a young Catholic organist, 
with good training and two years' experience in 
training children's choir, men s choir, and mixed 
choir, also in teaching piano, pipe organ, harmony 
vocal, etc. Would prefer a place where there are 
high masses to play several times a week, as I wish 
!o follow up church and pipe organ work, in which 
L. am particularly interested. Address X. Y. Z., 
care of the Fortnightly Review. 

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Literary Briefs 

—That England should produce "A Com- 
mentary on Kant's Critique of Pure Reason" 
amid the distractions of war-time is 
rather surprising. Yet such is the title of a 
hulky volume by Norman Kemp Smith (Mac- 
millan; 25s. net), which appeared in London 
5 or 6 months ago. What is still more remark- 
able is that Dr. Smith's is a really helpful 
book. The author shows that the obscurities 
of the "Critique" are mainly owing, not to 
defects of exposition, but to the composite 
nature of the text. Though the book was put 
together in a few months, it is {.he result 
of many year's work, during which Kant's 
views underwent marked development and 
not a few changes. In spite of this, the 
"Sage of Kdnigsberg" seems to have been 
unwilling to sacrifice anything he had once 
\\ ritten, and, accordingly, passages appear in 
the "Critique" which are incompatible with 
previous dicta. A large part of Prof. Smith's 
book is devoted to this subject. The Com- 
mentary itself follows the lines of the 
"Critique," of which a new English transla- 
tion is in preparation and will no doubt be 
welcomed by many students. 

— "John Ayscough," in spite of his activity 
as chaplain with the Allied forces in France, 
continues to exercise his literary gifts in his 
chosen form. The short stories in "The Tide- 

way" (Benziger Bros.; $1.50 net) are inter- 
esting in plot and written in the fluent man- 
ner of their author. "Jaqueline" (P. J. 
Kenedy & Sons) is a novel wherein the her- 
oine at first marries the wrong man, but, 
after doing dreadful penance in due humility, 
is allowed at last to reward the right one. 
Ayscough has a curious liking for the old- 
fashioned heroine, but is quite modern as far 
as his plots and scenes are concerned. "Jaque- 
line" has some very sentimental soul-features, 
in spite of her twentieth-century manners 
and surroundings. 

— The great British Jesuit review, The 
Month, in its No. 652, p. 315, comments as 
follows on the completion of the Pohle- 
Preuss Series of Dogmatic Text-Books (B, 
Herder Book Co., St. Louis and London : 
"With the publication of the last two vol- 
umes on the Sacraments — Penance, Extreme 
Unction, Holy Orders. Matrimony, and the 
dc novissimis treatise, Eschatology, the great 
enterprise of presenting a complete dogmatic 
theology in English has been happily accom- 
plished. The twelve volumes ($18 net) will 
claim an almost indispensable place in every 
busy priest's bookshelves, for they are excel- 
lently adapted to provide a clear, brief, and 
accurate survey of the state of theological 
knowledge in every given department. And 
for the student who wants a conspectus of 
the ground before entering upon a detailed 
study they provide exactly what he needs, 

Secand and Revised Edition, Augmented by an Appendix Containing Supplementary Roman 

Decrees on the New Codex 

The New Canon Law 



With a Preface by Very Rev. Msgr. Philip Bernardini, J. U. D. 

Professor of Cauon Liw at the Catholic University, Washington, D. C. 

Second and Revised Edition, augmented by an Appendix containing : 

The Election to Office in Religious Communities, Supplementary Official Decrees 

and Declarations on Various Points of the Code. 

Complete in one volume, large Svo, 452 pages. Cloth, net, $3.50 

Added weight and authority are given to the work by the commendatory preface written for 

it by the Very Reverend Monsignor Philip Bernardini, J. U. D ., Professor of 

Canon Law at the Catholic University in Washington. 

A very full Index of Subjects enhances the usefulness of the work, 

facilitating ready reference to its contents on any particular subject. 

C The New Marriage Legislation? 
DO YOU WISH ) The New Laws Concerning the Clergy? 


I They are all stated 

The New Laws Concerning Religious? >in full and concisely 

T h S ^rLS an « n u 8 °V? e Sacraments? explained in this book 

And all other Church Laws of interest to you? J 

JOSEPH F. WA.GXER (Inc.), Publishers, 23 Barclay Street, New York 



January 1 

with full references to sources and longer 
treatises. The educated laity, too, may find 
here, unencumbered by technicalities, a plain 
-:tion of the Faith they should he proud 
to defend. Msgr. i'ohle. the author of the 
compendium, and Mr. Arthur Preuss, who 

•anslated it into readable English, are 
to he Congratulated on the completion of a 

.'.Inch makes the English-speaking Cath- 
olic world their debtors. These concluding 
volumes yield to none in the interest and im- 
ince oi their subject, and their treatment 
is marked by the same soundness, broad- 
mindedness and moderation which is char- 
acteristic of the series as a whole." 

— "Catholic Mission Literature," a list of 
-. pamphlets, and periodicals, dealing 
with home and foreign mission work, by the 
Rw. Bruno Hagspiel, S.Y.I).. (Techny, 111.), 
writes a Je-uit correspondent, deserves more 
than a passing notice (seeourNo. 23, p. 368). 
It is well known that the missionary move- 
ment, even in favor of our own unconverted 
Negroes and Indians, has so far not occupied 
the public mind so much as it should have 
done. Catholic English literature, still in its 
fling on every field, is especially deficient 
in missionary publications. Set, we have at 
htng t" show. Father Bruno's lit- 
tle catalogue, though not claiming to be cotu- 

• < a remarkably large number of 
- referring to foreign and domestic mis- 

f missionaries and missionary 

ps are included. The list fitly take's 

ml of the pioneer period of our own 

United States. The fact that we were a mis- 

•intry until not very long ago, and 

have not even now entirely passed beyond 

' t to prompt every Catholic 

American t<> yield whatever assistance he can 

• e conversion of the world. The pam-- 
t certainly deserves a wide circulation. 

Lted "n the title pay. it was "compiled 

lor the libraries of "Mr parochial schools, 

mies, and religious communi- 

• it ought to be in the hands of 

seminarian. The Fathers 

5.V.D. offer to send it gratis. This is very 

ially considering the fact that 

n give the names of the publishers 

•ks thus "adv. rtized." Let at hast 

a stamp. Last not least 

■ rve copies of such 

I he time 1, not far when these 

ill furnish welcome material to those 

who wish to speak or write more extensively 

or. Catholic literature.— S 

—^Social Insurance in the United Sta 

• irdon Ransom Miller (Chicago: \ C 

1 ;. com 1- 1 lear 
and informing iui . The author's analysis 
•rkingmen'i accident compensation, the 
m which social insurance is most ad 

of it 
rlying principles and an outline of it, 

• health insurance, far less general- 

ly accepted in our country, he devotes special 
attention, emphasizing its possibilities as "a 
continuous social force for the general bet- 
terment of the economic conditions of all 
working people." In dealing with unemploy- 
ment insurance, Prof. Miller examines the 
causes of unemployment and the preventive 
measures most effectual against it. Follows a 
brief chapter on old-age pensions and a con- 
cluding one on social insurance as a general 
educator. The book, while never diverging 
from the economic argument, is quite read- 

Books Received 

Report of the Proceedings and Addresses of the 
Fifteenth Annual Meeting of the Catholic flditca- 
ticnal Association, viii & 642 pp. 8vo. Columbus, 
().: Office of the Secretary General, 1651 E. Main 
Str. ( Wrapper ). 

War Mothers. By Edward F. Garesche, S.J. 5S pp. 
16mo. Benziger Bros. 65 cts. postpaid. 

The World Problem: Capital, Labor, and the Church, 
By Rev. Joseph Husslein, S.T. xii &- 296 pp. 12mo. 
New York: P. J. Kenedy &"Sons. $1.25 net. 

Le Cardinal Mereier. Par Georges Goyau. viii & 
108 pp. 12raO. Paris: Perrin et Cie. 2 fr. (Wrap- 

Les Catholiques Alletnands et l'Emf>ire ItvanoSlique. 
Par Georges Goyau. 5e til. 73 pp. 12mo. Talis: 
Perrin & Cie. 1 fr. (Wrapper). 

Essentials of American History. P.y Thomas Bona- 
venture Lawlcr. With Illustrations in Colors by 
X. C. Wyeth. 461 & Ixiii pp. 12mo. Revised Edi- 
tion. Boston: Ginn & Co. $1.12. 

.'/ Commentary on the New Code of Canon Law. 
By the Rev. (has. Augustine, O.S.B., D.D., Pro- 
fessor of Canon Law. Volume II: Clergy and 
Hierarchy, xii & 592 pp. 12mo. B. Herder Book 
Co., 1918. $2.50 net. 

War Addresses from Catholic Pulpit and Platform. 
vi & 313 pp. 8vo. New York: Joseph F. Wagner, 
(Inc.). $2.50 net. 

The Hand of God. A Theology for the People. By 
Martin J. Scott, S.J. xii & 208 pp. 12mo. New- 
York: P. J. Kenedy & Sons. $1 net. 



go to 


408 Washington Avenue 


The Fortnightly Review 



January 15, 1919 

Fainting by Carlos Vierra Courtesy of "El Palaoio' 

From Twitchell's "Leading Facts of New Mexican History" 



El Palacio (V, 19) kindly calls our .Mission Church at the Pueblo of Taos, 

attention to the fact that the descrip- the remains of which are pictured 

tive matter we published in connection above. It was this church that was 

with the photograph of the Ranchos destroyed duirng the Taos Rebellion, 

de Taos Church (F. R., XXV, 22, 337) in 1847. It has not been rebuilt. 
applies, not to the latter, but to the 



January 15 

Freedom of the Press 

Free will, frank speech, an undissemuling mind, 
Without which Freedom dies and laws are vain. 
On such we found our rights, to such we cling. 

In them shall power his surest safeguard find, 
Tread them not down in passion or disdain: 
Make man a reptile, he will turn and sting. 

—Aubrty da Vere 

Freedom of Speech 
Under the title, "Espionage Cases/' 
.Mr. Walter Nelles has compiled, and 
the National Civil Liberties Bureau of 
New York has published, a collection 
of cases arising since the U. S. declared 
war against ( iermany and involving in 
general the question of seditious utter- 

s. The collection is preceded by an 
analysis and followed by brief notes 

comment. The most important part 
of the pamphlet consists of extracts 
from the opinions of judges in actual 

-. numbering fifty-seven in all. 
some of which arose under the so-called 
Espionage Act, and others under other 

The compiler's notes and comment 
are not satisfactory, as the Nation 
1 oints out I No. 2784). because he has 
no clear idea wherein the right of free 
speech really consists. This right is 
not absolute, but limited by the rights 

•her individuals and by the rights 
of the State, which must not be en- 
'xd upon. No man has a right to 
make fals i statements of fact tending 
to injure the reputation, or to utter 
opinions tending to injure the business, 
of his neighbor. In the case of the 
. it is unlawful to incite to crime 
oi tin- doing oi ;tn unlawful act. The 

titutional guaranty of free speech 
dot- not protect the expression of opin- 
ions, even if believed to be true, if they 

tend to injnr«- and arc made for the 

purpose of injuring the business of an- 
other, or if tlu-y an- intended to incite 
crime fir an unlawful act. The statute 
H an unlawful ad to 

interfere with recruitment. If the ex- 

IKMl of opinion of what was l.i 
! t0 be true would have this effe< '. 

there can be no question thai the eon 
nitutional guaranty would nol prevent 

such expression from being held a vio- 
lation of this act. The question then 
would become one of fact, namely, 
whether a particular expression of 
opinion would tend to produce the 
effect prohibited by the statute. It is 
plain that there would be close ques- 
tions of fact in this connection. The 
cases will range, and the cases in Mr. 
Nelles's book do range, all the way from 
one in which a direct attempt was made 
to reach a man already booked for 
service, to one where the opinions w r ere 
expressed in a private gathering. In 
the former case, there could be little 
question that the attempt is prohibited 
by the statute. In the latter, different 
minds might come to different conclu- 
sions, and accordingly we find a conflict 
of holdings in cases here gathered to- 
gether. The judges who decided these 
cases would probably all acquiesce in 
the statement of the principles, and yet 
they may and do differ in their applica- 
tion of these principles. 

The equally important question of 
interference with freedom of speech by 
preventive means, such as the exclusion 
of newspapers and reviews from the 
mails, is not thoroughly discussed in 
this book. The author apparently holds 
that no constitutional question of free 
speech or free press is presented by the 
exclusion of matter from the mails or 
denial of the second-class mail privi- 
leges, and states this as the holding in 
the Masses case. 

Mr. Nelles's view on this point, as 
the Nation rightly observes, is incor- 
rect. "The courts have always recog- 
nized that the constitutional privilege of 
free speech might be interfered with by 
the denial of mail privileges, but they 
have also recognized that this denial 
was preventive rather than punitive, 
and have been more liberal in sustain- 
ing the judgment of administrative 
officers in excluding matter from the 
mails than they would have been if these 
officers had been exercising a judicial 
function with the purpose of fixing a 
punishment for an unlawful use of the 
mails. That is to say, an act which 
could not he punished as an unlawful 
i. e of the mails might be sufficient to 




justify the exclusion of matter from 
the mails." 

"The greatest danger to free institu- 
tions," concludes our contemporary, 
"doubtless lies at this very point, for 
free criticism of policies of the« govern- 
ment and the conduct of governmental 
officers has been one of the corner- 
stones of our liberties. To hold that 
the government could suppress such 
criticism by refusing it the most im- 
portant means of communication would 
tend to violate the fundamental prin- 
ciple of justice, that no man shall be 
both complainant and judge in a cause. 
For this reason the exclusion of matter 
from the mails must be reviewable by 
the courts, it must be based on sound 
reasons, and cannot be arbitrary." 

The Pope and the Peace Conference 

If Poland is to be returned to the 
Poles, and Serbia to the Serbs, and 
Montenegro to the Montenegrins, and 
Alsace-Lorraine to France, why not 
Ireland to the Irish? — ask our Celtic 
friends. Surely, if President Wilson's 
famous principles of equal justice, 
liberty, and self-determination are to 
be enforced at the Peace Conference, 
Ireland must not only be given "Home 
Rule," but made absolutely free and 
independent and restored to the Irish. 

The conclusion is logical and irre- 
sistible, and we heartily endorse it. 

But there is to be drawn from the 
principle of general restoration and 
restitution another conclusion about 
which we read little or nothing. If 
justice is to be done to all, what about 
the Papal States which were unjustly 
taken away from the Pope in 1870 by 
the Piedmontese robbers with the as- 
sistance of Germany, the connivance of 
Great Britain, and the suffrance, at 
least, of France? 

Let Germany by all means be com- 
pelled to give back Alsace-Lorraine to 
France. Let England be forced to grant 
freedom to the Irish. But above all, 
and before all, let Italy be constrained 
to restore the Papal territories to the 
Holy See! 

If all men are entitled to equal jus- 

tice, surely the Vicar of Christ cannot 
be excluded. We are not addicted to 
prophesying, but it is tolerably safe to 
predict that if the Peace Conference 
refuses to mete out equal justice to all, 
including the Holy See, the divine 
blessing will not rest upon its work, 
and the peace which it will patch to- 
gether will prove but another "scrap 
of paper." 

Unfortunately, the prospects are not 
favorable. It is anything but reassur- 
ing that the Allies are resolved to ad- 
here to the infamous Pact of London, 
under the provisions of which, out of 
undue regard for the Italian govern- 
ment which clings to its booty, His 
Holiness the Pope is excluded from the 
great world conference at which in all 
reason and justice he ought not only to 
be present, but to preside. 

War and Mass-Psychology 

War not only upsets the life of na- 
tions, but also strangely modifies their 
ways of thinking. Abnormal conditions 
bring out in bold relief the intimate 
nexus between the individual and his 
environment, the society he lives in. 
Subject to the strain of unusual influ- 
ences, the reactions he undergoes are 
more marked and stand out in char- 
acteristic fashion. 

Normally the individual man is gov- 
erned by the dictates of right reason. 
What he perceives and hears, he weighs 
in the balance of his own mind, com- 
ing to conclusions generally in accord- 
ance with truth. Strong emotions may 
bias his judgment, but if so, he is aware 
of it and realizes that he has strayed 
off the right road. 

Yet, as a unit in the mass, subjected 
to the strain of untoward events, man 
seems to abdicate his reasoning power. 
That the masses are swayed by emo- 
tions has long been known and acted 
upon by public men. But it is never 
more evident than in a great national 
crisis. Then men are governed by 
impulse, and "reasoning reason" no 
longer asserts its supremacy. The pro- 
cess of inquiring into the fundamentals 
of right and wrong is gone through for 



January 15 

us by others. Ready-drawn conclusions 
arc abundantly furnished by the press. 
Set forth with an intense appeal to 
feeling; they conic to the individual 
mind with an ingratiating aspect and 
arc accepted unchallenged. Artfully 
contrived shibboleths stamp them upon 
the imagination and do duty as all- 
sufficient arguments. 

Moreover, the restraints imposed by 
war conditions prevent the free asser- 
tion oi individual convictions. And if 
these run counter to the settled opinions 
of the masses, they make no more im- 
>sion than a rivulet on a granite 
rockbed. To differ from the masses 
and to pit reason against emotion, is 
an unwelcome task. Harmony of feel- 
ing gives a sense of solidity and power 
to the masses, lending to vague opinions 
the aspect of settled convictions, and 
makes them intolerant of any argument 
that may break in upon their cohesion 
and upset the smug security they 
cherish and hug to their bosom. The 

mer i- a marplot and a kill-joy, for 
intense satisfaction in being 

with the crowd. Hence also that a 
spirit of suspicion is quickly developed, 
resulting in the imputation of evil 
motives to all dissenters from current 
"pinion; in the magnifying, often to 
absurd extremes, of insignificant mat- 

and of true happenings; in the 

ring of hatred both pitiful and 
silly in it- manifestations; in the quick 
change of attitude and disposition, 
making them destroy to-day what but 
terday they extolled and adored. 
'J bis then seems to be the first psy- 
1 trait of the masses: the in- 
dividuals lose their identity, forego the 
right to personally reasoned out conclu- 

. and an- carried along in the 

emotional vortex that sweeps all before 
Vnd this leads o, I],,- consideration 
of another characteristic of mass- 
activity: the marked effeel of what 
have called the "herd 


Man is by nature a gregarious animal. 
Bui this natural tendency becomes 
much more prominent in times of tin- 
natural excitement Each individual is 
normally jealous 

of his liberty, of his rights, and 
quickly resents any curtailment of them, 
be it ever so mild. But the moment he 
has come deeply under the sway of the 
mass-spirit, he renounces all these 
things readily. There is no questioning 
oi motives, and little resistance, for 
that would mean compulsion by out- 
side forces. And by yielding his own 
will the individual preserves at least a 
semblance of liberty. The herd instinct 
leads him readily to do like others, 
to imitate their every action, to follow 
in the wake of the greatest number. He 
feels that way safety lies. It is a subtle 
psychological process that almost defies 
analysis, but it is none the less marked. 

The vague attraction of an ideal, the 
indefinite craving for adventure, the 
fascination of danger, the thirst for 
glory, for the unknown and the inex- 
perienced, are motives that, perceived 
singly or in combination, draw various 
individuals into unity of purpose or 
action. The human crowd is not moved 
by the blind instinct of the animal. Yet 
while there is a substratum of reason, 
it is not always uppermost in the human 
consciousness, and to that extent it is 
comparable to instinct, while not identi- 
cal with it. 

A third characteristic of mass- 
psychology is its absolute submission 
to leadership. In a mob there is no 
leadership : each strikes out for him- 
self, does the reckless thing that is at 
hand to do, falls into wild excess 
and is not stopped or quelled until the 
original impetus has exhausted itself 
by its very violence. The strength of 
the organized mass, however, lies in 
curbing individual initiative, in check- 
ing personal blind activity. The zenith 
of its power is reached when it succeeds 
in directing all efforts towards one end 
under a recognized head, who can exact 
and gain obedience from all at any time 
and place. Whether the leader be a 
military or a civil personage, the press- 
ure of circumstances makes the mass 
entirely willing to subordinate their 
own wills to his. Mistakes and failures 
that would ordinarily be seized upon 
for unfavorable comment or biting crit- 
icism, arc overlooked and condoned, not 




only on the part of friends, but by op- 
ponents as well. This may not always 
be due to implicit reliance upon his 
good judgment, his clear-sightedness, 
and his willingness to do right; but the 
successful leader has had extraordinary 
powers conferred upon him, and thus 
he also becomes a commander with the 
power to compel refractory subordi- 
nates to do his bidding. Again, there is 
a quality in leadership, coming from the 
very possession of almost unlimited 
power, that fascinates the masses and 
brings them to subject personal likes 
and dislikes to an authoritative voice. 
This submission may even degenerate 
into cringing servility, and the tempo- 
rary abdication of will and reason at 
the behest of a powerful taskmaster. 
History offers not a few examples of 
this kind, but also of its inevitable con- 
comitant : an ultimate reassertion of 
freedom and the breaking of all 
shackles through revolution. Psychol- 
ogists have been led to speak of the 
"soul of the masses" as if it were some 
definite entity endowed with faculties 
of its own. As such it does not exist. 
Nevertheless it is true that mass- 
activity manifests certain well-defined 
characteristics in every country and 
amongst all nations, running into reg- 
ular channels, which are interesting 
enough to deserve more than a passing 
Moline, III. J. B. CuLEMANS 

Photo Plays Recommended by the Pa. 
State Board of Censors 
The Pennsylvania State Board of 
Censors recommends the following 
photo-plays as having educational or 
artistic value, or at least as affording 
clean and wholesome amusement. We 
reprint the list for the guidance of 
interested readers, under the reserves 
indicated in our second December issue 
(Vol. XXV, No. 24, pp. 5-7). 

D. Pals First. 5 reels. Metro. 

D. He Comes Up Smiling. 5 reels. Artcraft. 

D. Bound In Morocco. 6 reels. Artcraft. 

D. All The World Or Nothing. 5 r. Pathe. 

D. Ramona. 8 reels. Clune. 

D. Lafayette We Come. 6 reels. Affiliated. 

D. The Greatest Thing In Life. 7 reels. 
Famous Players. 









Secret Strings. 5 reels. Metro. 

Milady o'thc Beanstalk. 5 reels. Pathe. 

Mrs. LefRngwell's Boots. 5 reels. Select. 

Captain Kidd Jr. 5 reels. Artcraft. 

String Beans. 5 reels. Famous. 

Everybody's Girl. 5 reels. Vitagraph. 

His Bonded Wife. 6 reels. Metro. 

The Way Of A Man With A Maid. 5 
reels. Famous Players. 

Laughing Bill Hyde. 6 reels. Goldwyn. 

Shoulder Arms. 3 reels. Xat'l Exhibit. 

Independence B'Gosh. 2 reels. Flagg. 

An Enemy Of Soap. 1 reel. Pathe. 

Camping Out. 2 reels. Goldwyn. 

America's Answer. 5 reels. U. S. Gov- 

The Far Flung Battle Line. 1 r. Pathe. 

The Triumph Of Transportation. 1 
reel. Pathe. 

Mexico, Historic and Architectural. 1 
reel. Educational. 

Fighting For Freedom. 1 r. Universal. 

A Tropic Melting Pot. 1 reel. Outing 

C — Comedy ; D — Drama ; E — Educational ; 
S — Scenic. 

Those of our readers who have an 
opportunity to see any of these plays 
will confer a favor by reporting to us 
their experience for the benefit of the 
Catholic public, which is, quite natural- 
ly, more fastidious in its choice of com- 
mendable pictures than any State board 
of censorship. 

Apropos of the Catholic photo-play, 
"The Victim," mentioned in Vol. XXV, 
No. 24 of the F. R., pp. 373 and 374, 
a Buffalo pastor writes : 

" 'The Victim' is a modern American 
version of the Jesuit Father Spillmann's 
story t 'The Secret of the Confessional.' 
I saw it the other day at a Catholic 
school hall and found it poorly patron- 
ized. Opinions may well differ as to 
the merits of the film. The priest who 
is said to be an authority on plays and 
players and who assists the director of 
the Catholic Art Association, evidently 
did not work overtime on 'The Victim.' 
The priests in the play and the pa jama- 
clad heroine who clings to the 'victim' 
in the last act, are not true to life nor 
te the dignity of the priesthood. This 
criticism is meant to be constructive, 
not carping or fault-finding. It is 
offered with the genuine desire to see 
these films kept up to the highest stand- 
ard of Catholic aesthetics." 

Our reverend correspondent adds : 



January lfr 

"in connection with this subject it may 
I ( well to draw the attention of the 
Catholic clergy to the screen production 
o( a 'Life of Christ' which is being 
I tiered in the East for performance in 
church. The agent suggests the church 
itself as the proper place and furnishes 
an organist. The removal of the Blessed 
Sacrament is, of course, inevitable. It 
cannot be too strongly recommended to 
priest-readers of the Review that the 
be declined. The whole scheme 
is unbecoming and un-Catholic." 

Catholic America's Debt to the 
A venerable prelate writes to us: 
Did you notice the violent attack 
made recently by a prominent Catholic 
churchman, on the occasion of a great 
ecclesiastical celebration, upon the ex- 
emperors of the houses of Hohenzollern 
and llapsburg? He went so far as to 
call them "Luciiers." 

Now I hold no brief for William of 
Hohenzollern, although some milder 
expression would have been more in 
keeping with the dignity of the pulpit ; 
but I think that every American bishop 
<»r priest should think twice before at- 
tacking the Hapsburg dynasty, to whom 
the Church of the C. S. owes a debt of 
gratitude which she will never be able 
pay. Let our churchmen of to-day 
the letters which their predecessors 
v. ro:<- to Emperors Francis the First 
and Francis Joseph, when the American 
Church was -till in its swaddling- 
clothes. In these letters the pioneer 

bishops and missionaries of America 

expressed their heartfelt gratitude for 
the munificent gifts senl every year by 
the Leopoldine Society, of which the 
Emperor of Austria was the protector 
and chief contributor, to the struggling 

mi — ion. of America. The letters of 

the fir-t bishops of Cincinnati show- 
that, had it not been for the generous 
support of the Austrian Catholics, thai 

ITOuld hardly have been able to 
' < arry on." 

letti are not :,< i essibli 
all, lei me refer to the article "Leo- 
poldine Society" in the lasl volume of 

the Catholic Encyclopedia, where evi- 
dence is given to show that while among 
the older dioceses of this country Cin- 
cinnati was most bountifully considered, 
St. Louis, Bardstown, Nashville, Nat- 
chez, and other dioceses also received 
generous support, and the contribu- 
tions chiefly came from the Austrian 

Surely, to be patriotic it is not neces- 
sary to be unjust and ungrateful! 
* * * 

On "America's Debt to Austria" see 
the paper with this title in Vol. XXI, 
No. 15 of the Fortnightly Review. 


Among the Spiritists 

The "conversion" to Spiritism of Sir 
Arthur Conan Doyle has made a tre- 
mendous sensation in England, and we 
have it on good authority that his books 
and lectures, together with those of Sir 
Oliver Lodge, and the desire of thou- 
sands of war relicts to communicate 
with their departed men folk, have 
made Spiritism immensely popular in 
that country. 

The St. Louis Globe -Democrat of 
Dec. 22nd reported at great length an 
interview with Sir Arthur by Mr. 
Hayden Church, which confirms this 
impression. The creator of "Sherlock 
Holmes" is quoted as saying that the 
veil between this world and the other 
is very thin and that almost every wife 
or mother who desires to communicate 
with the spirit of her husband or son 
can do so. 

What makes this interview more dan- 
gerous than most articles of the kind 
are the explicit directions Sir Arthur 
gives for getting into communication 
with the spirit world and the emphasis 
laid on the doctrinal tenets of Spirit- 
ism, which are a point-blank denial of 
the Catholic dogmas dc novissimis. For 
the rest there is not in this interview 
with Sir Arthur anything that is not 
contained, at least in mice, in his book, 
"The New Revelation," with which we 
dealt nearly a year ago (F. R., Vol. 
XXV, No. 3). I lis recommendation of 
Mr. Frederick Bond's "The Gate 
of Remembrance," shows that the 




scientific basis of Spiritism has not im- 
proved since bis own book was written, 
for Father Herbert Thurston, S.J., has 
demonstrated in the Month the utter 
hollowness of Mr. Bond's argument in 
connection with the discovery of the 
lost "Edgar Chapel" of Gladstonbury 

The seed sown by Sir Oliver Lodge, 
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, and other 
prominent champions of Spiritism is 
bringing forth a rich harvest of books, 
of which it may be worth while to 
notice a few of the latest. 

"Thy Son Liveth" (Little, Brown & 
Co. ) contains what purport to be com- 
munications which a dead American 
soldier sent to his bereaved mother. It 
is fairly representative of a whole class 
of (largely anonymous) literature that 
appeals to sorrowing wives and mothers. 
The hero of this book, after qualifying 
for the wireless service, went overseas. 
One day his mother received a "mes- 
sage" from him, assuring her that while 
his body had been killed, he was really 
alive, active, and eager to comfort her. 
He is represented as being especiallv 
anxious to convey to the relatives of all 
who mourn the message that their 
loved ones are not dead, but intensely 
alive and happy, and only distressed 
and hampered by the grief of those left 
on earth. 

"The Candle of Vision," by A. E. 
( Macmillan), is a study in psychology. 
The author says that he has since child- 
hood been conscious of happenings tak- 
ing place before his eyes, sometimes of 
events long past, sometimes of spirit 
manifestations, which cannot be ac- 
counted for by the theories of psychol- 
ogists. He holds that this faculty of 
vision may be attained by anyone who 
will go through the necessary training 
in the concentration of the will, and 
formulates a theory, akin to that of the 
authors of "The Gate of Remembrance," 
of a sort of cosmic memory which can 
manifest itself through individuals. The 
tendency of the book is pantheistic. 

Mr. Herbert C. N. Newlyn, in "The 
Relationship between the Mystical and 
Sensible World" (Allen & Unwin). at- 
tempts to provide a philosophy of mys- 

ticism. He talks much about what he 
calls the Cosmic Need and its place in 
the world, but his thought is vague and 
his style rhetorical. 

A far lower depth of imbecility is 
reached by Mr. Harold Bayley in his 
anthology, "The Undiscovered Coun- 
try" (Cassell). This professes to be a 
selection from works written by the 
dead, giving an account of what life in 
the next \yorld is like, and communi- 
cated by occult means to the living. 
Most people, probably, were unaware 
that the books Mr. Bayley quotes from 
existed, and he is kind enough to say 
that "the prevailing ignorance is excus- 
able, for most spiritualistic communica- 
tions have, until recently, been pub- 
lished obscurely, and considerable re- 
search has been necessary to rescue 
them from oblivion." Well, here they 
are, and those who wish can read the 
descriptions of the other world by Julia, 
by Hagel, Prince of Persia, by Private 
Dowding, by a Living Dead Man, and 
a crowd of others. The prospect of 
associating with these people would lend 
a new terror to death. 

It is a relief to get away from them 
to Mr. Stuart Cumberland's amusing 
exposure, "That Other World" (Grant 
Richards), describing how he pricked 
mediums with pins and put red paint 
on spirits' noses. Mr. Cumberland dis 
believes in mediums because he has ex- 
posed many of them and can do most of 
their tricks himself. However, the sub- 
ject is not quite as simple as he sup- 
poses. Fraud explains a great deal that 
takes place at seances, but there is much 
that cannot be thus explained. 

The Saturday Review, of London, in 
a notice of several Spiritistic books 
(No. 3291). suggests the possibility of 
<'i natural and scientific explanation of 
the seeming marvels which will render 
unnecessary the hypothesis either of 
spirit-communication or of fraud. 
"After all." says our confrere, "the 
science of psychology is still in its in- 
fancy, and it is in the pursuit of this 
knowledge that the explanatory clue 
may be found. Other sciences have 
been cradled in superstition. Astronomy 
grew out of astrology, and chemistrv 



January 15 

out of alchemy. M. Emile Boaric, the 
Rector oi the Academy oi Dijon, in an 
interesting book published last year, has 

suggested that psychical science may 
also burst its bonds. Certainly, until 
this happens, there seems small chance 
of much advance being made. It is 
worth noting that all these superstitions 
hang together. Where yon rind Spirit- 
i.-m. you continually find also, as the 
journals of the underworld of occult- 
ism plainly show, the belief in palm- 
istry, in horoscopes, and in a multitude 
of things that the scientific mind has 
long outgro w n. An atmosphere is pro- 
duced in which superstitions breed like 
vermin. The chief reason, it seems to 
hy the Spiritist movement is to be 
be deplored is that it is directing re- 
Search in a wrong direction, towards 
the attempt to pass human survival of 
death, and away from the attempt to 
explore the human mind and discover 
the laws that govern it. Man is natural- 
ly prone to jump to conclusions. Hesi- 
tation he abhors, as a rule. But an 
attitude of hesitation, of suspension of 
\ ment, with regard to the better part 
the evidence collected, is the only 
attitude that is justified at present. Mis- 
sionaries like Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, 
insisting that this i> 'essentially a reli- 
gious movement,' are merely tiresome 
intruders into tin- nursery of a new 
science. To the baser type of Spiritist 
Other objections may be made. Chief 
among these is the way in which he has 
exploited the war and preyed upon 
who have suffered bereavement." 

The New "Americanism" 
The word "democracy" has hern 
used frequently perhaps too frequent- 
vitbin recent months. To some it 
has apparently losl its force and ap- 
propriateness, and a- an expression of 
a!! the excellencies and prerogatives of 
America another word is again making 

n- appearance Americanism. 

The revival of this word, in spite of 

• lined memories, mighl be a matter 
of indifference were it nol thai simul- 
taneously with it tome of the opinions 

condemned under the bead of "Anieri 

canism" by the Holy See are again 
making their appearance. 

Among the truths which Pope Leo 
\ 1 1 1 was obliged to impress anew upon 
American Catholics was the following: 
"Though all this be true [that the 
Church in America is in a flourishing 
condition, etc.] it would be erroneous 
to draw the conclusion that in America 
is to be sought the type of the most 
desirable status of the Church, or that 
it would be universally law fid or ex- 
pedient for State and Church to be, as 
in America, dissevered and divorced." 
i -The Great Encvclicals of Leo XIII," 
p. 323). 

In a previous encyclical, addressed 
to the universal Church, the Pontiff had 
called attention to the following propo- 
sitions already condemned by his pre- 
decessor Pius IX : That "the Church 
must be separated from the State and 
the State from the Church," and that 
"it is for the civil power to determine 
what are the rights of the Church and 
the limits within which she mav use 
them." (Op. cit., p. 216, 215). 

Other erroneous views were at dif- 
ferent times rejected by Leo XIII in 
the following words : "Inasmuch as each 
of these two powers [State and Church] 
has authority over the same subjects, it 
might come to pass that one and the 
same thing .... might belong to the 
jurisdiction and determination of both 
[proper correlation should exist, and 
where this is not the case] .... two 
powers would be commanding contrary 
things, and it would be a dereliction of 
duty to disobey either of the two." 
i Op. cit., p. 114). "We repeatedly en- 
deavored from the summit of the pon- 
tifical office to inculcate that the 
Church, whilst directly and immediately 
aiming at the salvation of souls and the 
beatitude which is to be attained in 
heaven, is vet. even in the order of 
temporal things, the fountain of bless- 
ings so numerous and great that they 
could not have been greater or more 

numerous had the original purpose of 

her institution been the pursuit of hap- 
piness during the life which is spent on 
earth." (Op. cit., p. 322). "Whatever 
be the nature of the government, rulers 




must ever bear in mind that God is the 
paramount ruler of the world, and must 
set Him before themselves as their 
exemplar and law in the administration 
of the State." {Op. cit., p. 109). 

It seems strange that in spite of these 
condemnations the views thus censured 
should again be publicly professed at 
present by American Catholics. Thus 
one of our monthlies says editorially : 
"The primary and perhaps most typical 
of these American principles is that the 
Church and State are, and must remain, 
mutually independent. The State must 
not be subservient to the Church, and 
the Church must not be enslaved by the 
State. Now, notwithstanding many 
popular misconceptions to the contrary, 
the independence of Church and State 
is good Catholic doctrine." 

A priest writing editorially in one of 
our Catholic weeklies says : "The two 
jurisdictions are distinct and separate. 
. . . There never can be a clash between 
allegiance to the Church and allegiance 
to one's country. . . . The Church, on 
the contrary, is of a supernatural order 
and concerned with the happiness of 
men in the hereafter. . . . All human 
institutions are subject to the will of 
man. ... In the natural order which 
concerns the present world, human rea- 
son is the main guide and capable of 
framing the conditions that make for 
earthly happiness." 

Not only are these and similar views 
and tendencies erroneous ; they are ex- 
tremely dangerous in the face of an 
impending attack, the indications of 
which are becoming more manifest 
every day, and wherein the words and 
ideas of "liberty," "democracy," the 
"excellency of our public institutions," 
"absolute and undivided loyalty to 
America," etc., will form the basis of 
slogans and arguments against our 
schools and our allegiance to the hier- 
archy and the Holy Father. In the 
face of this, we repeat, it is dangerous, 
nay, the height of folly to prepare the 
minds of our people for the more ready 
acceptance of the false preachings of 
the enemy. A greater insistence upon 
the obligations toward authority, eccle- 
siastical and civil, would be more bene- 

ficial to our own cause, and to the 
public welfare, than to help spread the 
doctrines of a condemned and dis- 
credited Liberalism. K. 

A Great Editor Gone 

Mr; Hilaire Belloc, in a eulogy of 
the late Cecil Chesterton, says in No. 
319 of the New Witness, of which 
paper the departed was editor, that 
Chesterton was distinguished by three 
qualities which made him a great and 
powerful journalist, viz. : (1) knowl- 
edge of public affairs, (2) the power 
of lucid expression, and (3) heroic 

Of these three qualities, Mr. Belloc 
seems to think, the second is the rarest. 
"For twenty men who can write good 
rhetoric, or even good verse," he says, 
"there is not one who can with intel- 
ligence seize at once the heart of a sub- 
ject and present it in the shortest space 
so vividly and so framed that all his 
audience receive his own knowledge 
and are in communion with it." Ches- 
terton was one of the very few to 
whom this power was given. 

Mr. Belloc adds: "I speak here of 
something which I know, for I myself, 
with I know not what labor, have at- 
tempted and have failed in the same 
task, and I have seen around me other 
men far more gifted than I, admirable 
it illustration and rhythm, at strong 
picturing of things, who have failed in 
this complete task of rapidity of syn- 
thesis informed by lucidity." 

Mr. Belloc is right. The power of 
lucid expression is rare, and because 
it is rare, we have so few really power- 
ful editors, though there are" thousands 
who "can write good rhetoric and even 
good verse." 

But perhaps the third quality of a 
good editor, heroic courage, is even 
rarer than the power of lucid synthesis. 
Mr. Chesterton possessed it, too, in an 
extraordinary degree. "There was no 
risk he would not run." says Mr. Belloc. 
"no suffering which he would not en- 
counter [for the sake of truth] : from 
ridicule to misconception, and from 
misconception to imprisonment, and 



January 15 

from imprisonment to poverty." It was 
ibis sublime courage that gave to his 
talent and to Ins knowledge their enor- 
mous value. 

Cecil Chesterton, as our readers 
Know, was a convert to the Catholic 
faith. He died in France. Dec. 6, of 
the effects of a wound received in the 
last days of the fighting. In the army 
he was a mere private ; hut honest, in- 
dependent journalism has lost in him a 
mighty general. Would that we had 
more like him! R. I. P. 

Was Archbishop Purcell's Debt Paid? 

The Catholic Historical Review for 
( >ctober. 1918, in an article on the late 
Archbishop Purcell of Cincinnati, refers 
to the great disaster of 1878, which 
saddened the last five years of that 
prelate's long and eventful life. 

The Review says : "Fourteen years of 
litigation followed the financial crash of 
I, and with the help of his brethren 
in the episcopate, the debt was reduced 
and finally all was paid oft, during the 
administration of his successor Arch- 
bishop Elder." 

The latter died in 1904, the year 
when the case was closed in court. 

The- dissertation by Sister Mary Agnes 
McCann, Ph.D., which was under re- 
view, states: "In ordinary times the 
affair might have been adjusted with 
difficulty . . . but the amount due 
was paid in a reasonable time." 

We know, however, that the closing 
in court of a bankruptcy does not guar- 
antee that all the debt has been paid; 
EOT can it be said to be satisfactorily 
settled if only certain exceptional cred- 
itors receive full payment through out- 
side help. 

In hifl sorrowful affliction Archbishop 
I'urcell bad the sympathy of all, and no 
one accused bun of dishonesty. The 

failure came about through his trusted 

• and brother, Father Edward 

11. who for forty years, no doubt 

with the best of intentions, received 
cash deposits and loaned out money for 

various purposes, but failed to keep a 

book account of his transactions. 

The report of tbe assignees, made to 

the Probate Court in May, 1879, showed 
a debt of nearly four million dollars, 
against assets valued at only one mil- 
lion, nineteen thousand dollars, which 
included two hundred forty-one thou- 
sand dollars in promissory notes of 
doubtful value. 

Three thousand rive hundred deposi- 
tors were concerned. 

A final dividend was paid on Decem- 
ber 28, 1903. This with the previous 
dividends made a total of seven and one 
eighth per cent. How can anyone say 
that "all the debt was paid off"? 

So stupendous was the debt that all 
attempts to pay the Archbishop's cred- 
itors in full, by contributions or other- 
wise, were abandoned as hopeless. 



An Important Episcopal Instruction 

The Bishop of Toledo, Ohio, in a 
circular to his clergy, dated Dec. 8, 
1918, presented to them an outline of a 
complete course of sermons for part of 
the new ecclesiastical year. For the 
elaboration of discourses on the points 
given he recommends a number of 
books, foremost among them the Pohle- 
Preuss Dogmatic Series, on which he 
bestows high praise. A sermon of no 
more than thirty minutes is to be pre- 
pared along the lines suggested, and a 
carefully digested synopsis of the full 
sermon or instruction, to last from five 
or ten minutes, is to be delivered at each 
low mass. The Bishop rightly says that 
while there is a great deal of preaching 
in our country, yet, for lack of a well- 
defined plan of systematic presentation, 
many important points of Christian 
doctrine are seldom if ever touched 
upon. The plan outlined by I lis Lord- 
ship will help towards remedying this 

.Msgr. Schrembs adds some special 
advice with regard to marriage. lie 
emphasizes tbe importance and obliga- 
tion of giving to the young people who 
present themselves for marriage a care- 
fully prepared course of instruction on 
the married state and its duties, and on 




the manner of ordering the Christian 
household. Pastors are advised to sug- 
gest the hlessing of the home and to 
make use of this occasion to call atten- 
tion to the use of Christian ornaments, 
— crucifixes, holy pictures, holy water, 
blessed candles, etc., and to urge the 
removal of unworthy or improper ob- 
jects. In this connection the Bishop 
truly says: "If we can but manage to 
keep the home Christian, we shall have 
done our part towards the salvation of 
Apropos of the Ouija Board 

Some of our readers are inclined to 
agree with the non-Catholic litterateur 
quoted in our Vol. XXV, No. 23, that 
the ouija board is nothing more than a 
form of mental pocket-picking, which 
can convey no information not con- 
tained somehow in the mind of the 
medium. Thus an Eastern pastor writes 
to us: "I have a ouija board and have 
practised on it. If I think of the letter 
A, the dial will go to A. If I think of 
the letter O, the dial will show O. How 
my thoughts can move the dial I am 
unable to explain, but they do, and the 
agency is undoubtedly natural. If I 
imagine I have heart trouble and think 
of it a great deal, my heart may event- 
ually be affected. A doctor told me 
lately that I have no heart trouble, and 
immediately I felt as well as ever. How 
thoughts affect the heart, the stomach, 
and other organs of the body cannot be 
explained, but no sane man would 
ascribe the process to prseter-natural 
means. To me it seems that Spiritists, 
fortune-tellers, and Christian Scientists 
are all working under the same delu- 
sion, and that, while some are sincere, 
a great many others are frauds. That 
women are 'better mediums' than men 
is probably due to the fact that weaker 
minds are more easily misled than 
strong ones." 

A Catholic Voice from French Canada 

The Ideal Catholiquc, of Montreal, a 
monthly magazine published in the 
interests of Catholic French Canada, 
devotes over half of its December issue 
to a biographical sketch of Garcia 
Moreno, the famous martyr-president 

of Chili. The underlying thought no 
doubt is that French Canada needs a 
Moreno just at present. 

Mr. Joseph Begin, who edits this val- 
iant magazine, pleads openly for mak- 
ing French Canada autonomous. He 
says this is the only way of preserving 
the Catholic faith and the French lan- 
guage, to both of which the habitants 
of Quebec and their kinsmen in the new 
provinces fondly cling. 

How illusory democracy and liberty 
are under the British flag may be seen 
from the fact that Mr. Begin's weekly 
La Croix, which was suppressed by the 
Canadian government on Sept. 28th, 
1918, has not yet been allowed to 
resume publication. Why this valiant 
Catholic paper was suppressed, the 
public was never allowed to know. Its 
"'war policy" was identical with that of 
Benedict XV, and its guns were trained 
chiefly upon the enemies of the Cath- 
olic Church, especially the Freemasons. 
We hope La Croix will soon reappear, 
to wage the good fight pro Deo ct patria 
more strenuously than ever. Meanwhile 
those of our readers who wish to sub- 
scribe for a staunch Catholic periodical 
in the French language are advised to 
send two dollars to L'ldeal Catholiquc, 
27, Rue Saint-Gabriel, Montreal, Can- 
Literary History of Spanish America 

The Bulletin of the Pan American 
Union (Vol. XLVII, No. 3) publishes 
a valuable notice, from the pen of the 
late Bishop Currier, of "The Literary 
History of Spanish America," by Al- 
fred Coester, Ph.D., published some 
time ago by the Macmillan Co. (495 
pp. ; $2.50). 

Dr. Currier says that he had himself 
accumulated materials for such a his- 
tory, and in the interest of it had even 
made a journey around South America. 
but when he was appointed bishop of 
Matanzas, he was removed from his 
sources of information and forced to 
devote his energies to other work. 

Dr. Coester's book is the first general 
history of Spanish American literature 
published in English and as such fills 
a real want. Though not cast into the 
best form for a school manual, Bishop 



January 15 

Currier says the book contains a mass 
of information which it would be very 
difficult to obtain from other sources. 
The author "has approached his sub- 
ject in a most sympathetic manner, and 
one can sec that his reading has been 
wide and judicious.*' This is high 
praise from a Catholic bishop for a 
work written from a non-Catholic 
standpoint. But Msgr. Currier was a 
broad-minded and liberal critic. Thus 
Ik- savs of the "Modernista" movement 
headed by Ruben Dario that, in spite 
rious defects, "it has done more 
than anything else to bring about a 
literary union among the Spanish 
American republics." which is a fact. 

French as Spoken in Canada 

In an article contributed to the 
Statesman, of Toronto (Nov. 23d, T8) 
our former colleague of the New 
World. Dr. Thomas O'Hagan, refutes 
the widely spread notion that the 
French spoken in the province of 
Quebec is not pure French, but a 
patois <>r local dialect. He shows that 
arly settlers of the province were 
tly men who possessed scholarship 
and culture and could converse in pure 
French. \\ bat traces of dialect some 
of them may have brought to the New 
World were effaced under the leader- 
hip of an educated clergy, professors 
in colleges, officers of the army, and 
members i f the legal and medical pro- 
ions. We have the positive testi- 
mony of La Potherie and Charlevoix, 
who declared < the first in 1700 and the 
nd in 1720) that no provincial 
nt or dialect was observable among 
French-Canadians. "The charge 
that the French of Quebec speak a 
ludes i >r. ( )'l lagan, "has 
made in ignorance of facts. The 
r« al truth is that French scholarship in 
etained some words of the 
nteenth century and has added 
. new one, thai have bad origin in 
the life and condition of the country 
and people, and of which the French 
Academy <;m know nothing. These 
words but add to the wealth of a lan- 
wbicb for clearnes and beauf 

of thought has no rival." 


— The Associated Press announced 
on Jan. 2nd, that it had taken in as 
members a score or so of South Ameri- 
can daily papers, with which it will in 
future exchange news. As several of 
these journals are to all practical intents 
and purposes Catholic, it is to be hoped 
that their admission to membership will 
result in making the management of 
our greatest newsgathering agency a 
little more attentive to Catholic news 
of real importance and a little less 
biased in its presentation of them. 

— In our first September issue for 
1918 we spoke of the beginning of a 
new era for Portugal under the regime 
of Dr. Sidonio Paes. After little more 
than a year in the presidency Senhor 
Paes was foully assassinated shortly 
before Christmas. We have looked in 
vain to the newspapers for details of 
the vile deed and the motives that in- 
spired it. All the information we have 
been able to obtain was that Paes "tried 
to give the thought of the Portuguese 
people a new direction," and was in 
consequence vehemently opposed by the 
Radicals. .Like Woodrow Wilson, Dr. 
Paes had been a university professor 
until he entered politics, in 1911. Pie 
obtained the presidency by a successful 
revolt against the Costa government, in 
December, 1917, and was confirmed in 
office by an election based on direct 
universal suffrage last April. One of 
his first steps as president was to bring 
about a rapprochement with the Catho- 
lic Church, which had been systemati- 
cally persecuted ever since the estab- 
lishment of the republic. 

— On the occasion of the seventh 
(( ntennial of the journey of St. Francis 
of Assisi to Palestine, the Pope has 
granted to the Church of Mt. St. Sep- 
ulchre, at Washington, D. C, the same 
indulgences that may be gained by 
visiting and venerating the original 
sacred shrines in the Holy Land. 

— Petitions are circulating in France 
with a view to introducing the process 
of beatification of Msgr. L. G. dc 
Segur, the famous apologist and foun- 
der of the Association of St. Francis 




de Sales for the defense and preserva- 
tion of the faith. (On Segur and his 
work see the Cath. Encyclopedia, Vol. 
XIII, pp. 686 sq.) 

— It is not true, says the Public (No. 
1079), that "democracy, by any fair, 
philosophical test of success, has proved 
a failure as compared with autocracies ; 
but it is true that to be more successful 
than it is, democracy needs more educa- 
tion, more honest discussion, more 
genuine freedom and justice in the 
economic sphere. Political democracy 
we have almost realized — almost but 
not quite. We have to use political 
freedom unremittingly and methodical- 
ly to realize the ideal of industrial 
democracy. If we fail to win that, we 
may lose even what we have of democ- 
racy and liberty." 

— A number of subscriptions for 
poor missionaries, hospitals, public 
libraries, etc., that we pay out of our 
little "charity fund," expires about this 
time of the year, and we should like to 
renew them and add a few more. Will 
some of our generous patrons help, as 
they did in past years? 

— Mr. McAdoo's recommendation of 
a five year's experiment of unified gov- 
ernment operation of the railways ap- 
pears fair to all concerned. A five-year 
period will give full opportunity for 
threshing out the whole question and 
for devising a new system, fair to both 
the owners and the public, under which 
the railways may be returned. If the 
government proves able to run the rail- 
roads efficiently for rive years, the de- 
mand for public ownership will prob- 
ably become irresistible. If the experi- 
ment turns out badly, as the railway 
men prognosticate, the five-year experi- 
ment will put a quietus upon the agita- 
tion for public ownership. 

— Writing in the Nezv Republic (No. 
216) on the probable future of the 
Y. M. C. A., J. E. McAtee says, among 
other things, that upon the installation 
of the Socialist regime in Russia the 
Association was banished from that 
land as an institution identified with 
capitalism. "The Association w iden- 
tified with the capitalistic regime," ad- 

mits Mr. McAtee. "If it had antago- 
nized American capital, it would long 
ago have gone out of business, at least 
the sort of business under which it has 
so far prospered. It has been careful 
not to antagonize capital. Capital has 
reciprocated by lavish support. What 
effect this will have upon the Associa- 
tion's after-war destinies, and upon its 
ministry of social and religious recon- 
struction, only the event will reveal." 

— Picturesque polemics have not en- 
tirely vanished from the Catholic press 
of America. Thus Father Yorke in the 
San Francisco Leader (Vol. 17, No. 
51) says at the end of an article in 
which he defends the Irish clergy of 
California against an attack made by 
a certain A. Maubailly in the Franco- 
Calif ornicn: "When this yellow dog 
obtrudes his obscene snout into the 
sanctuary, it is too much for our pa- 
tience and our toes tingle for the igno- 
minious kick." Twenty-five years ago 
such billingsgate was quite common in 
the Catholic press ; to-day, thank God, 
it is the exception. 

— The high hopes which the world 
has entertained for a peace settlement 
that will make future wars impossible 
are not likely to be realized. It is proba- 
ble that we shall get a league of nations. 
What it will be like can be gathered 
from Mr. Balfour's recent remarks. He 
said in an interview : "It is folly to sup- 
pose that the world can be quickly 
turned into a series of free states with 
free institutions. ... I think that the 
League ought to act as trustee of those 
countries that have not yet reached the 
state at which true democracy can be 
applied." In other words, there is to be 
a hierarchy of States, with England, 
the U. S., France, and Italy in control. 
"If that is what we mean by a League 
of Nations," says the Dial (No. 779), 
"let us call it by its right name, a league 
of Nations," says the Dial (No. 779), 

— Apropos of his paper on "Race 
Suicide" in our No. 1, the author, J. P. 
P., writes : According to a report of the 
U. S. Bureau of Vital Statistics (quoted 
in the Cincinnati Times-Star, Dec. 14, 



January 15 

1918), the population of Cincinnati in- 
creased by only 3,774 the past year. 
w hich is less than one per cent. The 
Catholic population of the city exceeds 
forty per cent. Had it not been for the 
influx oi Negroes and mountaineers 
from Kentucky. Cincinnati would show 
a net loss. Race suicide is beginning to 
produce its inevitable results every- 

— "If Christians fail to seek in the 
spirit of the message of Christ the cure 
for social maladies, the needed changes 
are likely to be accomplished not by 
'general consent,' but by revolutionary 
method."' says the New Republic, Vol. 
XVII, No. 216. 

— Two important new chairs have 
been founded in the Gregorian Univer- 
sity at Rome, according to the Civil ta 
CattoKca I Xo. 1640 ) : one for ascetical 
and mystic theology for divinity stu- 
5, the other a popular course of 
gious science for lay students. The 
;<rmer has been established in response 
persistent demand created by the 
growth of frequent communion and by 
recent controversies in France, Bel- 
gium, and Italy regarding "liturgical 
piety," so-called, and its pretended op- 
i»n to [gnatian asceticism; the lat- 
ter will be a sort of theological course 
for laymen, a real necessity to-day in 
every Catholic university. 

— The "Memorare." which is usually 
attributed to St. Bernard, according to 
Father Herbert Thurston, S.J. (The 
Month. No. 652), cannot be traced to 
great Abbot of Clairvaux, but the 
Bernard to whom it is popularly 
ascribed is « laud'- Bernard, (b. in 15X8, 
d. in 1641 I. wbo was known to bis con- 
temporaries as "the Poor Priest" and 
ted himself with extraordinary 
and success to the work of succor- 
unfortunate prisoners and 1 crimi- 
nals condemned to death. It i^ not like- 

ly, however, that Claude Bernard was 
the actual author of the "Memorare," 
though it played a great part in his 
life. The prayer was well known to 
St. Francis de Sales, who was twenty- 
one vears older than Pere Bernard and 
died nineteen years before him. There 
is at present no conclusive evidence 
that the "Memorare," as we know it, 
was in use much before the end of the 
16th century, but a rubric cited by 
Msgr. Paulus from the "Hortulus 
Animae," printed by J. Wellinger at 
Strassburg, in 1503, seems at least to 
indicate the possibility of further dis- 

— The Extension Magazine (XIII, 
8) justly warns the public against the 
innumerable so-called "histories" of 
the Great War that will be put out 
within the next few years. Thiers 
wrote a history of the French Revolu- 
tion in ten volumes thirty years after 
the event, and yet Carlyle says his work 
is "superficial, waste, and inorganic." 
Our contemporary historians derive 
their information mostly from news- 
papers and magazines. "Unless Divine 
Providence will favor you with lon- 
gevity make up your mind that you will 
not be privileged to read anything even 
remotely resembling a history of the 
great and crucial events of these our 
own times." It is a warning well to 

— The Christian Science Monitor 
(Jan. 2nd) reprints a protest of the 
Masonic Chronicler against alleged 
pro-Catholic propaganda in certain his- 
tories and geographies used in the 
public schools. "It is a notorious fact," 
the Masonic journal is ([noted as say- 
ing, "that some of the text-books 
recently adopted contain matter so pro- 
nouncedly Roman Catholic that they 
should have no place in an American 
public school." We should like to see 



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a bill of particulars in proof of this 
curious indictment. We know of school 
books that contain anti-Catholic lies 
and slanders, but have never come 
across one that might justly be called 
pro-Catholic. Perhaps our Masonic 
friends regard the statement of the 
plain truth on some historical subjects 
as pro-Catholic. If they do, they are to 
«•! certain extent justified, for all truth 
is radically Catholic. 

— The Postulator of the Order of 
Friars Minor, we learn from the Fran- 
ciscan Herald (VII, 1), is giving spe- 
cial attention to the process of beatifi- 
cation of Ven. Francis Gonzaga, uncle 
of St. Aloysius. Annibale Gonzaga was 
born in 1546 at Gazzuolo and died in 
1620 in the odor of sanctity. After 
leaving the pleasures of the imperial 
court to lead a life of penance and 
mortification in the Franciscan Order 
( in which he bore the name of Fra 
Francesco), he soon rose to promi- 
nence. He filled various important posi- 
tions, was elected minister general, and 
finally created bishop of Cefalu, Pavia, 

and Mantua. Under Clement VIII he 
served as nuncio in France. His best 
known literary work is his "Historia 
Originis Religionis Seraphicae," Rome, 
1587. The process of his beatification 
was begun seven years after his death, 
but owing to various difficulties was 
never completed. Since 1914, however, 
the case is being conducted with 
renewed vigor and recently his many 
writings were submitted to the S. C. 
of Rites for examination. 

— We learn from the Bulletin of the 
Catholic Federation (Vol. XIII, No. 10) 
that Chicago has appointed a censor- 
ship commission for the purpose of 
making a survey of the film industry, 
with the ultimate view of recommend- 
ing a new ordinance which will stamp 
out bad films, posters, and advertise- 
ments. The commission, which has 
several Catholic members (among them 
Fr. Dinneen, S.J., Judge T. D. Hurley, 
and Mr. Anthony Matre), meets week- 
ly and is working along the lines of the 
English commission, which was in ses- 
sion for six months. 

Second and Revised Edition, Augmented by an Appendix Containing Supplementary Roman 

Decrees on the New Codex 

The New Canon Law 



With a Preface by Very Rev. Msgr. Philip Bernardini, J. U. D. 

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Second and Revised Edition, augmented by an Appendix containing : 

The Election to Office in Religious Communities, Supplementary Official Decrees 

and Declarations on Various Points of the Code. 

Complete in one volume, large 8vo, 452 pages. Cloth, net, $3.50 

.hided iveight and authority are given to the work by the commendatory preface written for 

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facilitating ready reference to its coutents on any particular subject. 

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January 15 

Literary Briefs 

—The Catholic World Magazine of the 
Paulist Fathers (No. 044) says oi the first 
volume of Koch-i'reuss, "Handbook of 
Moral Theology" (B. Herder Book Co.; 
$1.50 net): "The text itself is brief and 
char: while the footnotes are unusually full 
and contain much curious and out-of-the-way 
information, r. i'.. that the Scholastic term 
for the speculative conscience v s }' n teresis) is 
in its Greek dre<s incorrect, the proper form 
being syntidesis (p. 188). The section de- 
I to the 'History and Literature of Moral 
Theology' v pp. 42-73) is admirably well done 
— in fact would do credit to a professional 
litterateur. We do not remember to have 
v. en before nearly so good a conspectus. 
The chapters also that treat of free-will and 
its determinants are luminous and sugges- 
tive " 

— The second volume of "A Commentary 
on the Xew Code oi Canon Law" by Fr. 
Charles Augustine. O.S.B., D.D., comprises 
canons 87 to 486 and deals with the clergy 
ami the hierarchy. The canons are given in 
lull in the original Latin, followed, usually, 
by a paraphrase in English and historical and 
explanatory notes. These notes are valuable 
because they embody the conclusions of a 
learned canonist who has taught Canon Law 
Something like a quarter of a century 
and lias had the additional advantage of 
teaching at a Roman university while the 
New Code was in fieri. There are to be four 
volumes of this excellent commentary, 
than which it is not likely that a more ex- 
tended <t more useful one will be published 
for a go. mI many years to come. The price 
of this stout volume (nearly 600 pp. $2.50) 
i \ery reasonable, considering present con- 
- of book-making and the technical 
character of the work. <J'>. Herder Book Co.) 
—The Dial (No. 777) vigorously, and, it 
to us. justly protests against such 
"sentimental laudings of horror and destruc- 
ire contained in Miss Winifred 
Kirkland's "The Xew Death" (Houghton 
Mifflin: $1.25). "Il does not make our war 
aims on,- whit less shining and sincere to 
nize that their attainment involved un- 
alamity. We were righting that life 
might fuller, and more companion- 

able. 1: i- unedifying to becloud and glorify 
facts of death and disease and 
ry facts which we were 
fighting to make impossible for other genera- 
Kirkland's are dis- 
tinctly pathological and give testimony to the 
confusion and di-ord<-r which the distress of 
war 1 ! in many minds. 

' riraud has given us, under the 
;i "I'n Grand Francais," a brief bi- 
nt Albert de Mnn. Th< 
word t the reputation of this great 

man has (jrown during the dreadful y 
trial which overwhelmed his country 'in the 

war now closed. "He Mini was a crusader. 
We looked up to him as such during the last 
months of his life, when he cheered us with 
his generosity, his ardor, his patriotic and 
religious faith, and his indomitable hope." 
It was especially in the social apostolate that 
the Count was a leader. Duval speaks of 
him as "one of the masters of the Catholic 
social idea." He was never afraid to say that 
in our social work "we must act preeminently 
as Catholics." M. Giraud devotes special 
chapters to De Mini's social activity, to his 
defense of the Church, and to his labors on 
behalf of his country. (Paris: Blond & Gay). 



go to 


408 Washington Avenue 



Jos. Berning Printing Co. 

128 East Eighth Street 


has produced repeat orders for printing in the 

Its facilities for quick delivery of printed 
b'j'iks. booklets, pamphlets, folders, etc., 
in any language are not excelled, 
l'l ices very reasonable. 








The Fortnightly Review 



February 1, 1919 

i'fiuLograptied by Wesley UradlieJd 

Courtesy ot "El Palacio" 

Carlos Vierra 

The ruggedness of this fine chapel illustrates splendidly the conformity ot its architec- 
ture to the environment. Like the sandstone cliffs of New Mexico it seems to be 
carved out of solid rock, chiseled and beautified by the eternal elements. 



Although small as compared with the 
other mission churches of New Mexico, 
the old church at Zia is noteworthy for 
its rugged and massive walls. Zia is a 
small Queres pueblo on the northeast 
bank of the Rio Jemez, sixteen miles 
northwest of Bernalillo. Coronado men- 
tions it as early as 1541 and Espejo said 
it was the largest town in the Punames 
Province. Zia was one of the earliest 
missions, and Santa Ana (for a picture 

of which see Vol. XXV, No. 21, p. 321 
of this Review) and Jemez (which we 
shall illustrate in a future issue) were 
its visit as. 

This painting, says El Palacio, "is 
worthy of close study, for it brings out 
wonderfully well how- the old architec- 
ture resembled the structure of the 
sandstone hills and was chiseled by the 
same elements after which it was once 



February 1 

A Broken Friendship 

Strange little friend of yesteryear. 

Although t' 1 >ou and me it seems 

That yesterdays are only dreams 

Ever so far away ; 

Although your love for me seems dead, 

And friendship's flame hums dim and low, 

l'.y all the things we wrote and said. 

You know it is not so. 

Von know it is not so. and we 

Are friends through all eternity. 

Although the years shall drift between, 

And tides oi time ereep o'er life's sands. 

And Death with heavy, listless hands 

Gathers the fruit of love, 

know that in some starry place 
We two shall meet, and face to face 
Find "iice again our happy love, 
And prove that it is true. 
You know it, little blue-eyed friend. 
Even as I love you ; 
Ir matters n<>t if Time doth part 
Our bodies, for in God's own heart 
All friendships live anew ! 

Mob-Rule by the Rich 
Mr. Charles D. Stewart, of Hartford, 
Wis., in a lengthy letter to the Atlantic 
Monthly (Jan.) explains the result of 
the November election in his home 
Wisconsin had apparently sup- 
, orted the war activities of the govern- 
ment with great zest, and yet, when the 
election came round, chose a Socialist 
• lan and seventeen Socialist 
members of the legislature. 1 low is this 
apparent contradiction to be explained? 
The explanation, says -Mr. Stewart, 
:- n<>t pro-Germanism, hut the desire of 
a patriotic and liberty-loving citizenry 
to protest against a "governmenl of 
busybodies" that has been worse than 
Prussianism, because Prussianism is at 
a form oi government, and worse 
than Socialism, because Socialism would 
be run by law, anyway, whereas gov- 
ernment by busybodieS ha- neither head 
nor tail, work- outside the law, and. 
having no law to support it. depend, 
for it- enforcement on hoodlums and 
"When tin table and wealthy 

are resorting to tin- sort of 

- Mr. Stewart, "abet- 
ted by the newspapers and by all sorts 
of 1.;: intent upon 'gov- 

ernment by public sentiment,' we finally 

•lung in the world, and a 

most ohnoxious one — mob-rule by the 
rich, with the able assistance of the 
hoodlums — always looking for a 

The writer goes on to describe the 
workings of this "mob-rule by the rich" 
in Wisconsin. Certain wealthy men got 
together and by rule of thumb arbitra- 
rily assessed their fellow-citizens. The 
assessment "is not compulsory, only 
you must abide by our assessment, and 
we will see that you do. No excuses 
accepted." The plan worked like a 
charm. Subscribe your assessed amount 
or lose your job, and, perhaps, as hap- 
pened in Milwaukee, be coated with 
yellow paint by a gang of hoodlums. It 
is no use to report to the district attor- 
ney. It is his duty to investigate, but 
he will do nothing! 

Another point. Exemption from military 
draft depends upon the employer; it would 
he of little use for the workman to say he 
was essential to any industry if the employer 
said he was not ; and so General Crowder 
insisted that others besides the registrant 
should make a plea for his exemption — the 
employer, for instance. So it is a case of 
subscribe or lose your job — and probably go 
to war. This unwritten and unexpressed 
law soon becomes known ; all workmen sub- 
scribe; the subscription is, in short, taken 
out of their wages. 

Handling the working classes to go 'over 
the top' was easy. 

As to lines of business, these were organ- 
ized in groups and so solicited; each firm 
would be solicited by someone in the same 
line of business — a wholesaler or a customer 
with whom you dealt. Thus they kept track 
of one another, and any quibbling about the 
size of your assessment was not politic. 

How the farmers were terrorized is 
described at length by Mr. Stewart, to 
whose article we must refer the inquis- 
itive readers. 

One does not need 1o have lived in 
Wisconsin or to have read the many 
flagrant cases reported, c. g., in the 
Christian Science Monitor, of Boston, 
.old a few other papers, to know that 
such despicable methods were employed 
throughout the country and that thou- 
ands outside Wisconsin voted the So- 
cialist ticket merely as a protest. The 
wonder is that Berger was the only 
SociallSl elected to Congress. If the 
Socialist vote cast in the last election 
were truthfully ascertained and tabu- 




lated, the rich profiteers who with the 
help of hoodlums deprived the common 
people of their liberty would quake in 
their boots. 

The method of which Mr. Stewart 
complains, and others equally unjust 
and unlawful, by means of which the 
people were deprived of their constitu- 
tional liberties during the war, not only 
in Wisconsin, but practically through- 
out the whole country, should teach us 
all a grave lesson. No minority that 
has not the wealth of the country be- 
hind it, and is willing to use its wealth 
without scruple, can henceforth feel 
safe in America. Least of all the most 
despised and most hated of all minori- 
ties in this traditionally anti-papal land, 
— the children of the Catholic Church. 
Our coreligionists are blind if they do 
not see the danger and neglect to join 
forces with other imperilled minorities 
in a concerted effort to make "govern- 
ment by busybodies," and "mob-rule by 
the rich," with or without the aid of 
hoodlums, forever impossible in "the 
land of the free and the home of the 

Communicating With Spirits 

[The V. Rev. W. R. Harris, of Toronto, 
widely and favorably known in the literary 
world as "Dean Harris," has just published 
a volume of "Essays in Occultism, Spiritism, 
and Demonology," to which we desire to call 
the attention of our readers. We think we 
can do this most effectively by reprinting 
one of the chapters dealing with Spiritism. 
We here present this chapter, the eighth in 
the book, in full, with the permission of 
both the author and the publisher. We are 
sure it will interest our readers and induce 
many of them to purchase Dean Harris's 
absorbing and instructive book, which is 
published in this country by the B. Herder 
Book Co., St. Louis, Mo., and sells at $i a 
copy. — Ed.] 

The Rev. Dr. Campbell, when recent- 
ly addressing a great congregation in 
the London Tabernacle, declared that he 
had read with deep interest Sir Oliver 
Lodge's "Conversations with his Dead 
Son," and that he was amazed and 
mystified. Why should he have been 
"amazed and mystified" ? Did not Saul 
see and converse with the dead prophet 
Samuel, or with a spirit personifying 
him? Is not the Bible, from cover to 

cover, filled with examples of the liv- 
ing orally communing with the spirits 
of the dead or spirits speaking for the 
dead? In fact, is not all literature, all 
history — sacred and profane — Plutarch, 
Homer, the Lives of the Saints, all ha- 
giology, punctuated with instances of 
the living communicating with the dead? 

The experience of Sir Oliver Lodge 
is nothing new. Holding converse with 
the dead is the daily experience of thou- 
sands living in Europe, Asia, and 
America, and is a cult or practice al- 
most coeval with the human race. 

The idea of the possibility of spirit 
communication is, of itself, in no way 
opposed to reasonable belief, but is a 
matter altogether dependent on 'the 
testimony of witnesses, whose evidence 
is legally entitled to belief. It has al- 
ready been decided by rigid examina- 

Seventy years ago, when Darwin and 
Huxley thought they had pushed back 
the frontiers of the unknowable to the 
furthest point attainable, that is to a 
negation of God, the still but impressive 
voice of the scientist, Alfred Russel 
Wallace, was heard, crying in a wilder- 
ness of scoffs and jeers. To-day Sir 
Oliver Lodge has swung the pendulum 
back to where it was two hundred years 
ago. And all the while the natural and 
the supernatural maintain their unalter- 
able laws, while only the minds of the 
scientists are vacillating. 

It is a melancholy reflection upon our 
processes of thought that, after emerg- 
ing from what scientists are pleased to 
call "superstition," and establishing 
elaborate cosmogonies and theories 
seemingly fixed and unalterable, the 
human mind should be driven back 
upon old traditions and the old prac- 

Is it not deplorable that, when the 
intellect of man has lost the truths 
made known by God from the begin- 
ning, it is driven to take refuge in pure 
negation of all revelation or indulge 
itself with evocation of the dead, as 
Sir Oliver Lodge is now doing, or seek 
for information on the soul's destiny 
from those whom St. Mark calls "spir- 
its of evil" and "unclean spirits"? 



February 1 

Spiritism, or the practice of necro- 
mancy, is to-day as it was in the time 
of Moses, an evidence of moral deca- 
dence. As in the days of old, it has 
grown into a cult with which thousands 
are obsessed. It has a copious litera- 
ture punctuated by such startling terms 
as "telopsis," "telepathy," "telotero- 
pathy," "zoo-magnetic force," "telek- 
insis." and many other fine words in- 
vented by the Psychical Researchers. 

Spiritism is a development of pagan- 
ism, an outgrowth of heathenism in 
every age of history, and is found with 
pitiable forms of devil-worship among 
nations that are most deeply sunk in 
idolatry. Its permanency, then, among 
Japhetic races in modern times, is an 
alarming mark of the degeneracy of 
our boasted civilization. 

Three thousand four hundred years 
ago the pagan world was so steeped in 
Spiritism that God, under the pain of 
death, prohibited its practice to the 
Israelites: "Neither let there be found 
among you any one that consulteth 
spirits, or that seeketh the truth from 
the dead." (Deut. XVIII, 11). 

So that Spiritism, or communing with 
spirits and summoning the souls of the 
dead to hold converse with the living, 
back very far in the annals of the 
human race. It was prohibited to the 
by command of God in the time 
< :' Aaron. The prohibition was renewed 
Saul, under pain of death, and be- 
his time Moses, the "friend of 
publicly proclaimed that "the 
Lord abhorreth these things and those 
who do them." Necromancy and Spirit- 
ism invoked the doom of the Gentile 
nations, who abandoned themselves to 
the worship of demons and to the 
frightful impurities and abominations 
h brought down upon them the 
anger of God and racial annihilation. 

The worship of Priapus, the divine 
paid to the Phallus in the days of 

the Judaean, by the apostate Jew-, 

ly reprobated by Ezekiel, 

I d, what were they but 

[eincation of lusl and the worship 

of the devil, -the god of promiscuous 

ual intercom ? 

There is not in all history, sacred and 
profane, anything to be compared to 
the awful indictment framed by Eze- 
kiel, in his sixteenth and seventeenth 
chapters, against the apostate Israelites 
who intermarried with the idolatrous 
Ammonites and Moabites, the "wor- 
shippers of devils who brought shame- 
ful abominations to their sons and 
daughters." All through the Old and 
New Testaments there runs, as distinct- 
ly visible as a black thread woven into 
white silk, the malign influence, not of 
disembodied souls, but of spirits lost 
in hopeless despair. There is no fact 
of history more strongly attested than 

Submitting our obedience to the rec- 
ords and revelations of divinely inspired 
writers and to the doctrinal teaching of 
the imperishable Church of God, we 
hold that the spirits that appear, or 
make their presence known to the nec- 
romancers and accredited "mediums" 
Of the cult of Spiritism, are demons or, 
according to St. Peter and St. Jude, 
"angels who kept not their principality, 
angels that sinned." We know that the 
souls of the dead do not return to 
amuse the living or to satisfy their 
curiosity, and we also know that per- 
nicious intermeddling with the unseen 
world of evil spirits is, sooner or later, 
sure to end disastrously. 

The historic Catholic Church teaches 
now, and for two thousand years has 
uniformly taught, the existence of 
Satan, of lost spirits, their unquench- 
able hatred for the human race and 
their sinister influence upon persons 
who abandon themselves to intercourse 
with them. If there be no devil or evil 
spirits, what is the meaning of the ex- 
orcisms in Baptism, of the appeal to 
God in the Church's Missal, ritual, and 
public prayers, to save us from the evil 
influence and enmity of Satan and the 
angels "who sinned"? To this end she 
commands her priests, after they have 
offered up the Sacrifice of the Mass, to 
say aloud this suggestive and doctrinal 
prayer: "May God rebuke Satan, we 
humbly pray, and do thou, Michael, 
Prince of Heavenly Host, by the power 
of God, drive back into hell all the evil 




spirits who wander through the world 
seeking the ruin of souls." 

If there be no Satan and no evil 
spirits, there can be no Saviour, for 
lrom whom does the Saviour save us? 
There can be no Redeemer, for from 
what are we rescued, and if there be 
no Saviour and no Redeemer, can there 
be Christianity? Now, why did Jesus 
Christ, the Son of God, our Redeemer 
and Saviour, become man? St. John 
removes all doubt from our minds 
when, in language emphatic and con- 
vincing, he tells us in his first Epistle : 
"The Son of God appeared upon earth 
that he might destroy the works of the 

All the ribald laughter of scoffers, 
all the ridicule of sceptics, all the soph- 
isms of infidels, and the incredulity of 
those "wise in their own conceits," can- 
not alter facts. The existence of evil 
spirits and their malign influence over 
the souls of men and women are not 
alone facts of history, sacred and pro- 
fane, they are facts in the life and ex- 
perience of the human race. 

Clairvoyants and mediums represent 
as definite a profession among us to- 
day as did pythonesses, necromancers, 
and soothsayers among the Romans 
and earlier races. Seances and con- 
versations with spirits of the dead — in 
reality with powers of darkness — are 
entered upon without fear and spoken 
of without abhorrence. 

Nor do we believe with some learned 
theologians that the unchangeable en- 
mity of the devil and the malevolent 
operations of evil spirits on human 
souls are less now than before the Re- 
demption. The Christian, by prayer 
and sacramental grace, while not im- 
mune to attack, is stronger and better 
armed. That the manifestations of the 
"powers of darkness" are less visibly 
pronounced than in former times is 
; latent to every student of diabolic 
agency, but that their hatred for man 
or that their evil influence upon those 
whose lives are corrupt, is weakened or 
weakening, we are not, from what we 
have seen and read, disposed to admit. 
The monstrous crimes which to-day 
disgrace our race, the appalling number 

of suicides, the unnatural lusts, the law- 
lessness, that is, the contempt for law, 
human and divine, and the atrocious 
destruction of pre-natal, infant, and 
adult life, belong not to man as God 
made him. These inhuman and unnat- 
ural violations of the dignity of man — 
made just lower than the angels — must 
be charged to agencies outside of human 
existence and with which our nature 
ought not to have anything in common. 
The Church of God warns her chil- 
dren to have nothing to do with medi- 
ums, seances, or with Spiritism in any 
form, which often leads to insanity and 
to utter moral depravity. She com- 
mands her adherents to have nothing to 
do with anything or any person medi- 
ately or immediately associated with 
diabolism and spirits of evil. She has 
behind her the experience of two thou- 
sand years and, when she speaks, she 
speaks with authority and with a 
knowledge that covers the religious and 
social history of the human race. 
Toronto, Canada. W. R. HARRIS 

The Bolshevik Menace 

The Toronto (Canada) Statesman, 
commenting on the result of the recent 
elections in the British Isles, says (No. 
22) : "How long can the present coali- 
tion stand between Labor and political 
power? The Labor movement in the 
United Kingdom is no longer confined 
to those who work with their hands. 
Invigorated by the accession of a large 
body of intellectuals, Labor is deter- 
mined never again to revert to a posi- 
tion of docility and dependence. From 
the first day of the opening of Parlia- 
ment the Lloyd George government 
will be a declining force in British 
politics and compelled to adjust itself 
more and more to the powerful pres- 
sure of an enlightened and determined 
Labor Party." 

The aims of the British Labor Party, 
as their Reconstruction Programme 
clearly shows, are essentially Socialistic. 
In this connection the following passage 
from a letter sent to the N. Y. Even- 
ing Post (Dec. 24, '18) by a staff corre- 
spondent in London is highly signifi- 
cant. Pie says : 



February 1 

'"On the whole there is little prospect 
of an early termination of the ration- 
ing system, which has proved so useful 
in more or less equalizing the shortage 
of food and fuel throughout the com- 
munity. It is not, indeed, unthinkable 
that the present rationing may persist 
long enough to he made the hasis of a 
permanent system of distribution in- 
troduced by tin- Socialist government 
that is generally expected to be in 
power in the near future:" (Italics 

England will be fortunate if its com- 
ing Socialist regime will be a moderate 
one of the Ebert type, and not Bol- 

In the Statesman's own country, Bol- 
shevism has already become a grave 
menace. Mr. C. II. Cahan, Director of 
the Dominion Department of Public 
Safety, said in an address recently de- 
livered before the St. James Literary 
Society, of Montreal, and reported in 
the Christian Science Monitor, Dec. 
26th, that "there are industrial districts 
in Canada which are so permeated with 
revolutionary propaganda that if British 
arms had suffered a severe defeat dur- 
!ng tlii last year of the war, these areas 
would have risen in open revolt." 

"Mr. Cahan." says the Monitor's cor- 
pulent, "detailed at considerable 
length the Dominion-wide effort of the 
advanced Socialists of the I. W. W. or 
red flag group to spread their propa- 
ganda. He quoted a large number of 
their pamphlets and described the insid- 
ious methods that were employed in 
distributing this literature, telling of the 
difficulty which officials of the Depart- 
ment <>f Justice had in running the 
leaders of the organization to the 
ground. |fc stated that since the Social 
Democratic Party of Canada, which 
banned as an unlawful association 

Under the War Measures Act, on Sept. 

25th of tin's year, was excluded from 

'.be provisions of the order, it was now 

letting itself with all its former 

vitfor Mr. Cahan told of Finnish 

children in Western Canada being 
taught to ting Bolshevist songs import- 
ed from RuSS*a. Tin- danger arising 

from the circulation of inflammatory 
literature among the Russians in Can- 

ada was strongly emphasized." (Ibid.) 

The Monitor, in the same number 
from which the above passages are 
quoted, prints a letter from a corre- 
spondent in Lancaster, Pa., Richard 
Smith, who says: 

"It would be well for the administra- 
tion to know that if it cannot 'adjust' 
the incomes of the 'lower ten thousand' 
so as to make it possible to meet these 
demands, it will surely reap what it 
sows. There are thousands upon thou- 
sands of unorganized laborers whose 
incomes are inadequate to meet these 
extortions. This State, for instance, has 
no minimum wage law, and last winter 
the demands for free coal in this city 
doubled because the family income was 
not sufficient for food, rent and fuel. 
What shall the end be? Will the gov- 
ernment wait, or continue to temporize 
in its adjustments until anarchy threat- 
ens its overthrow, or will it adopt a 
more sane and intelligent method?" 

This is but one straw in a mighty 
stream, but whoever associates with 
working people and people of the mid- 
dle and poorer classes, and whoever has 
an opportunity to examine the letters 
of complaint received daily in almost 
every newspaper office throughout the 
land (most of them are, for obvious 
reasons, never printed), knows that the 
sentiments expressed in Mr. Smith's let- 
ter are shared by uncounted thousands, 
that the discontent is fed by a strong 
propaganda, and that the tendency 
toward Bolshevism is growing from 
month to month here, there, and every- 
where. The blind optimists in State 
and Church who cannot or will not see 
the true condition of affairs, but per- 
sistently cry out from pulpit and plat- 
form and in the press that "all's well 
with God's own country" and "the 
.American people will never espouse 
Socialism," arc merely hastening the 
inevitable drift towards the "world rev- 
olution" which will bury them and their 
masters beneath the ruins of the capi- 
talistic regime already plainly tottering 
to its fall. 

Mr. John L. Balderston, writing to 
the St. Louis Globe-Democrat (Dec. 29) 
from Europe, declares that the Bolshe- 
vik movement is international and that 



its fearless and dangerous champions 
are busy everywhere working for 
the complete break-up of society in 
order to erect upon its ruins the "new 
social order." — "All intelligent Bol- 
sheviks," says Mr. Balderston, "realize 
that one or two Bolshevik countries 
cannot stand long against the rest of 
the world; either the whole globe will 
relapse into anarchy or Bolshevism is 
doomed. Liebknecht is here at one 
with Trotzky. Accordingly, the Spar- 
tacus group is concerned with the 
'world revolution' quite as much as 

with a red terror in Germany 

Propaganda along Bolshevist lines 
among French, British, Italian and 
American soldiers in Germany is one 
of the aims of Liebknecht's party. 
There is another extreme group, more 
extreme than the Independents, but not 
quite so violent as the Spartacus peo- 
ple, that has thrown its influence with 
Liebknecht. This is known as the 'Inter- 
national.' Its chieftain is Franz Meh- 
ring, an able, honest and dangerous 
fanatic, and his lieutenants are two 
women, Rosa Luxemburg and Klara 
Zetkin. Both these fiery furies of revolt 
will probably become household names 
in all countries before the German rev- 
olution has run its course." 

»»<•>■ > 

Proportional Representation 

During the war the proportional rep- 
resentation method of voting has been 
adopted by Denmark and Holland. A 
list of countries where it was previous- 
ly in force is given as follows by the 
Survey (Dec. 14, '18) : In Belgium for 
parliamentary and municipal elections ; 
in Switzerland for state and municipal 
elections in twelve cantons, as well as 
in all for national parliament ; in Swe- 
den for parliament and municipal and 
county councils ; in Tasmania for par- 
liament ; in New Zealand (optionally) 
for municipal councils ; in South Africa 
for the senate and, in the Transvaal, 
for municipal councils ; in Canada for 
municipal elections in British Columbia 
and Alberta ; in the U. S. for municipal 
elections in three cities. In Scotland 

the system will be used next year in the 
election of educational authorities under 
the new Scottish education act. 

It is strange how far behind we 
Americans are in the utilization of the 
proportional representation method of 
voting. Wherever we. turn, proportion- 
al representation is being recognized as 
a fundamental principle which cannot 
be ignored in the task of establishing 
a sane, stable, just, and progressive 
democracy. We learn from the Man- 
chester Guardian that the constitutions 
of all the new nations to be formed 
under the auspices of the Peace Con- 
ference will probably contain provisions 
for proportional representation, as 
there is no other known system by 
which justice can be done to mixed 

How the system could be effectively 
applied to the reform of American pol- 
itics has been demonstrated in detail 
more than twenty years ago by Prof. 
John R. Commons in his well-known 
work, "Proportional Representation" 
(New York, Crowell, 1896), which we 
noticed at the time of its publication. 
The plan has since been advocated more 
or less consistently by such periodicals 
as the Independent, the Public, and the 
Survey, but without much success. And 
yet there can be no true democracy 
among us until the minorities are duly 
represented in our law-making bodies. 

We have often wondered why Cath- 
olics do not advocate more generally 
and vigorously the proportional repres- 
entation method of voting. They ought 
to do so, first, because of its intrinsic 
justice as against the inherent unfair- 
ness of the present system, and second- 
ly, because of all minorities in America 
we Catholics are the most unpopular 
and in constant peril of persecution. 
The time may come when proportional 
representation will be the only means 
by which we shall be able to exercise 
an influence equal to our numbers in 
the legislative assemblies of the various 
States, as well as in Congress. 

Let our Catholic schools of social 
science take up this important subject, 
study it thoroughly, and instruct Cath- 
olics with regard to its possibilities. 



February 1 

P HE earth is round, as our readers 
know ; and because of its being round. 
the sun cannot at the same time illuminate 
its every point. 

The farther east a country lies, the 
sooner does the sun rise there; and the 
farther west it is situated, the later does the 
day begin. When we in the United States 
arise in the morning, the sun is already high 
in England and Germany, and people there 
are sitting down to eat their dinne 
China and in India, on the other hand 
shadows of night are already fall- 
ing, while at other points still far- 
ther east, for instance. New Zea- 
land, it is still midnight. 

The figure on this page gives the 
average hour of sunrise for the 
various countries of the entire 
globe. And since Holy Mass 
is offered up in the morning 
hours, we can gather from this 
clock where at any given hour 
of the day or night Mass is be- 
ing said or sung. 

From the North Pole, glis- 
tening with eternal ice, down to 
the torrid zone, — everywhere 
we have the same sun suffusing 
with its rays, by day and by 
night, the Eucharistic altar be- 
fore which some priest of Holy 
Church is just raising aloft the 
Body of Christ at Consecration. 

While we are in our deepest 
sleep at midnight, priest after 
priest is approaching the altar in 
Italy, France. Spain, Austria, 
< .rrmany, England, and Ireland 
to celebrate the Sacred Mystery. 

When we sit at our dinner table ; 
DIOUS Catholics in Kamchatka and in the 
South Sea [slands are attending Mass. 
And when the night b gins to fall in 
America, the Catholic inhabitants of 

Siberia and the newly baptized Chinamen 
are beginning their day's work by bearing 


Showing at What Hour of the Day or A 
at Some Point of the Earth (Trie Cal 






Holy Sacrifice of the Mass is Offered xqy 
are based upon Central Standard Time) 

It is assumed that there are about 500,- 
000 Catholic priests scattered over the globe. 
They are continually offering up the un- 
bloody sacrifice of the New Law to God 
Almighty, from sunrise to sunset, at all 
hours of the day and night and it is the 
same holy Sacrifice in all countries and in 
all parts of the earth. Thus we can truth- 
fully say that this sacrifice is going on in- 
cessantly. Hardly has it ceased in one place, 
when it begins anew at another. Mass fol- 
lows Mass, the sacerdotal celebrants come 
and go, the faithful change in color, tongue, 
and nationality — but the Sacrifice 
is ever and always the same. Jesus 
Christ is everywhere priest and 
victim in one. 

Thus we see grandly verified 
the prophecy of Malachias : "From 
the rising of the sun even to the 
going down, My name is great 
among the Gentiles, and in 
every place there is sacrifice, 
and there is offered to My name 
a clean oblation, for My name 
is great among the Gentiles, 
saith the Lord of hosts." (Mai. 
I. 11.) 

From the days of the Apos- 
tles to the present, this prophecy 
has always been understood to 
refer to the Holy Sacrifice of 
the Mass. It is at the same 
time a glorious prediction of 
the universality of the Roman 
Church, which, as the sun keeps 
circling round the globe, con- 
stantly renews the Sacrifice of 

It is thy privilege, dear reader, 
who art a child of the true Church, 
to share in the benefits of this 
Holy Sacrifice, which is being of- 
fered up to God incessantly. What 
consoling thought, especially when one is 
•k and sleeplessly rolling to and fro upon 
bed of suffering and pain, to be able to 
: "At this very moment my Lord and 
iour is offering Himself up somewhere 
lis world to His heavenly Father." 



February 1 

Rewriting American History 
Professor Willis Mason West's new 
"History of the American People" 
(Allyn "& Bacon; $1.75) illustrates the 
changing fashion in elementary and 
secondary history text-hooks. A de- 
mand for a revised treatment of onr 
relations with the "mother country" 
has been making itself felt for a long 
time. This demand .s partly based on 
the perception of scholars that the old 
hip-hip-hooray style of Bancroft is out 
of date and that the facts have been 
misjudged. Since Sydney George 
Fisher wrote his work on the Revolu- 
tion* — a work which left many people 
gasping (see, c. g., the N. Y. Evening 
Post for March 7, 1903), but which 
even the conservative Charming praises 
as an acute study of the period 
— and since Trevelyan's history ap- 
peared, it has been impossible for any 
lover of the truth to copy the older 
writers. The points of view changed 
by Henry Adams in relation to the 
periods of Jefferson and Madison are 
numerous. Rives has reformed many 
of our views on the Mexican War. 
Rhodes has recast the history of the 
Civil War. McMaster. Turner, and 
other social and economic writers have 
left their impress upon history. 

West treats the Revolution as what 
it was, an inevitable upheaval. He 
argues that the British demands upon 
the American Colonies were not really 
very unreasonable, and that several of 
them were not unreasonable at all ; that 
the Colonies were far better off, govern- 
mentally, than those of other nations; 
that the struggle was part of the thou- 

*) "Th«- Tfir History of the American Revolu- 
tion,'' by Sidney I her; Philadelphia: J. I!. 
Lippin 02. we discussed tins epoch-male- 
• length in Vol. X of the Review 
. pp. 1 Mp|., 24 §oq., 56 sqq., 90 sqq., 118 Mq. 
Another important work on the Subject, of which 
we gave a detailed accounl in onr vol, X, No. 14, 
Pp. -"' - "The Loyalist! in the American 
< laude Halstead Van Tjrne (Mae- 
millan, 1902). Those who will turn back to our re- 
view* of these hooka ami our many article* on the 
school of historian*, represented i>> George Bancroft, 
will see that our notion that American history needl 
to l»e rewritten an'edatr* i|i«- <.r«at War l>y a good 
many year*, and that the ideas now in pari parried 
oiit hy Willis Mason West and other writers, in- 
eluding greater justice towards England, have no 
terror* for u«. hut. on the contrary, correspond 
with view* and suggestion 
decades and more ago. 

sand-year-old struggle of the British 
race for more political liberty. 

In the chapter on the War of 1812, 
lie remarks that "our foreign relations 
from 1806 to 1812 were disgraceful" 
(p. 395), and goes on to say — as Chan- 
ning and Hart have said — that we chose 
the wrong time to light, and the wrong 
foe. England had done us the least 
harm. That part of the Union which 
had suffered the most was passionately 
friendly to England and hostile to 
France ; and by attacking England we 
virtually placed ourselves "on the side 
of the European despot against the only 
hope for European freedom." One page 
(out of a total of 770) is given to the 
actual fighting of the war of 1812, that 
"strange mixture of disgrace and glory." 

To come down to later episodes in 
our relations with Europe, it is unusual 
to find such a paragraph as this on the 
British attitude in the Civil War : 

"The North, then, had some cause to 
blame the government and the aristoc- 
racy of England. It had greater cause, 
not always duly recognized, for deep 
gratitude to the sound heart of the En- 
glish masses, who felt dimly that the 
Union was fighting slavery, even while 
the Unionists denied it loudly, and who 
therefore gave the North a heroic sup- 
port through cruel privations — in many 
ways as severe as those borne by 
Americans. Says Von Hoist of this 
matter: 'The attitude of the English 
workingmen is one of the great deeds 
in the world's history.' They stood 
nobly by the cause of democracy and 
free labor, as their own cause" (p. 577; 
italics Mr. West's). 

No one need be afraid that such a 
text as this is leaning backwards in its 
anxiety to stand erect. We can be more 
truly patriotic about the liberation of 
Cuba if we recognize that American 
capitalists in Cuba "used powerful in- 
fluences, open and secret, to secure 
American intervention" (p. 633) than if 
we look upon the war as a piece of 
sheer idealism. We have grown so 
powerful that we can afford to be gen- 
erous to "the old man across the seas," 
as Price Collier called John Bull, even 
if many of us do dislike him; we can- 




not afford to be less than just. Such a 
modern text, with its wealth of infor- 
mation on the cultural, social, and busi- 
ness aspects of the American record, its 
presentation of the complexity of his- 
torical forces, is apt to awaken a really 
American consciousness as no other 
kind could. 


The Catholic Press of Holland 

Generally speaking, American Catho- 
lics are but slightly if at all acquainted 
with the remarkable results of the 
church activities on the part of their 
co-religionists in Protestant Holland. 
In every department of religious and 
social life the changes brought about 
in that country within the last fifty 
years have exceeded the most sanguine 
expectations. The makeshift churches 
of post-reformation times have been re- 
placed everywhere by stately structures, 
numbers of them as to size and archi- 
tectural finish being worthy of the best 
traditions of the past. Substantial 
school buildings are to be seen side by 
side of practically every parish church. 
Catholic Trades and Labor Unions have 
been organized and are firmly estab- 
lished in every community. 

But in no direction perhaps have the 
Catholics of Holland more conspicuous- 
ly shown their zeal for the spread and 
maintenance of the Faith than by the 
generous support of their own press. 
Besides nearly three score of weeklies 
the number of Catholic dailies in Hol- 
land up to 1916 had gradually increased 
to twenty. They are mostly published 
in the larger centers of population and 
also serve the country districts contig- 
uous to each. Compared with the aver- 
age American daily their size, with the 
exception of a few, appears small ; 
nevertheless all of them from day to 
day publish the news dispatches, both 
foreign and domestic, and carry a con- 
siderable amount of advertising matter. 
In spite of their multiplicity every one 
of these papers seems to be doing fairly 
well. This may be accounted for, in 
part at least, by the fact that their 

editors, evidently through personal 
devotedness to the cause, seem to con- 
tent themselves with a "living wage," 
i. c, a relatively modest salary. A sig- 
nificant feature in connection with the 
business side of the matter is that the 
number of these dailies is still on the 
increase. In the course of the last 
twelve months no fewer than five new 
ventures have been I Ided to the roster, 
thus making a grand total of twenty- 
five. Some apprehend the consequences 
of "ne quid nimis" in this movement, 
but so far no Catholic daily in Holland 
is known to have been forced to the 
wall and to suspend publication through 
lack of pecuniary support. 

As indicating the present standing of 
the Dutch Catholic press, it may be 
lemembered that both Dc Tyd of 
Amsterdam and Dc Maasbodc of Rot- 
terdam during the war have time and 
again been mentioned by name in As- 
sociated Press dispatches as the source 
of important information bearing on 
current happenings. The last-named 
paper took the general public by sur- 
prise when some two years ago, first 
of any other news organ, it installed a 
"wireless" of its own. Last October 
Dc Maasbodc celebrated its golden ju- 
bilee and signalized the auspicious event 
by occupying an extensive new and up- 
to-date newspaper plant on one of the 
principal squares of Rotterdam. In 1868 
the paper appeared as a modest but 
vigorous weekly. The year following 
it became a semi- weekly, and in 1885 
was changed into a daily, with morning 
and evening editions since 1908. By 
dint of real Yankee pluck this paper has 
worked its way to the very front rank 
of Dutch journalism; not only is it the 
acknowledged leader of the Catholic 
press, but both as to size and general 
information the peer as well of any 
other secular paper. If the cspirit dc 
corps and devotion to the Catholic 
press were as live and vigorous among 
the sixteen million Catholics of the 
U. S. as it seems to be among the barely 
two million of their co-religionists in 
little Holland, what a marvelous change 
for the better should we behold ! 

V. S. 



February 1 


— For the cliche of the "Eucharistic 
dock" printed in this issue, and for the 
accompanying text, we are indebted to 
the Rev. Bruno Hagspiel, S.V.D., of the 
Little Missionary, who modestly tells us, 
that the article and the picture did not 
originate with him. but were adapted by 
one of the Fathers of the Society of the 
Divine Word some years ago from a 
European magazine, presumably the 
Tabernakehvacht. Whoever devised the 
"clock" did a real service both to the 
cult of the Most Holy Eucharist and to 
the cause of the foreign missions, and 
we are pleased to be able to aid in the 
good work by giving to both the picture 
and the article the benefit of our circu- 

— Significantly enough, the struggle 
in Berlin seems to center around the 
printing presses. 

— Both Benziger Brothers and J. P. 

Kenedy & Sons promise an American 

edition of the revised Roman Missal, 

but we doubt whether the book will 

ar this year. 

— The wave of disease which recent- 
i-<ed over the earth has left in its 
wake a number of dead estimated as 
at least equal to that caused by four 
years of war in the armies of the Allies. 
questionable whether any known 
epidemic has ever produced in so short 
of time such disastrous results. 
despite the efforts of a veritable 
army of research workers, both here 
and abroad, the causative agent of in- 
fluenza remains unknown. Until proof 
to the contrary is forthcoming, it must 
iumed that the epidemic represent* 

ed a very virulent form of the same dis- 

which has spread throughout the 

world from time to time for many cen- 

and numerous records of which 

mailable for study in medical lit- 

On Jan. 11th North Dakota pa 
into the control of a new political party, 

Non-Partisan League, which domi- 

the administration and both 

of the legislature. The new 

go v er nm e n t is committed to a 

modified form of Socialism, and it will 

(iterating to watch it- operation. 

The League has two hundred thousand 
members in round numbers. "The little 
handful of wilful farmers who threw 
verbal pitchforks into the North Dakota 
legislature a few years ago," says a 
correspondent, "to-day own the State." 
And they have many adherents and 
sympathizers in Minnesota, where the 
League polled a large vote at the 
November election, as well as in 
Nebraska, Kansas, Colorado, Montana, 
Wyoming, Iowa, and several other 

— Those who think that the Ameri- 
can press has fully recovered its free- 
dom, lost during the war, are mistaken. 
According to the Public (No. 1084), 
the Weekly People, of New York, had 
its editions of December 21st and 28th 
held up by the Post Office Department. 
The People is the organ of the Socialist 
Labor Party. Its publishers have noti- 
fied the Solicitor General that they will 
seek legal redress. Meanwhile an Asso- 
ciated Press dispatch reports that Sen- 
ator Borah, of Idaho, has introduced a 
hill to repeal the laws which restrict 
tiie publication of foreign language 
newspapers and which authorize the 
Postmaster General to censor them. 
The greatest mistake that was made 
during the war was the interference, 
by Congress and the administration, 
with the constitutionally guaranteed lib- 
erty of speech and of the press, and 
unless this liberty is promptly and fully 
restored, America will appear as one 
who does not practice what he preaches. 

— His Excellency the Apostolic Dele- 
gate has addressed to Mr. Nicholas 
Conner, editor of the Dubuque Catholic 
Tribune, a letter in which he approves 
the plan of publishing the Tribune tri- 
weeklv. ( See the article, "The Coming 
Catholic Daily," in Vol. XXV, No. 11 
of this Review). "Jt seems to me," 
-ays Msgr. Bonzano, "that if you can 
succeed in establishing these tri-weekly 
editions of your paper, it will not only 
mean that a way has been shown for 
the safe development of other Catholic 
papers, but will also convince your 
readers that you may some day be able, 
with their assistance, to publish even 
more frequent editions, thereby leading 
up to the much-desired Catholic daily 




newspaper for the United States." The 
Fortnightly Review has followed 
Mr. Gonner's efforts with sympathy 
and hopes that he will succeed in push- 
ing his plans to a successful conclusion. 
If Dubuque sets up a self-supporting 
Catholic daily, other and especially the 
larger cities will doubtless follow, and 
we shall soon have a Catholic daily 
press, which is not only much to be 
desired, but will be an absolute neces- 
sity by and by if the Catholic Church 
is to hold her own among us. It is our 
ceterum ccnseo that we must have a 
strong chain of Catholic daily news- 
papers extending across the continent 
from New York to San Francisco. 

— The International Merchants' Ma- 
rine announces that freight service is 
about to be resumed by the Red Star 
Line between New York and Antwerp 
and that in due time, — probably in the 
spring, — passenger service also will be 

— The brown snow which fell over 
various parts of Ohio, Iowa, Wiscon- 
sin, and Michigan last March has been 
traced by Dr. G. F. Wright of Oberlin 
and Pro'f. A. N. Winchell of the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin to the deserts of 
Arizona and New Mexico. The sand 
had evidently been picked up and borne 
along by a storm. Prof. Wright thinks 
that the quantity of desert sand depos- 
ited in various parts of the country ran 
into hundreds of millions of tons, which 
phenomenon emphasizes the import- 
ance of the wind as a geological agent. 

— A society for the revival of reli- 
gious art has been established by French 
Catholics. It is called "L'Arche," that 
is a grouping of the exponents of the 
various arts, of which the Catholic 
Church is the mother, so as to form not 
so much a corporation, as an edifice, 
of which the different features are 
harmonized by the architect. The organ 
of the association is La Vie et les Arts 
Liiurgiqucs, which explains the aim of 
the "Arche" in a special number. This 
aim is to reunite art with religion, 
from which it has unhappily been 
divorced. Well indeed would it be if 
our American Catholics dared as great 
heights in their ambitions. Unfortun- 

ately, as a recent writer has aptly said, 
''we are too well content to give to the 
world our works of art and to God our 
objects of horror." We take this oppor- 
tunity to refer the interested reader to 
a caustic article by the Rev. P. Wigger 
in the January number of the Pastoral- 

— How thoroughly American "Liber- 
als" are disgusted with Mr. Wilson may 
be seen from such leading journals as 
the Neiv Republic, the Nation, the 
Public, and the Dial. "The truth is," 
says the last-mentioned review (No. 
799), "they have lost confidence in his 
ability to carry his formulated position. 
They have been disillusioned, until now 
his speeches seem too often like empty 
rhetoric. They have seen in the Presi- 
dent's intellectual development a har- 
dening of ideological, eighteenth cent- 
ury concepts about the State, instead of 
any awakening consciousness of the 
fertility of the functional theory and 
the economic sanctions of plural sover- 
eignty. . . . They will watch with con- 
siderable irony and amusement the same 
process of disillusion going on in Eu- 
rope among those radical and Socialist 
groups which for over a year have been 
pinning their hopes to this verbal myth 
of a great statesman." Let us await the 
results of the Peace Conference before 
pronouncing judgment on our Presi- 
dent, whose aims and principles seem 
so fair and just. 

— Speaking of the secret treaties be- 
tween the Allies, notably the so-called 
Pact of London, that great English 
Liberal organ, the Manchester Guar- 
dian, says (No. 22,552) : "They threaten 
the liberties and the rights of a score 
of peoples. They have never been 
repudiated, and on the strength of 
them the diplomats are even now mak- 
ing demands and hatching bargains in 
which the last things to be considered 
are the rights of the nations and the 
future peace of the world. All the 
secret treaties must be torn up and cast 
into the dustbin if the Congress of 
Paris is not to be an even greater 
crime against humanity than the 
Congress of Berlin and the Congress 
of Vienna." 



February 1 

— Repeal of the Espionage Act was 
proposed Jan. 10th in the U. S. Senate 
!.\ Senator France of Maryland, who 
declared that in his judgment its enact- 
ment was "unjustifiable and unconsti- 
tutional." He also argued for full pub- 
licity in connection with all government 
business, open diplomacy, and immedi- 
ate release of the wire systems from 
what he called "the clutch of a reaction- 
ary administration." ( See St. Louis 
Post-Dispatch, Jan. 10th). 

- — Normal Instructor and Primary 
Plans, a monthly magazine "for teach- 
f all the grades and rural schools," 
i< publishing a series of articles by a 
Mrs. East, entitled "Industrial Stories." 
These stories deal with the packing in- 
dustry, and the editor blandlv admits 
i Vol. 28, No. 3, p. 59) that "the infor- 
ii contained therein, as well as the 
illustrations accompanying, come from 
Armour & Co.. one of the greatest com- 
panies engaged in that industry and 
whose operations are typical of all the 
Others." The entire affair has all the 
earmarks of insidious propaganda and 
the attention of teachers is called to the 
that farmers and laboringmen 
Stand united against monopolies like 
the packing concerns which are exploit- 
ing l><»th producers and consumers. 

— How important and timely is the 
subject of farmers' unions, discussed in 
our No. 1. appears from the fact com- 
municated to us by Mr. J. M. Sevenich, 
editor of an agricultural paper pub- 
lished in Milwaukee, that "in spite of 
strong opposition we have 35,000 Equi- 
ty members in Wisconsin alone. Many 
- have State unions, and I have 
often Been priests at meetings and have 
If been more than once invited to 
address farmers on the union question 
in parish halls. The r. E. & C. U. is 
rapidly spreading and some local unions 
consist almosl exclusively of Catholic 
bers. The Grange is stronger to- 
day than for many years past." All of 
which goes to prove that the question 

acholic participation in this move- 
really a burning one as the 
end correspondent quoted in our 
No. 1 contended We should like to ■< 
light thrown on the character of 

these associations and the permissibility 
and advisability of Catholic member- 
ship therein. 

— Under the Espionage Act foreign 
language papers were and are required 
to submit to the local postmaster a 
translation of "all matter relating to 
the war or to any government at war" 
contained in each issue. The Postmaster 
General was authorized to issue "per- 
mits" which relieved publishers of this 
onerous task. French, Italian, Polish, 
and other newspapers experienced no 
difficulties in obtaining such permits, 
but the German papers were less fortu- 
nate, and many are still required to 
furnish translations. As the Buffalo 
F.cJio (IV, 49) points out, the German 
Catholic papers were particularly dis- 
criminated against. We know but one, 
the Kath. WochcnblaH, of Chicago, 
which was favored with a permit, 
though all without exception were sin- 
cerely patriotic in their attitude and 
loyally supported the government, once 
the momentous decision bad been made. 
The application of one German Catho- 
lic paper that we know of, together with 
a large number of specimen copies fur- 
nished upon demand, was submitted by 
the government to the faculty of a 
Methodist seminary, and the "opinion" 
of the reverend dominies, — which 
was, quite naturally, unfavorable to the 
"papist" journal, — is a document of 
rare if unconscious humor. The anti- 
Catholic animus of the Wilson admin- 
istration was manifested repeatedly and 
in many different ways in connection 
with this "permit" business. It is high 
time to consider in what way the exist- 
ing powers of the Post Office, which, 
as the Nation truly says (Vol. 107, No. 
2791), "in their present shape are a dis- 
grace to American intelligence," can be 
reduced to reasonable and proper limits. 

— Commenting in the Catholic Chari- 
ties Review (Vol. 11, No. 10) on the 
proposed commercial boycott of Ger- 
man goods, Dr. John A. Ryan says that 
this movement "is significant only as a 
manifestation of the degraded ethical 

standards of certain noisy, albeit in- 
fluential sections of our population." 
Behind the demands for a trade barrier 




against Germany, he says, are those 
industrial concerns which have to com- 
pete with German establishments and 
which would derive pecuniary profits 
from a policy that placed the latter at a 
disadvantage in« the markets of the 
world, while the great mass of Ameri- 
can consumers would have to pay more 
for the necessaries of life. No genuine 
democrat or consistent champion of 
social justice can identify himself with 
this dishonorable and uncharitable 
movement, and Dr. Ryan assumes, for 
the- honor of our common humanity and 
the Christian principles of America, 
that the would-be boycotters will not 

»-»-<j ) • • 

— It is still time to keep that promise you 
made lo yourself last year to help the Re- 
view along by sending in a new subscriber. 

Literary Briefs 

— The Reverend John A. Dillon has just 
issued his eighth annual report on the status 
of the parish schools of the Diocese of New- 
ark. It contains the statistics and directory 
of the schools according to parishes, and 
shows the part taken by the different reli- 
gious communities and teaching orders in the 
educational activities of the diocese. The 
report has much more than a local value. In 
the introduction Father Dillon speaks of the 
great amount of work, besides teaching, that 
now devolves upon the school because par- 
ents have shifted a large part of their own 
duties to the teachers of their children. This 
makes the work of our schools and the labor 
of our teachers all the more important. Con- 
cerning the enlarged scope of the Catholic 
school Father Dillon writes: "To-day when 
the home continually counts for less and its 
duties and responsibilities are cast aside, this 
work of religious instruction devolves largely 
Oil the teachers in our parish schools. The 
parents of to-day have the same duties, the 
same responsibilities, as the parents of long 



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February 1 

ago, but they seem to sit lightly on the par- 
tins of to-day. The struggle for wealth in 
which the parents of to-day are engaged has 
been the excuse for neglecting the home 
education of their children. Mothers, through 
SStrj r otherwise, have been wage-earn- 
er.-, leaving their children the heritage of 
learning. The pursuit of pleasure in 
days of moving pictures, which takes 
parents away from their children at a time 
when they should play no small part in their 
education, is a very serious neglect." Those 
who share in the management of our schools 
will find some practical working-principles in 
Father Dillon's discussion of timely edu- 
cational questions. 

— "The Chronicles of America" (Yale 
University Press) is a very uneven series. 
The central idea is to "present the entire 
history- of our country in the living form of 
a series of short narratives, each having a 
unity of its own. but all articulated and so 
related that the reader will not only be enter- 
tained by the story in each volume, but will 
also be given a real vision of the develop- 
ment of this country." Several of the volumes 
appear to be distinctly "popular," others are 
scholarly, all are interesting. The format is 
excellent, but the price ($3.50 per volume) 
is decidedly too high. 

—Father Bruno Hagspiel, S.V.D., who has 
deserved so well of the cause of Catholic 
n>. has published another little volume 
on that timely subject. It is a prayer-book 
with the title. "Thy Kingdom Come! A 
Manual of Devotion for the Spread of 
Christ's Reign on Earth." The first part con- 
mission prayers and selected prayers in 
honor of well-known missionary-saints. Part 
two contains "Mission Hymns," which are 
the novel feature of this booklet. It will be 
especially valuable for devotional exercises 
in honor of saints like Francis Xavier, and 
for in-pirational talks on the duty and ex- 
cellence of the missionary apostolate. (Mis- 

V.D., Techny, 111.; 20 cts.) 

__ — Ever «incc the publication, in 1894, of 

lard Richard's "Acadia," this has been 

the standard work on the history of the nine 

ind French families broken up by the 

ittered," to quote Fr. 

I 1 Hist of the Society of Jcmis 

in N. A., II. 17s.. 'like chaff over the hostile 

• world of the < olonies, . . . with 

for family •!■ - " ,\ strange feature 

!'s work was that it was not pub- 

I in the original, but in an English 

lation, by Fr. Lewis Drummond, S.J. 

The French manuscript later disappeared 

and only after a long search was recovered 

• rd, Canada, in 1013. in the house 

relative in which the author died. Mr. 

Henri d'Ai usin of Bdouard Richard, 

■■- publishing the French MS. in sumptu- 

ed, and with numerous 

Mf addition-- and corrections ("Acadie. 

■ • ion d'un Chapitre Perdu de I'Hi 

par Edouard Richard. 

Ouvrage Public d'apres le MS. Original, 
entierement Refondu, Corrige, Annote, Mis 
au Point de Recherches les Plus Recentes, 
avec une Introduction et des Appendices par 
Henri d'Arles. Quebec: J. -A. K.-Laflamme ; 
P.oston : The Marlier Publishing Co. Vol. I, 
xxxi&ai8, Vol. II, xvi &.50S pp., large 8vo.) 
There is to be a third volume, and we can 
but hope that it will be edited with the same 
discernment and methodical care as the first 
two. (Those particularly interested in Rich- 
ard's "Acadie" arc referred to a lengthy re- 
view of it by Fr. John M. Lenhart, O.M.Cap., 
in the Records of the Am. Cath. Hist. Soc. 
of Pbilad.. 1918, Vol. XXVIII, pp. 193-201). 



go to 


408 Washington Avenue 


will find it to their advantage to consult 

= THE 

Jos. Berning Printing Co. 

128 East Eighth Street 



Its facilities for quick delivery of line- 

or monotyped, printed in first-class 

manner books, booklets, pamphlets, 

folders, etc. are unexcelled 







»|j ST fcN C 1 L8 ^ M LTAL CHECKS.] 

?LM - -^aT.iouis.i) 


The Fortnightly Review 



February 15, 1919 

From an Old Photograph Loaned by Mrs. B. M. Thomas 

Courtesy of "El Palacio' 



These churches were washed away 
by a flood in the Rio Grande, in 1886. 
The older and smaller of the two had 
a fine doorway with the coat of arms 
of DeVargas carved upon it. 

Santo Domingo is a Queres pueblo 
on the eastern bank of the Rio Grande, 
about eighteen miles above Bernalillo. 
Its aboriginal name was Kiua. Like 
Cochiti, Pecos, Taos, Acoma, and the 
"Cities that Died of Fear," it has a 

thrilling history. At the time of Oiiate's 
visit, in 1598, Santo Domingo was 
chosen as the "Monastery of the In- 
vocation of Nuestra Seriora de la As- 
uncion." It also became the seat of a 
mission early in the seventeenth cen- 
tury, and after 1782 had San Felipe 
and Cochiti as its visit as. 

According to Bandelier eighteen 
clans are represented in the pueblo of 
Santo Domingo (Arch. Inst. Papers, 
III, 260, 1890; IV, 184 sqq., 1892). 





February 15 

An Alleged Violation of the Seal 

of Confession 
| The seal of confession (sigillum con- 
ftssionis) has nothing to do with dogma, but 
:.- a disciplinary precept based upon the 
natural and on positive divine law. In the 
i.irly days of Christianity, when confession 
was public, there was no reason for empha- 
sizing this obligation. But when in course 
of time private superseded public confession, 
the seal became a matter of great import- 
ance. St. Augustine laid down the princi- 
ple, "The sin that has been committed in 
secret is to be reprimanded secretly," and 
Leo I imposed strict silence on confessors. 
After the seventh century the sigillum was 

• ed throughout the Church and was 
frequently inculcated by conciliar decrees. 
The Fourth Council of the Lateran marks 
the definite development of the discipline. 

A peculiar thing in the history of the seal, 
which has been studied from the sources by 
Fr. Bertrand Kurtscheid, O.F.M., whose trea- 

"Das Beichtsiegel in seiner geschicht- 
lichen Entwicklung" (Freiburg, 1912) de- 

- to be translated, is the fact that direct 
and conscious violations of the seal are so 
rare as to be almost negligible. Lcnglet du 

OJ in his "Traite Historique ct Dogma- 
tique du Secret Inviolable de la Confession" 
(Lille and Paris, 1708, ch. VI, pp. 92 sqq.) 
■ numerates seventeen cases of alleged viola- 
tion. One-half of these may be dismissed 
without further discussion because they do 
not involve a violation of the seal at all or 
are extremely doubtful Lenglet himself ad- 
mits this in bia brief critique of the cases. 
Henry Charles Lea, in his "History of Au- 
ti.ulnr Confession and Indulgences in the 
Lctin Church" (Philadelphia, 1806, Vol. I, 

1 -'I'j I. merely r< peata uncritically a lot 

( f fictitious stuff which he found in various 

place- mple, on page 454 he cites the 

authority for two 

of direct violation of the seal. Gobal 
speaks of "duo pracd'u antes," meaning Prot 
I Lea transforms these 

taninkan friars (fratres praedicatores) . 
(Cfr. Gobat, "Opera Moralia" Vol.1, t, 1 
-•-', n. 178 i7'/. Duaci, 1701, p. 597). Lea also 
accuM- riui of Gerona of 

violating the teal and taya that King Jam< l 
of Aragoti fr.-/? 1-7'" commanded tin- cul 
to be torn out aa punishment 
•'lis crime. But Pope Innocent IV 

defends Bishop Berengarius vigorously 
against this accusation, which is consequently 
at least doubtful. (Cfr. "Bullarium Francis- 
canum," ed. Sbaralea, Vol. I, Rome 1/59, PP- 
416 sqq.). Boniface VIII has been accused 
of compelling Matthew of Aquasparta of re- 
pealing to him the sins confessed by the 
Bishop of Sevilla, but the case has too many 
dubious features to constitute a clear instance 
oi violation. (See H. Finke, "Aus den Tagen 
Bonifaz' VIII," Minister, 1902). 

In the subjoined paper the historian of 
New Mexico, Mr. Benjamin M. Read, of 
Santa Fe. victoriously disproves another 
alleged ease of violation of the seal, said to 
have occurred upon American soil. This 
paper is the substance of an argument recent- 
ly submitted by Mr. Read to the State Board 
of Education against the use of Roberts' 
"History and Civics of New Mexico" in the 
public schools. — Editor]. 

The said history-book contains, 
among other errors, the following old 
and much exploded falsehoods: (a) 
That Panfilo de Narvaez explored the 
country (1527-8) after arriving at the 
coasts of Florida, (b) That Fr. Marcos 
de Niza was the initiator of the expedi- 
tion he made into New Mexico (1539). 
(c) That Coronado arrived in Zuiii in 
May 1540. (d) It fails to mention 
Espejo's discovery of mines in New 
Mexico (1582-3). (e) It states that 
there is no record of Espejo's efforts to 
make a second expedition to New 
Mexico (I have that record) after his 
first journey to New Mexico, (f) It 
gives the wrong date of Onate's jour- 
ney to New Mexico (1598). (g) It 
makes also an unjustifiable statement, 
which amounts to slander, when it says 
that the plot which brought about the 
great Indian revolt (1680) against the 
Spaniards, "was revealed to the gov- 
ernor [Otermln] by some priests, who 
bad heard of it in the confessional." 

It is, principally, against this last 
Statement that I. as a historian and as a 
Catholic, desire to make most emphatic 
protest, for while the other errors refer- 
red to arc at the present time and since 
1911, when what was lacking of the 
first sources was made public in New 
Mexico, untenable and inexcusable,' 
some argument may be advanced for 




their publication by saying that other 
authors (not reliable ones, though) 
have stated the same thing ; but there is 
not even the shadow of an excuse for 
the slanderous statement, which, in a 
way, was originated in Bancroft's wan- 
dering imagination, referring to the 
confessional. To teach such a falsehood 
in our schools would be equivalent to 
poisoning the hearts of our youth 
(thousands of whom are Catholics) 
against that Church. It has been taught 
in our schools for more than two years ; 
it ought to be forthwith eliminated, 
or the author of the book should be 
asked, in justice to historical truth, in 
justice to the Catholic Church, in justice 
to himself and for the good name of 
the State of New Mexico, to present 
the authority upon which he may claim 
justification for using the word "con- 
fessional," in lieu of the word "confes- 
sion," used by Bancroft, and also for 
making that heretofore unheard-of at- 
tack on the Catholic Church. 

On pages 151-2, chapter VIII, of "A 
History and Civics of New Mexico," 
our school children are taught that the 
discovery of the Indian plot, or great 
revolt, which brought about the expul- 
sion of the Spaniards from New Mex- 
ico, in 1680, was made through the con- 
fessional. The statement reads thus : 
"The plot, however, was revealed to the 
governor by some priests, who heard of 
it in the confessional." 

Outside of the fact that this state- 
ment is unjustifiable and slanderous, it 
works an injustice on the Catholic 
Church and tends to poison the minds 
of our youth against that Church. 

In my "Illustrated History of New 
Mexico," page 262, I state how the 
secret of the conspiracy was revealed 
to Governor Otermin by the Alcalde 
Mayor of Taos and by some friendly 
Indians : the Indian Governor of the 
pueblo of Pecos, Ye, and another 
Indian from Taos, named Jaca, being 
among the first to uncover the plot, — 
although somewhat late — , the said 
Alcalde of Taos, whose name was 
Marcos de Dehezas, having heard of 
the conspiracy, also sent word to 
Otermin. In the mean time, the Fran- 

ciscan Friars Velasco of Pecos and 
Bernal of the pueblo of San Lazaro 
were informed by the Indian governors 
of these pueblos, respectively, of the 
coming revolt. 

None of the few reliable authors 
who have written on the history of 
New Mexico, not even Bancroft, ever 
dreamed of inserting such a falsehood 
in their works. It is well for the sake 
of historical truth to make a review of 
what some of them, Bancroft included, 
say on that point. 

Bancroft, whose words have been 
twisted and used as a pretext, says in 
his "Arizona and New Mexico" (page 

"Despite the utmost precautions, however, 
no woman being instructed with the secret, 
and Pope killing his own son-indaw on 
suspicion of treachery, the influence of the 
friars over certain converts was so strong 
that the plot was revealed, perhaps as early 

as the 9th, from several sources The 

Tanos of San Lazaro and San Cristoval re- 
vealed Pope's plot to Padre Bernal, the Cus- 
todio. Padre Velasco of Pecos received a 
like confession from one of his neophytes. 
The Alcade of Taos sent warning, which 
caused the governor to arrest two Tesuque 
Indians who had been sent by the Tehuas to 
consult with the Tanos and the Queres." 

Prince, in his "Concise History of 
New Mexico" (page 110), speaking of 
the expulsion of the Spaniards (1680), 

"But even all precautions did not suffice, 
for on the 8th of August two Indians of 
Tesuque, which was so near Santa Fe that 
the Indians were specially intimate with the 
Spanish authorities, revealed the whole plot 
to Governor Otermin, and other Indians at 
San Lazaro and San Cristoval gave informa- 
tion to Father Bernal, the Franciscan Cus- 

Thus far we have seen that the state- 
ment made in the aforesaid book, "A 
History and Civics of New Mexico," 
that "the plot was revealed to the gov- 
ernor by some priests, who had heard it 
in the confessional," Avas a mere con- 
clusion, it not a malicious misinterpre- 

^"e will now hear what Mr. R. E. 



February 15 

Twitchell says in his "Leading Facts of 
New Mexico History." In a discussion 
of that particular event Twitchell 
states : 

"The Indians in South Santa Fe County, 
at San Lazaro and San Cristoval, revealed 
Pope's plot to Fr. Bcrnal, the Custodio. Fr. 
Fernando Velasco also received a confession 
o: the plot from one of his converts." 

In support of this statement Mr. 
Twitchell cites (foot-note, 308) Bande- 
lier's "Final Report" (page 101 sqq.). 
The foot-note reproduced by Mr. Twit- 
chell, however, does not agree with his 
construction thereof, for Bandelier says 
that the Franciscan Custodio, Fr. Sal- 
vador de San Antonio, who came to 
\e\v Mexico with De Vargas in 1693, 
in his "Protesta a Don Diego de Var- 
Dccember 18, 1693, cited to De 
Vargas the warning which the Indian 
Governor of Pecos, Ye, had given to 
Fr. Velasco some thirteen years before. 
Ye had then warned Fr. Velasco that 
the Indians of all the pueblos were 
about to start a rebellion to kill all the 
Spaniards. Ye offered at the same time 
to furnish Fr. Velasco with an escort 
of young Indian warriors to escort him 
to a safe place. 1 

Dr. Hackett, commenting on that im- 
portant event of our history, says: 

"The original plan seems to have been to 
rise on the 13th. for on the 9th Otermin in 
S;.nta Fc received three reports from three 
different and widely separated sources. The 
first one of these was from Father Visitor 
Juan Bernal, of Galisteo, the second from 
Father Preacher Fray Fernando de Velasco 
a- I'cros, and the third -from the Alcalde 

r, Marcos do Dehezas at Taos. On the 
same day, moreover, the Indian Governors 
and Captains of the Tanos pueblos, and those 

n Marcos and La Cienega, who were 
all unwilln the plans as present- 

them hy the representatives from Tes- 
named Catna and Omnia, bet rayed 

plani t*. the Governor, stating to him 
that the J.uh was the day set." 2 

1 »u miniMro," vjj,. r from 

rather Salvador re San Antonio'i "ProU ta," "el 

ado '\r Velaaco; T..vir.-, 1,1 genic 

1 para malar a lodoi , reli- 

y a«i, mir 

imo >lc hecho io 
Report," [.. 
-■ Hackett, "7 i • tion of the Revolt," in 

the Quarterly of the Texa* Hint. As»'n., Oct, IV! 1. 

Quoting further from Governor Ot- 
ermin's "Autos" (which I have also in 
my "Illustrated History of New Mex- 
ico"), that is to say, substantially quot- 
ing Otermin's own words, Mr. Hackett 
says : 

"Notwithstanding the strict secrecy that 
was enjoined upon the bearers of the knotted 
cord, the plot was discovered on the 9th of 
August, only two days before the uprising 
was to take place. Davis says that "two days 
before the time fixed upon the two Indians 
of Tesuque went to Santa Fe, and divulged 
the conspiracy to the Spanish governor. They 
were parties to it, but betrayed their country 
and the cause to the enemy.' 3 In this state- 
ment the writer has conveyed a wrong im- 
pression, for the two Indians of Tesuque 
did not voluntarily go down to Santa Fe to 
divulge the plans of the allies. The facts in 
the case are as follows : On August 9th 
Otermin learned from the Tanos, San Mar- 
cos, and La Cienega chiefs that two Indians 
named Catna and Omtua had brought them 
the order to take part in the contemplated 
revolt. Immediately upon learning this, 
Otermin despatched the maestro de campo, 
Francisco Gomez Robledo, to arrest Catua 
and Omtua, and by him on the same day they 
were carried as prisoners before governor 
Otermin. Having been duly sworn to tell the 
truth, these Indians stated all that they knew 
concerning the revolt. They testified that the 
two knots in the cord, which signified the 
number of days that were to intervene be- 
fore the revolt, had been given to them to 
carry in all secrecy to the Tanos, San Marcos, 
and La Cienega chiefs; that with it they car- 
ried the threat of the allies that any Indian 
or pueblo not taking part in the revolt would 
be destroyed, and that the chiefs of some of 
the pueblos had been unwilling to receive the 
message which they carried. Concerning the 
causes of the revolt they stated that they 
knew nothing, since they had not taken part 
in the councils of the old men of the northern 
pueblos, where the plans for the revolt were 
formulated." 4 

"The capture of Catua and Omtua created 
con t' ruation among the other natives of 
Tesuque, and believing that their plans were 
discovered, they resolved upon haste as being 
their only hope to successfully carry out the 

3 "The Spanish Conquest." p. 200. 
4 Auto of Otermin, in "Autos tocantes, etc." I. 




revolt. Accordingly, it was decided that the 
plans should be put into execution prema- 
turely that night. It took time to spread the 
news, but practically all northern pueblos, 
including San Juan and Taos, were notified 
in time to begin the revolt at day break of 
the morning of Saturday, August io. 5 In the 
more distant pueblos, however, as Santo 
Domingo and Jemez and those of Rio Abajo, 
the attack began later in the day, since it took 
the messengers from Tesuque longer to reach 
them. 6 It is plain, therfore, that the state- 
ment that at one hour of the same day the 
revolt began all over the province, though 
essentially the fact, is not literally true." 7 

It would take an extraordinary 
stretch of imagination to twist, to the 
point of misinterpretation, the words 
"neophytes," "converts," and "confes- 
sion," for even Bancroft, notwithstand- 
ing his prejudice* against the Catholic 
Church, (which is abundantly shown in 
his History), did not dare to say that 
the secret of the plot had been revealed 
to Otermln by some priests who had 
heard of it in the confessional. 

Bancroft himself had no authority, 
other than his own gratuitous opinion, 
to use the words converts, neophytes, 
and confession, in the manner and form 
he did ; but with all that, he never said 
that the plot had been revealed in the 

Three, and only three original sources 
can be found in connection with the 
point under discussion, and any true 
historian knows well which are these 
three authorities. Bancroft knew of 
them, yet he failed to epiote them fairly 
and correctly. 

The use of the word "confessional" 
in Robert's "History and Civics of New 
Mexico" is, therefore, an odious, will- 
ful and insulting charge against the 
Catholic Church, and enough to justify 
•this Board to eliminate that part of the 
said book containing references to the 
history of our State unless the author 

5 "Declaracion de Pedro Naranjo, de nacion 

rtueres," in "Autos Pertenecientes, etc.," 27 

"y auer presso Yndios Complices del pueblo de 
tesuque executaron de ymproviso acjuella noche por 
parecerles eran descubiertos." 

6 Auto y declaracion del mrc. de campo Franco 
gomez, in "Autos tocantes." 4. 

7 Prince, "A Concise History of New Mexico." 
Aver's "Benavides's Memorial on New Mexico, 

thereof can produce incontrovertible 
authority to prove the correctness of 
that and the other errors by me cited. 
Benjamin M. Read 

Santa Fe, N. M. 

An Explanation 

[The priest editor whom our collaborator 
"K" criticized in his article, "The New 
Americanism," in No. 2 of the Review, has 
sent us the following explanation, which we 
are pleased to print in full]. 

I notice, in your issue of January 15, 
that K takes me to task for "condem- 
ned and discredited liberalism." 

In my judgment a writer ought to be 
benignly interpreted as long as his 
words are susceptible of such an inter- 
pretation. Especially when his ortho- 
doxy is known from other utterances. 
In the editorial in question I was trying 
to demolish the notion that the Pope is 
intent on political domination of the 
world. Hence my argument about the 
two distinct and separate jurisdictions. 

If you have a moment's time, let us 
take the proposition singled out for 
animadversion by K. 

1) "The two jurisdictions are distinct 
and separate." I was writing for Amer- 
icans and stated a fact. The question 
de jure I thrashed out with a Baptist 
minister about three years ago. Accord- 
ing to Leo XIII the American arrange- 
ment is, for America, both lawful and 
expedient. "It would be erroneous to 
draw the conclusion .... that it would 
be universally lawful and expedient for 
State and Church to be, as in America, 
dissevered and separated." 

2) "There never can be a clash be- 
tween allegiance to the Church and al- 
legiance to one's country." This sen- 
tence is, indeed, elliptical, and the 
reader should have supplied : ."provided 
each authority keeps within its prov- 
ince." The addition of a per se would 
have saved the situation. But this was 
understood, as I might say: There 
never can be a clash between faith and 

3) "The Church, on the contrary, is 
of a [thel supernatural order and con- 
cerned with the happiness of men in 
the hereafter." — "Primarily concerned" 



February 15 

would have made my meaning clearer. 
Leo XIII : 'The Church, whilst directly 
and immediately aiming at the salvation 
oi souls and the beatitude which is to 
be attained in heaven, is yet the foun- 
tain of blessings in the temporal order 
. . . ." These things are not so much 
her concern as the corollary of living 
up to her teaching. "Seek before all the 
kingdom," etc. 

4) "All human institutions are sub- 
ject to the will of man." Of course, as 
far as they are purely human, and the 
will of man is guided by right reason 
in accordance with the dictates of con- 
science and justice. 

5) "In the natural order which con- 
cerns the present world, human reason 
is the main [mark this!] guide and 
capable of framing the conditions that 
make for earthly happiness." That this 
does not exclude "that rulers must ever 
bear in mind that God is the, paramount 
ruler of the world, and must set Him 
before themselves as their exemplar 
and law in the administration of the 
State," goes without saying. For the 
supreme dominion of God is a matter 
of reason as well as of faith. 

We all know that the State, even a 
so-called Christian State, can encroach 
upon what the Church, in her higher 
illumination, knows to be rights and 
duties of conscience as based on the 
tied will of God. But while stating 
principles, it was not necessary to insist 
Oil their possible infraction, and to en- 
on the course of conduct to be 
pursued in consequence. 

( )f course, I do not wish this to be 
published, but I am so jealous of my 
orthodoxy that I would not let the 
strictures in the F. K. pass without a 
word of explanation. Add to the above 
that I have to do my writing under 
of many other occupations, so 
that I may fail sometimes to clearly 
convey my meaning. While I want to 
haritable almosl to excess to all our 
opponents, I should not wish to com 
promise in maters of faith or offend 

against the sensus Cutholicus. 

• ■+4 r »~* 

— In most cases, the less you say, the more- 
it counts. 

Why Not Boy Choirs and the Chant? 

Some dioceses in this country have 
interpreted the Motu Proprio of Pius 
X, of happy memory, on Church Music 
literally, and have forbidden women 
singers in the church choirs. In many 
of the churches of these dioceses, the 
mixed choir has been superseded by 
choirs composed entirely of men. The 
result is that no part music can be sung, 
except compositions for male voices, a 
literature which is very poor, and most 
limited outside of the polyphonic style. 
Some organists have resorted to the 
abominable practice of arranging mixed 
choir masses for male choirs. This is 
a practice that cannot be too strongly 
condemned. In the first place, very few 
have the ability to do this work satis- 
factorily, and the result is sad. More- 
over, the singing of* a male chorus, in 
parts, becomes very monotonous, and 
no matter how well-trained or how well 
developed the voices may be, a whole 
mass sung by men's voices only, is very 
wearing upon the hearers. Again, where 
is the parish that can furnish tenors 
and basses who have the voice and the 
ability to sing passably well? 

This condition is inexcusable when 
we consider the wonderful possibilities 
of the boy voice, and the ease with 
which this institution can be introduced 
into our churches. Why do not the 
church authorities insist on the restora- 
tion of this grand old institution? Why 
do they not oblige choir-masters and the 
singing teachers of our schools to make 
a study of the boy-voice, so that choirs 
composed of men and boys could be 
organized? What an easy problem it 
is, with our parochial schools and the 
boys attending them each day ! What 
a heavenly delight is the clear, bell-like, 
well-trained voice of a boy! In this 
way, the rich treasury of mixed-choir 
music, which is allowed by the Motu 
Proprio to be sung in our churches, 
could be taken advantage of. Of all 
the monotonous, tiresome, unmusical, 
inartistic performances that one can 
listen to, the worst is a part mass sung 
by men's voices alone from the Kyric 
to the Agnus Dei. 




The next question is, what style of 
music should the boy-choir sing? I am 
not of those extremists who would elim- 
inate all part singing from our churches. 
Part singing by men and boys of com- 
positions sanctioned by the Church 
should be encouraged. But among the 
Styles of Church music there is one 
which is as superior to all others as 
heaven is to earth, and therefore should 
be preferred to all others. I refer to the 
glorious Chant of the Church. Com- 
posed for the Church alone in the ages 
of faith, it is music worthy of the name 
of Church music, and it is the only 
music that exactly expresses the senti- 
ments contained in the words of the 
liturgy. It is as priceless and as beauti- 
ful as the liturgy itself. It is this style 
of music with which boys in our schools 
should become acquainted, and it should 
be the chief aim of the teacher to instill 
in their young minds an intense love 
for it. In no other way shall we be 
able to bring the long-desired reform 
in Church music to realization. Grego- 
rian Chant, correctly sung by boys and 
men alternately, is as near to celestial 
music as we can possibly hope to attain 
here below. 

The problem of teaching Gregorian 
Chant in our schools seems to deter 
many priests from introducing it. With 
a teacher who has a knowledge of the 
Chant and of the boy-voice, difficulties 
soon disappear. Singing is taught in all 
our parochial schools, and if taught 
correctly, children are able to read notes 
in their second year at school. The 
Holy See has approved of the Chant 
books in modern notation, so that no 
new system of notation need be taught. 
The only extra work that would be re- 
quired on the part of the teacher is to 
give the children some little idea of 
Gregorian rhythm, which differs from 
the rhythm of modern music, so that 
they may understand and follow the 
motions of the teacher's hand in 
indicating the rhythmical and melodic 
movements of the Chant. In taking up 
Gregorian melodies, a great authority 
on the Chant advises the use of a 
moderately florid chant for earliest 
practice, rather than syllabic chant. De- 

voting some little time then each day 
to the chant, the boys will not only ob- 
tain a knowledge of it, but learn to love 
it. The amount of extra time that must 
be devoted to the Chant, over and 
above that devoted to modern music in 
our schools, is very little when com- 
pared with the results that will be real- 
ized. May God speed the day when the 
beautiful Chant of Holy Church is sung 
by boys and men in all the churches of 
our fair land ! 

F. J. Kelly 
Catholic University, (Mus. Doctor) 

The Obsolescence of Liberal Culture 
The remarks in the January 1st issue 
of the F. R. about the elective system 
of education and the quotations from 
Professor Teggart on the same subject 
lead me to say a word concerning my 
experience with the elective system 
gathered during four years as a mem- 
ber of the faculty of one of our lesser 
State universities. Barring certain mim 
imum requirements of physical training 
and English composition and a dash of 
.modern languages, the student is free, 
hypothetically, to browse amid the 400 
or 500 courses offerd by the teaching 
staff. I say hypothetically free because, 
while the University's statutes provide 
for freedom of choice, they also require 
the student upon martriculation to 
choose a "major professor," i. c, choose 
a department of instruction in which he 
proposes to do an important part of his 
work in college. The head of the 
department so chosen, automatically 
becomes the student's adviser (major 
professor) and is expected to supervise 
his choice of subjects in other depart- 
ments. Several forces will dominate 
that choice — the student's tastes, the 
professor's view of a liberal education, 
the state of the high-school teaching 
market (for that large body of students 
who intend to teach). The student's 
tastes will generally yield to the profes- 
sor's view of things, because the profes- 
sor who has become the head of a 
department is usually a man of some 
years, set in his ways, and inclined to 
insist upon what he thinks good for his 



February 15 

This attitude of the department heads 
is re-enforced by what 1 have called the 
state of the high-school teaching mar- 
ket. One of the chief functions of the 
University is to provide teachers for 
the high schools; the University main- 
tains an efficient employment bureau 
and is in constant touch with the needs 
of the high schools. The bureau's in- 
formation is placed at the disposal of 
the faculty and so the major professors able to take into account the mar- 
ketableness of various kinds of studies 
when advising their students. As the 
chances for specialization are limited 
for the young high-school teacher, he 
must be able to present a varied pro- 
gram of studies, approximating a course 
in the liberal arts. There is a fairly 
close approach to the fixed curriculum 
for which you plead. You would say, I 
presume, that the essential vice of the 
elective system has been corrected by 
the innate conservatism of the profes- 
sorial mind. 

I believe it true that in smaller insti- 
tutions it is not correct to say, with 
Professor Teggart, that "our college 
faculties have done nothing *** towards 
*** presenting students with a reasoned 
course of studies." In larger institu- 
tions, of course, the personal contact of 
professor and student is slight. Also in 
such institutions there will be many rich 
students, lacking the spur of earning 
;i living, who will seek "snap" courses 
and will be accommodated by lazy in- 

But aside from the preparation of 

high-school teacher-. Protestant minis- 

journalists, etc., and catering to 

sons and daughters of wealth, the 

:' liberal arts is dying. "The 

tendency towards prescribed curricula." 

of which Professor Teggart speaks, i- 

doing just what he hopes it will do; it 

ffecting "a veritable revolution in 
our universities." I shall not trespass 
on your patience to argue this matter at 
length, but I may mention that in the 
University with which I was connected 
nearly 25'/ of the student body wa- 
in the Commerce Department, where a 

I curriculum eliminated both the 

tem and the pursuit of lib- 

eral culture. The Pre-Medic Depart- 
ment by its fixed curriculum did like- 
wise for another group of students and, 
without further argument, it may be 
predicted confidently that specialization 
for the mass of college students of the 
future will begin at their matriculation. 

The reason for this change is obvious. 
College education has become democrat- 
ized : it is no longer monopolized by the 
leisured young ; college students, in the 
mass, are not cultivating learning for 
its own sake but for the sake of mak- 
ing a better living for themselves. They 
can not afford to spend four years in 
high school and four 'years in college 
in pursuit of liberal culture. They will 
specialize as soon as the opportunity is 
offered. Moreover, in the good old days 
when college education and liberal cult- 
ure were synonymous, specialization be- 
gan at about the age when present-day 
students enter college. Emerson entered 
Harvard at fourteen, as was usual for 
boys of his time. The boy of to-day 
enters high school at that age. As a 
fact, we in America have tried to double 
the traditional dose of liberal culture, 
and the normal boy rebels. If we are 
to credit the experience of men like 
George Bancroft and Henry Adams, 
the teaching in the average American 
high school to-day is as effectively done 
as was the teaching at Harvard College 
before the Civil War. Formerly the 
grammar school admitted to the college. 
Our high school fills the years of the 
old college and in reality performs the 
functions of the old college, but because 
we have given it another name people 
do not recognize the identity. 

The Oxford tradition, embodied in 
Newman's "Idea of a University," has 
already lost its commanding position in 
England where- the new provincial 
universities (really groups of technical 
schools) arc following the same line of 
development as the American institu- 
tions. Oxford has no chair in the design 
and manufacture of harness hardware. 
but the new University of Leeds prides 
itself on teaching that subject SO effi- 
ciently that it draws students not only 
from Great Britain, but from the 




United States, anxious to perfect them- 
selves in that necessary art. 

The obsolescence of the Oxford 
tradition is readily understood when we 
consider how essentially limited (in 
proportion to the whole group of edu- 
cated persons in a democracy) is the 
class for whom Newman spoke. In his 
Fifth Discourse, "Knowledge Its Own 
End," he says : "It is absurd to balance, 
in point of worth and importance, a 
treatise on reducing fractures with a 
game of cricket or a fox-chase ; yet of 
the two the bodily exercise has that 
quality which we call 'liberal' and the 
intellectual has it not." Now, the class 
for whom Newman spoke, by reason of 
its wealth, could choose between the 
"liberal" and the important. But the 
majority of American college students 
have to devote themselves to the treatise 
on reducing fractures in order to arrive 
at such a point of financial independence 
that thev may play cricket or hunt foxes. 
John P. O'Hara 

Portland, Ore. 

Another Aspect of the Movie Problem 
Mr. Stephen H. Horgan of Orange, 
N. J., in a letter addressed to the Pitts- 
burg Observer complains of the re- 
mark, originally made in the Fort- 
nightly Review (XXV, 24, 373), that 
if Catholic photo-plays are to supplant 
those of the harmful kind, so far as the 
patronage of the faithful is concerned, 
it will be necessary to reduce the admis- 
sion charges. 

_ Mr; Horgan argues that it is impos- 
sible to compete with the popular "mo- 
vie" theatres for the reason that the 
production of Catholic photo dramas is 
so expensive. 'The Victim' (F. R., /. c, 
and XXVI. 2, 21), he says, cost over 
$50,000 to produce. An equal amount 
was spent by the Catholic Art Associa- 
tion on The Transgressor.' 'The Eternal 
Eight,' which pictures the life of Christ 
from Bethlehem to the Ascension, "was 
made in the Holy Land and Egypt at 
an expense of hundreds of thousands 
of dollars." 

"It is easv for anyone to understand," 
says Mr. Horgan, "that returns for all 

this investment cannot be had from the 
small audiences in our limited Catholic 
halls. For one of the rules of this As- 
sociation is that their photo-plays are 
held exclusively for showing under 
Catholic auspices. If they were to put 
'The Eternal Light' on in the theatres, 
people would pay fifty cents to one dol- 
lar fifty to see it, but they would have 
first to take all of the Catholic sermons 
out of it." 

In a letter to the Editor of the Fort- 
nightly Review Mr. Horgan further 
says that the Catholic Art Association 
are "actuated by the best of motives — 
the good they can do," but that they are 
"losing several thousand dollars weekly, 
and it will take years for them to get 
their money back." — "If they get dis- 
couraged," he adds, "and give up the 
enterprise, then the Jews, who are near- 
ly one hundred per cent of the produ- 
cers, will take it up and we will have 
lost a great opportunity." 

The aspect of the "movie" problem 
thus brought out by Mr. Horgan is im- 
portant and must be taken into consid- 
eration if a satisfactory solution is to 
be arrived at. The Catholic Art Associ- 
ation is probably entitled to a moderate 
"return on their investment." But it is 
a mistake, in our opinion, to make only 
such films as can be shown exclusively 
in Catholic halls because they .have 
"Catholic sermons" in them. It is not 
films with "Catholic sermons" in them 
that is primarily wanted, but clean, 
lively pictures of real life, unobjection- 
able from the standpoint of Catholic 
faith and morality. The Catholic tend- 
ency must never obtrude itself, but flow 
spontaneously from the story itself. 
"The Victim" is a failure from this point 
of view, and furthermore opinions 
differ as to its intrinsic merits. (Cfr. 
F. R., XXVI, 2, 21). Some fear the 
Catholic Art Association is too much of 
a "business venture" with an eye to "the 
main chance" to promise relief from the 
"movie" evils which we deplore. If the 
main motive of the promoters be indeed, 
as Mr. Horgan claims, to do good, then 
they are ill advised in regard to method, 
for the production of films with "Cath- 
olic sermons" in them, and their display 



February 15 

in parish halls at a price far above that 
charged by the neighborhood him the- 
atres is not calculated to wean people 
from the sensational productions which 
have become so great an evil or to 
create a taste for good clean photo 
plays in the public at large. 

The Language Question in Canada 

Father Michael J. Phelan. S.J., con- 
tributes to the Irish Ecclesiastical Rec- 
ord . No. 610, pp. 307 sqq.) a notable 
paper on "The Language Question in 
Canada." He says truly that the under- 
lying issue is: "Shall the French- 
Canadians, as a race, survive, or, like 
the Indians before them, vanish into 
the dim lights and mists of history?" 

He quotes a Protestant paper as say- 
ing: "There would be no war against 
the hi-lingual schools if all the French- 
Canadians were Protestants." 

The real thought at the back of those 
who persecute the French-Canadians 
undoubtedly is to destroy the French 
language because it is a bulwark of the 
Catholic faith in Canada. 

The Fortnightly Review perceived 
this fact many years ago and in con- 
sequence has always stood up for the 
rights of the French-Canadians. We 
have never been able to understand 
why so many Irish Canadians threw in 
their lot with Orangeism in hounding 
down their brother Catholics who are 
lighting the battle of their common 
faith behind the sheltering fortress of 
the French language. 

Father Phelan deals with this ques- 
tion in the concluding portion of his 
article. He States, as the upshot of 
careful inquiries, that the Irish-born 
Catholics of Canada, as' a rule, are not 
t<. be found in the- anti-French camp, 
and that those Canadian-born of trish 

who are found there, have been 

misled by the Orange press, which per- 

• ntry paints this question in imperi- 

alistic colors, and -.-r, - : "It these people 
wish to be Frenchmen, let them go to 
France; but since they accept our Hag, 
they must accept our tongue." 

■•Here." say- Father Phelan, "the 
native-born [Irishman] is captured; 

for, like all Colonials, he is an Impe- 
rialist of the flamboyant type. The 
homebred Jingo is moderation com- 
pared with Ins Colonial brother. I have 
observed that many sons of Irishmen 
in British dependencies are more 
emphatic in this profession of loyalty 
than others. They feel that their Irish 
names render them suspect, and hence 
they are determined to wave the Union 
Jack, and sing 'God Save the King' an 
octave higher than anyone else." 

It is to be hoped that the sympathy 
which our Canadian brethren of French 
descent are receiving from the Gaels of 
Ireland will presently be shared by their 
Irish-descended brethren of the Domin- 
ion. "Not only as brother Catholics," 
says Father Phelan, "but as Gaels, our 
hearts go out to them in their just and 
holy struggle. For their cause is our 
cause. Their enemy our enemy. Their 
efforts to conserve a distinctive, clean, 
national existence, to uphold pure 
ideals and Catholic principles against a 
paganized civilization, hungry to devour 
both them and its, all these are ours 

Father Phelan's article will no doubt 
do much to open the eyes of the Irish- 
descended Catholics of Canada to the 
sinister conspiracy by which so many 
of them have been duped, and induce 
them to make common cause with the 
Catholic French-Canadians for faith 
and fatherland, as they have been 
repeatedly advised to do of late by our 
Holy Father Benedict XV. 

An Inadequate "Estimate of Shake- 
"An Estimate of Shakespeare," by 
J. A. McClorey (New York: Schwartz, 
Kirwin & Fauss; 50 cts.), according to 
the preface, is a development of a lec- 
ture- largely made up of matter taught 
by the writer in the Junior English 
(lass of St. Louis University. Much is 
to be expected from a professor of En- 
glish in a great university. It is there- 
fore disappointing to find in this study 
frequenl examples of lack of precision 
both iu thought and in the ttse of terms. 
Sentences like the- following are to be 




met with on every page : "All arts give 
only partial views of things. In fact, 
ail ideas, even the most truthful, give 
only partial views of truth.'' "It [trag- 
edy] is an auxiliary of Revelation." "It 
[tragedy] is the handmaid of Charity." 
Sometimes we have quite gratuitous as- 
sertions, as that the Renaissance "was a 
Catholic movement, inaugurated and 
carried to fulfilment by the popes," and 
some extraordinary statements on this 
order: "Through Adam's fall, man's 
vision of truth was dimmed. God, 
humanity, and nature became three 
closed books. Shakespeare reopened at 
least two of them." 

In spite of preliminary qualifications 
the lecturer is indiscriminate in his ad- 
miration. One is reminded of Hello's 
rebuke administered to Victor Hugo 
for saying, "Devant Shakespeare j 'ad- 
mire tout comme une brute." This is 
not estimation nor yet appreciation. It 
leads to some very remarkable maneuv- 
ers, as, for instance, the explanation of 
Shakespeare's predilection for suicide 
in his tragedies. Let us quote once 
more : "Every reader of the great dram- 
atist must have observed the air of 
nobility about his suicides. Brutus. 
Othello, Romeo and Juliet, Cleopatra 
are glorified by their ending. Their 
utterances at the last moment are high 
preludes to an incomparable deed, and 
the reader's sympathies are caught. 
Othello was never more superb than 
when he said: 'And tell them that in 
Aleppo once, When a malignant and a 
turbaned Turk Struck a Venetian and 
traduced the state, I took by the throat 
the circumcised dog And smote him.' 
Now suicide is an ignoble thing. How 
then explain the transformation which 
Shakespeare makes in its character? 
Briefly, very often a mean deed is done 
through a noble motive. The motive 
does not justify the deed ; nevertheless 
it may be so engaging that its beauty 
quite veils the ugliness of the deed. 
Romeo and Juliet commit suicide 
through boundless love; they would 
rather be dead together than live apart ; 
and we, caught by the vision of their 
love, become oblivious for the time 
being of the immoralitv of their deed. 

. . . Othello's heart was so engrossed 
with the lovableness of Desdemona that, 
with her gone, all the world was dirt. 
. . . We forget the ignobleness of their 
deed in our admiration of their love." 
It is a vain thing to discuss the theol- 
ogy and philosophy of one who may 
write S.J. after his name. But we are 
forced to demur at such an interpreta- 
tion of Shakespeare on the part of a 
Catholic instructor. Let us at least 
partially vindicate Shakespeare and 
Othello, first remarking on the absurd- 
ity of pitching on the moment when the 
Moor tells his random tale about the 
Turk in x\leppo as the one in which 
"Othello was never more superb." This 
speech is a mere trifle, serving to divert 
the attention of the hearers from the 
premeditated "bloody period" terminat- 
ing both it and the life of Othello. 
There is no glamor cast by Shake- 
speare over either of Othello's horrible 
sins, murder and suicide. The motive 
of the first is vengeance, a blasphemous 
motive, and the motive of the second is 
despair. Can either of these motives be 
judged noble? The play is moral be- 
cause it vindicates innocence, punishes 
sin, and illustrates how unbridled pas- 
sions obscure the judgment and lead 
logically and inevitably to disaster. The 
few quotations to follow prove this to 
the most casual Catholic reader : 


Yet she must die, else she'll betray more 

men .... 
Ah, balmy breath, that dost almost persuade 
Justice to break her sword .... 
I would not kill thy unprepared spirit : 
Xo; heaven forfend ! I would not kill thy 

soul .... 
Thou . . . makest me call what I intend to do 
A murder, which I thought a sacrifice . . . 
Had all his hairs been lives, my great revenge 
Had stomach for them all . . . 
This look of thine will hurl my soul from 

And fiends will snatch at it. . . . 
Whip me, ye devils. 

From the possession of this heavenly sight ! 
Blow me about in winds ! roast me in sulphur ! 
Wash me in steep-down gulfs of liquid fire! 

S. T. Otten 


—Our readers will do us a favor if, in 
writing to the merchants that advertise in 
the Fortnightly Review, they will mention 
the fact that they saw the ad. in our pages. 



February 15 


Was Pasteur a Practical Catholic? 

Father J. A. Baisnee, S.S., of St. 
Mary's Seminary, Baltimore, Md., in a 
letter which we printed in Vol. XXV, 
No. 17 of the Review, expressed a 
douht as to the correctness of the state- 
ment, attributed to Msgr. Baudrillart 
and quoted in our No. 14, that Louis 
Pasteur, the famous French chemist, 
who is so often held up as a model 
Catholic, was no practical Catholic at 
all. but a Spiritist. Our comment at the 
time was that the evidence either way 

ls unsatisfactory and the question re- 
mained an open one. Now we have the 
following communication from Father 
Baisnee, dated Jan. 18th: 

"Last summer you asked me to try 
through my French connections to get 
at 'la veriti vraie' in the matter of 
Pasteur's position with regard to reli- 
gion. I put the question to Msgr. Bau- 
drillart last fall in the course of his visit 
to Baltimore, and he confirmed the re- 
sult of Fr. Langel's inquiries to which 
you adverted in the REVIEW. It was 
only in his last illness that Pasteur was 
brought back to the practice of religion, 
i. c. reception of the sacraments. Like 
many of his generation, he had earlv in 
life given up Catholic faith and prac- 
tice, though he never spoke or wrote 
nst religion and remained a firm 
vex in God and in a spiritual, im- 
mortal soul (which is meant by the 
French word spiritualisme) . It is no 
doubt because of his constant opposi- 
tion t(, the rampant materialism of his 
day that Pasteur came to be looked 
Upon and referred to as a witness, and 
<•-. en an apologist, of the Catholic 

The Third Order ©f St. Francis 

The project of holding a national 
convention of the members of the 
Third Order of St. Francis, to which 
idverted some months ago, is as- 
suming more definite form. The Fran- 
ciscan llcmld reports that at a meeting 
of the officers o( the Tertiary Province 
of tl ! lb art, held in Chicago, 

a constitution was adopted and plans 
were discussed for the convocation of 
a provincial or district convention. So 
far as the Tertiary Province of the 
Sacred Heart is concerned, the national 
Third Order convention in 1921 (which 
year marks the seventh centenary of the 
founding of the Third Order) is an 
assured fact. The Herald says that the 
sentiment is favorable also in the other 
provinces. "We are sure," adds our 
esteemed contemporary, "that those 
whose province it is, according, to the 
intention of the Church, to promote 
the Third Order, will know their duty 
well enough to lend the undertaking 
the prestige of their name and the 
weight of their authority. Our cetcrum 
censco is still that the time is ripe for 
a national convention of Franciscan 
Tertiaries, and that, if they miss this 
opportunity to establish their Order on 
a national basis and to enable it to cope 
with national problems, they lay them- 
selves open to the charge that they are 
decidedly inert and hopelessly behind 
the age." 

The Third Order of St. Francis, as 
we have remarked before, is entitled 
and in duty bound to take a share in 
the great movement of reconstruction 
now under way all over the world, and 
if its members will live up to their 
high mission, the future will be brighter 
because of their fidelity to the spirit of 
the "Poverello." 

The Children and the Theatre 

The peril of the "movies" is univer- 
sal. "The sophistication which is bred 
in the minds of children by films of the 
cheaper sorts," says the Manchester 
Guardian (No. 22,553), "is assuming a 
terrifying aspect." It is not so much 
on severely moral grounds that the 
"movie" is a source of anxiety to those 
who have child- welfare at heart, con- 
tinues our contemporary, but because 
"the subject-matter of the average film 
dissipates the ingenuousness which we 
expect in childhood. It is no pleasant 
thing to hear, as one may do any day, 
mere boys and girls' interchanging im- 
pressions of the divorce court and the 
marriage of convenience — impressions 




which they have gathered, no matter 
how innocently, from the screen." 

Sir Sidney Lee insists that something 
must be done to raise the tone of the 
kinema. The Guardian suggests a 
wholesale revival of the arts tradition- 
ally associated with childhood, viz.: old- 
fashioned pantomime and fantasy. "Sir 
James Barrie's 'Peter Pan' was a step 
in the right direction, and Mr. Chester- 
ton could, one feels confident, write the 
ideal pantomime. The little folk of this 
country need a theatre of their own to 
challenge the fascination of the kinema, 
which will not readily change its pres- 
ent nature." 

The Catholic Charities Review 

The Catholic Charities Review, pub- 
lished monthly (except in July and 
August) at 120 W. 60th St., New York, 
by the National Conference of Catholic 
Charities, and edited by the Rev. John 
A. Ryan, D.D., of the Catholic Univer- 
sity of America, has entered upon its 
third year. The editor says that the 
subscription list has decreased during 
1918 and is not one-third of what it 
ought to be. All known methods of 
enlarging the subscription list have been 
practically fruitless, and Dr. Ryan ap- 
peals to the present subscribers for 
their personal assistance. He refuses to 
believe that the great majority of 
charitable workers take no intelligent 
interest in the problems of their work. 
If this were true, he says, "the future 
of Catholic social and charitable work 
in America would be dark, indeed ; for 
nothing is more certain than that Cath- 
olics who take part in, or are respon- 
sible for, charitable activity and insti- 
tutions, need to have a systematic and 
sound equipment of knowledge, in ad- 
dition to good will and self-sacrifice." 

The Catholic Charities Review de- 
serves a better fate than that foreshad- 
owed in this editorial jeremiad, and 
we hope now that war work has largely 
come to an end, our Catholic charity 
workers will turn some of their good 
will to the service of this worthy mag- 
azine. (Annual subscription, $1). 

— There is no grace in a benefit that sticks 
to the fingers. 


— The Editor of the Review is ab- 
sent on a vacation. Ordinary letters 
requiring his personal attention will 
therefore have to lay over for two or 
three weeks. Important communica- 
tions will be forwarded to him by the 

— Now that the war is over and it is 
possible to speak the truth without 
danger of being misunderstood by the 
ignorant, Mr. George Bernard Shaw 
declares that all this talk about German 
barbarities, frightfulness, etc., was 
"pure camouflage," and that the high 
idealism which the world had been 
taught to attribute to the Allied nations, 
was a disguise which statesmen em- 
ployed to deceive the plain people as to 
their real purposes. These purposes 
were in the present instance, as they 
have been in the past, purely utilitarian. 
The Western Watchman (Sunday ed., 
Vol. XXXI, No. 15) says that the" first- 
mentioned charge is "as frank as it is 
startling," and in regard to the second, 
that while Allied statesmen may have 
been sincere at first in professing exalt- 
ed motives, these seem to have speedily 
given way to others which are sordid 
and selfish. "If the Peace Conference 
turns out to be another Congress of 
Vienna," warningly adds our contempo- 
rary, "the world had better prepare for 
a reign of Bolshevism." 

— The War Department does not 
seem to anticipate a decline in the 
prices of food ; on the contrary, as we 
read in the Public (No. 1086), "army 
officers are asking for an increase of 
ten per cent in the appropriation begin- 
ning next July. An army ration — food 
for one man for one day — now costs 
the government 48 cents. The new 
request is figured on 53 cents." 

— On January 1st there became 
effective an arrangement by which 
clergymen and others engaged in ex- 
clusively religious work (missionaries, 
evangelists, members of religious or- 
ders, Christian Science readers, and 
even State organizers of the \V. C. T. 
U.) can purchase tickets at one-half the 
normal fare. The Springfield Republican 



February IB 

expresses the opinion that many minis- 
ters, in New England, at least, will not 
avail themselves of the cut rate. "If 
this is true.*' comments the N. Y. Even- 
ing Post (Jan. 25). "it emphasizes one 
objection to the time-honored practice. 
When such privileges are made a salve 
to conscience for an inadequate salary, 
they are really an injustice. Clergymen 
standing on their own feet wish to pay 
and be paid like other professional men ; 
but when will they be so paid?" 

— The late Theodore Roosevelt was 
among the first of our public men to see 
that vast concentrations of financial and 
industrial power require strong social 
control. He made politics interesting 
by including new social issues and by 
touching them up with moral fervor. 
He preached continuously during his 
seven years in the presidential office and 
millions rallied round him. A career 
like his can happen but once in any 
country. The social revolution whose 
linings Roosevelt witnessed, has no 
longer need of cheers and unctuous 
preachments, but rather of wise, con- 
structive statesmanship. The restless 
sympathy for all sorts of good causes 
which Mr. Roosevelt exhibited, has 
given place to a demand for systematic, 
reasoned treatment of social needs. 
A new generation has come upon the 
scene, with new temper and outlook, 
new purposes, new tasks. One would 
gladly record, says the Nation, that Mr. 
Roosevelt, in the great new age in 
which he lived to see, had grown with 
its growth and strengthened with its 
Strength, weaving the thread of his 
greal and varied powers into the new 
fabric of a better national life. Yet 
though he faiK-d of tin-, lie was never- 
thelss a commanding figure, and his 
memory will long survive. 

— The Nation (No. 2793) protests 
againsl tin- continuance <>i the ban on 
German newspapers. "During the war 
it wa> undoubtedly intended to prevent 
printed propaganda of a hostile nature 
from reaching the massei of the peo 
"•ir contemporary. "Win 
papers, however, ihould have been 
deprived of their German and Austrian 

information U a riddle which we shall 

not try to solve. While our authorities 
were protecting our patient people from 
this Teutonic pollution, German papers 
were to be found in every English and 
French newspaper office and English 
papers could be bought in the streets of 
Berlin. Even now that Germany has 
joined the ranks of the great democ- 
racies, the news of her revolution, 
which it is of the utmost importance 
for us to follow intelligently, is largely 
hidden from us, except through such 
incompetent stories as special corre- 
spondents manage to get past the Brit- 
ish and American censorship." 

—Rccdy's Mirror (XXVIII, 3) has 
information from Washington that the 
seizure of the cables by the administra- 
tion was "done under a compact with 
Great Britain and France to maintain 
a censorship of the press until the peace 
treaty shall have been ratified." — 
''This country's seizure of the cables," 
says our contemporary, "was the only 
way to accomplish the object sought 
when at the signing of the armistice the 
American newspapers abandoned their 
voluntary censorship. The allies are 
said to have been desirous especially 
tiiat there shouldn't be much dissemina- 
tion of uncontrolled news from Russia 
and Germany concerning the revolu- 
tions, as that might start trouble among 
the proletariat in all other countries. 
Control of the cables gives a certain 
control of popular psychology. So it is 
that nothing comes over the cables but 
what is official or semi-official." Such 
is the liberty of the press in America! 
Is it indeed "the ultimate tragedy of 
this war," as Prof. J. McK. Cattell says 
in a letter to the N. Y. Post (Jan. 13), 
"that we have freed Germany and en- 
slaved ourselves"? 

— The Hearst papers are calling upon 
the government to take over the Rocke- 
feller and Carnegie foundations on the 
plea that these institutions are not 
charitable, but political, and have been 
appropriating money to defeat certain 
candidates for Congress and interfer- 
ing with the liberty of the press. The 
criticism is largely justified. There is 
too much money in these foundations 
and the temptation to use it for political 




purposes is too great to be withstood. 
But we don't see how the situation 
could be improved if this wealth-power 
were turned over to the professional 
politicians who control the government. 
Some other solution will have to be 
found to render these dangerous foun- 
dations harmless, or, better still, really 
useful for the common weal. 

—The Rev. M. V. Kelly, C. S. B., of 
Sandwich, Ont., who has repeatedly 
contributed to the Fortnightly Re- 
view (see, for instance, his paper on 
Instructing Converts in Vol. XXV, pp. 
105 sqq., 120 sqq.), is at present dis- 
cussing in the Ecclesiastical Rcviczu the 
defects of our catechism teaching and 
making suggestions as to improving the 
prevailing methods. Father Kelly is a 
profound student, and whatever he 
writes on his favorite subject is worthy 
of earnest consideration. 

Literary Briefs 

— The late Cecil Chesterton passed for the 
press a few clays before his deatli "A His- 
tory of the United States," which will be 
published in the near future with a biograph- 
ical introduction by Gilbert K. Chesterton. 

— "Questions of the Day" is the title of a 
new pamphlet in the Catholic Social Guild's 
"First Text Books Series." It is by Fathers 
Joseph Keating, S.J., and Dom Anselm 
Parker, O.S.B.. and deals succinctly with the 
Catholic attitude towards poverty, housing, 
land and agriculture, labor and capital, So- 
cialism and private ownership, the educational 
question, the drink question, and international 
relations. The authors plead for a return of 
society to practical Christianity, which alone 
attacks the evils that beset us at the root. 
There are a few sentences in the booklet to 
which we would hesitate to subscribe without 
reservation, for instance (p. 25) that "there 
is nothing in ... capitalism that can be called 
essentially unjust." (B. Herder Book Co.; 
15 cts.) 



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C The New Marriage Legislation? 
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< The New Laws Concerning Religious? > in iun ana concisely 

T^ N ,^ w ^ an ^ n u s °V? e ^"fments? explained in this book 

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February 15 

— In "Real Christian Science," a dialogue 
by Mrs. \V. A. King, two women, the one a 
Christian Scientist, the other a Catholic, dis- 
cuss the respective claims of the two reli- 
gious systems. The Catholic point of view 
is set forth eloquently and convincingly. 
Would that it had more such able defenders 
among Catholic women! ^Pustet; 10 cts.) 

—When Dom S. Louismet, O.S.B.,told the 
late Dr. Hedley that he intended to publish 
a book on Mysticism, the Bishop dryly re- 
marked : '"There is too much already written 
on the subject." But when he heard that 
Dom Louismet's purpose was to put a stop 
to the flow of mystical writings, he approved. 
The need of practicing the mystical life, in- 
stead of writing about it, is the keynote of 
the learned Benedictine's booklet (/'The 
Mystical Life"; Kenedy & Sons, $1.10 net). 
He sets aside all useless speculation and goes 
back to the traditional Catholic idea of Mys- 
ticism as "the genuine Catholic life, lived in 
its fulness according to each one's vocation 
and state. Therein the loving soul meets 
God. Therein man transcends the whole 
created order of things visible and invisible, 
to such an extent as even to meet God, to 
grapple with llim in the dark, and to wrest 
from Him, if not His name, which is ineffa- 
ble, at any rate, certainly His blessing." To 
this sort of Mysticism and perfection of the 
Christian life all are called, and Dom Louis- 
met's book is a splendid introduction to it. 

— The Month, published in London by the 
English Jesuit Fathers, in its No. 653 devotes 
the subjoined kindly notice to Vol. I of Koch- 
Preuss' "Handbook of Moral Theology," of 
which Vol. II has since apeared : "The first 
volume of an important new Handbook of 
Moral Theology (Herder: $1.50 net) adapted 
and edited by Mr. Arthur Preuss from the 
work of Dr. Antony Koch, has just reached 
us. It is something of a new departure, for 
it does not altogether follow the stereotyped 
order of the ordinary treatises, admirably 
logical and convenient though that be, but 
introduces a certain freshness of treatment 
into an overwritten subject. The subjects of 
the five volumes which will complete the 
work are classified as follows: — I. Intro- 
duction: Morality its subject, norm and ob- 
II. Sin and the means of Grace. I If. 
Man's Duties to himself, IV. Man's Duties 
I. V. Man's Duties to his fellow-men. 
Judging by the first volume it seems likely 
the publisher will repeat the success 
which his Dogmatic Theology has attained, 
in presenting to tin- English reading public an 
exha< on Moral, which takes a 

sound middle course on disputed questions, 
iiirh gives a fair account of conflicting 
The illuminating discussion on Prob 
mi in this book i- a <;,-■ in point Copi 
bibliographies arc furnished for each of 
rig. and frequently the actual Latin 
text of r. ferred to is given in the 

ther volumes will be awaited 
with great interest/' 

Books Received 

Ccux qui Saigncnt. Notes de Guerre par Adolphe 
Kette. 2'56 pp. 12mo. Paris: Bloud & Gay. 191S. 

Sous la Rafale. An Service de l'lnfanterie. Souv- 
enirs d'un Dragon pendant la Grande Guerre. 
Par Andre Schmitz, Lieutenant de Cavalerie. 
Preface de Pierre l'Ermite. 285 pp. 12mo. Paris: 
Bloud & Gay. 1918. (Wrapper). 

The Catholic F.ncyclopcdia. Supplementary Volume 
containing Revisions of the Articles on Canon 
Law according to the Code of Canon Law of 
Pius X, Promulgated by Benedict XV. By Andrew 
A. Macerlean, Member of the New York Bar. 
ii & 82 pp., lexicon 8vo. New York: The Encyclo- 
pedia Press, Inc. 1918. Cloth, $1;' three-quarter 
morocco, $1.50. 

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The Fortnightly Review 



March 1, 1919 

Photographed by Jesse Nusbaum 

Courtesy of "El Palaeio' 



Mission churches built by Francis- 
cans existed in New Mexico years be- 
fore the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth 
Rock. None of the original structures 
survive, although here and there one of 
the present churches is built on the site, 
and perhaps on the walls, of those first 
Christian sanctuaries in what is now 
tbe United States. For the oldest ruins 
of mission churches one must go to the 
Saline- pueblos in the Manzano moun- 
tains, to Abo. Quarai, and Tabira. 
There one will find picturesque re- 
mains of missions built and abandoned 

prior to the Pueblo Revolution of 1680. 
Of the three great churches that of 
Quarai was the largest. It had a floor 
area of 5,020 square feet. That of 
Tabira came next, with 4,978 feet ; and 
then Abo with 4,830. These figures are 
for the auditorium alone and do not 
include the extensive convents attached 
to each. 

The walls of Abo, shown in the above 
illustration, are much the noblest and 
the most massive of the three. They 
mark a former pueblo on the Arroyo 
del Empedradillo, about 25 miles east 



March 1 

of the Rio Grande River and 20 miles 
south of Manzano, in Valencia County. 
This pueblo was first mentioned by 
Onate, in 1598, and became the seat of 
the mission of San Gregorio, founded 
in 1629 by Fray Francisco de Acevedo, 
who erected the large church and mon- 
astery of which the ruins appear above. 
Owing to Apache depredations many 
of the inhabitants of Abo (they num- 
bered about 2,000 during the early mis- 
sion period) fled to El Paso, in 1671, 
and prior to the insurrection of 1680 
the village was entirely abandoned for 
the same cause. 

Charles F. Lummis describes the 
ruins of Abo as follows ("The Land of 
Poco Tiempo," pp. 294 sqq.) : "Its site 
is a wee head of a valley, strung upon 
a deep and ragged arroyo, between an 
(.astern and rocky ridge and the long 
acclivity of the mountains. The pueblo 
itself was a large hollow square, over 
i wo hundred feet on a side, of un- 
broken, three-storv stone houses, ter- 
raced toward, and opening upon, the 
safe inner court. Outside, and parallel 
with, the north end of this quadrangle 
was a separate block of three-story 
buildings. So far the ruins present 
nothing novel to the student of Pueblo 
antiquities. They are merely the usual 
tousled mounds of fallen building-stone 
and inblown sand. But a few rods 
north of the pueblo tower the giant 
walls of a noble edifice — such walls 
as would have been long ago immortal- 
ized in American literature, were they 
in Rhenish Bavaria instead of a land 
which might be fancied to have a pa- 
triotic interest to Americans. Amid the 
talus of tumbled stone these two vast 
parallel walla forty-two feet apart, one 
hundred and fifteen feet long, and 
twelve feet thick at the base, soar sixty 
aloof in lagged majesty. Their 
ancient masonry of darkly rufous sand- 
stone, in adobe mortar, is almost per- 
fect in alignment still. A spade slides 
smoothly down their plane surfaces. 
The hVO end wall- of the structure are 
'_">n<- to utter wrack : and the one-time 
BOOT is lost under a dozen feet or more 

of their jumbled ruin. . . . The wee 
of Abo is not now a solitude, 

though the tribe that builded its dark 
piles long ago faded from off the face 
of the earth. A half-dozen Mexican 
familes dwell under the gigantic cot- 
tonwoods that sap the puny rill ; and 
here is the home of the paisano genius 
— immortalized in territorial proverb — 

"fue por Socorro, y no supo porque." 
He made the long and trying journey 
in safety ; but on arriving at Socorro 
knew not why, and had to return to 
Abo to ask his comrades : 'For what 
went I?' This information gained, he 
trudged back his fifty miles and ful- 
filled his mission, and trudged home 
again. His house, and all, are built of 
ready stone from the huge dark walls 
that frown down upon the degenerate 


Under Mammon's Rule 
There are people who hold that our 
civilization is Christian. Christ Him- 
self drew the line by saying: "You can 
not serve God and Mammon." Chris- 
tianity is based on labor ; Mammonism 
on property. Christ's foster-father and 
Christ Himself were workingmen, and 
His Apostles also. St. Paul condemns 
gain without labor by the words, "If 
any man will not work, neither let him 
eat" (2 Thess. Ill, 10). 

Mammon discredits labor and values 
a man according to his property. Intel- 
lectual and physical ability give him no 
higher value ; he must acquire money to 
be admitted to the ruling class, other- 
wise he is a proletarian. Hence it is 
true to say that we live under Mam- 
mon's rule. 

The Renaissance (of paganism), with 
the Reformation as a cloak, had re- 
enthroned Mammon. The rich exploited 
the poor and became richer, while the 
proletariat became more miserable. 
These conditions had to be justified be- 
cause, as the Knglish jurist Blackstone 
declared, no reason can be found in 
natural law for the property laws [of 
his time, which were nearly the same 
as ours], though, he added, it is use- 
less to speculate about them, as every 
one should obey the laws as they stand 
(Comm. V, II, p. 238). 




Powerful men endeavored to justify 
the existing conditions, and scientists 
came to their help by construing "nat- 
ural" laws which entailed the misery 
of the people as an inevitable conse- 
quence. "The Iron Wage Law" filled 
the bill, and the law of "Supply and 
Demand" served to cover usury. The 
first has disappeared, but the second is 
still employed to justify profiteering. 
All the so-called economic systems and 
theories invented since the Renaissance 
are only justifications of Mammonism. 

The words of our Saviour : "The 
children of this world are wiser in their 
generation than the children of light," 
received a graphic illustration. The 
rich and mighty declared property to 
be sacred. It became more sacred than 
life, for a man who takes a loaf of 
bread to avert starvation was and is 
judged a common thief. This is plainly 
against the Christian moral law. Never- 
theless, clergymen of all denominations 
fell into the trap, and the poor soon 
learned to regard the clergy as their 
enemy. Many held the Church respon- 
sible for the conduct of her ministers 
and declared that she was siding with 
the rich and powerful. What Thomas 
More had predicted now came to pass : 
Laws were made for the rich without 
regard to God's commandments. Grad- 
ually the separation between rich and 
poor grew to be an abyss, and Proud- 
hon coined the slogan : "Propertv is 

Many noble reformers pitied the 
misery of the people and tried to help 
them. They began by endeavoring to 
improve the condition of the industrial 
workers, which were dreadful. But 
industry is not the foundation of 
human life and culture. As the prol- 
etariat has been created by taking the 
kind from the people, so the first con- 
dition for re-establishing social justice 
and Christian culture is the restoration 
of the land to the people. Land and 
the resources of nature are Mammon's 
chief tools now as at the time of our 

Karl Marx was the first to perceive 
that profit was the chief cause of social 
misery. He declared that human labor 

constitutes the real value of merchan- 
dise and that profit robs the working- 
man of his wages and enhances prices 
above the real value. He wanted the 
State to control all industrial undertak- 
ings for the benefit of the workingmen, 
giving each his just share of the in- 
come. Marx's fundamental mistake is 
that he postulated perfect men for his 
"Future State." All men like to be 
regarded as perfect, and nothing else 
being offered to the workingmen, So- 
cialism became a power. The disciples 
of Marx picture his "Future State" as 
a thing midway between More's Utopia 
and Mahomet's paradise. 

Meanwhile Bishop Ketteler of May- 
ence had given time and thought and 
money to bettering the condition of the 
industrial workers, and though he had 
little immediate success, public atten- 
tion was forcibly called to the glaring 
injustice of the existing conditions. 
Ketteler's followers were numerous 
and are still at work. They have con- 
vinced leading statesmen that the con- 
dition of the working classes must be 
bettered and made more secure, and 
that Socialism is a real danger. Pro- 
tective laws for the industrial workers 
were passed in many countries. But 
these merely confirmed the reign of 
Mammon ; they did not attack the 
pagan property laws, and hence, as even 
the leaders of to-day concede, they are 
preventive measures only and offer no 
solution of the social question. 

Labor unions have done a great deal 
to better the condition of the working 
people, but when the unions tried to get 
"the right to work" for their members 
by enforcing the "closed shop," they 
met with stubborn resistance. Much 
has been said in favor of democracy as 
a panacea for all evils of society. But 
thinking men know that true democracy 
is possible only where every citizen is 

Father Lehmkuhl complains that it 
is impossible, with all our modern 
machinery, to reinstate the ancient 
guilds, because the majority of men are 
no longer Christians. This statement 
rightly presupposes that Christianity 
and the social question are closely con- 



March 1 

nected. Karl Marx held that religion 
and property are closely connected, 
which was the mistake whence most of 
his false conclusions flowed. Marx 
also prophesied that the present system 
would wind up with a great cata- 
strophe, believing that the workingmen 
would eventually unite to overthrow it. 
Eut Mammon has worked too long not 
to realize the importance of the old 
rule: "Divide et imperii*' He has filled 
all men, including the workingmen, 
with suspicion against their neighbors. 
Perhaps the Great War will result 
in bringing men closer together and 
restoring confidence and love among 
them. The larger the armies were, the 
more effective will be the preparation 
for better conditions now that the war 
is over. In the inscrutable wisdom and 
justice of God the same powers that 
built up Mammon's kingdom on earth 
may eventually encompass its destruc- 
tion. C. Meurer 
Little Rock, Ark. 

The Free versus the "Kept'' Press 

An editorial writer in the Nciv Age 
( Xo. 1364 ) calls attention to the fact 
that the free press is more severely 
criticized by its readers than the "kept" 

The reason no doubt is that, in com- 
parison with the "kept" press, the free 
press protests its freedom and sets it- 
self up on a kind of pedestal. Every 
"excuse" is consequently denied to it, 
and the smallest complaint is enlarged 
to a grievance. The "kept" press may 
be caught in flagrant contradictions, in 
lies, in chicanery of all kinds, in every 
form of intellectual and other dishones- 
ty ; — it continues to be read and "fol- 
lowed" as an infallible oracle because 
.Teat majority of its readers are 
unthinking and callous. Xo newspaper 
in this country has ever died of "ex- 
posure." On the contrary, many 
to thrive on it. 

The free pre>s, on the other hand, 
has for it- readers not only the most 
exigent critics, but the most contradic- 
tory. They are not only hard to. please 
( which is a merit;, but their reasons for 

being pleased or the reverse, are bewil- 
deringly various. And, moreover, when 
they are pleased they are usually silent, 
whereas when they are displeased, they 
write vehement letters to the editor, and 
in many cases stop their subscription. 

"Comparing notes with my colleagues 
on all the free journals of this country 
| England] and America," says the New 
Age writer, "our experience is that at 
one time or another every third or 
fourth reader ceased for a while to be 
a subscriber." 

As a rule, however, they nearly all 
sooner or later return to the fold, for 
which we free lance editors must be 
duly thankful; for if these honest and 
independent readers remained away 
permanently, our journals would have 
to be discontinued. 

Catholics and Higher Education — An 
Alarming Situation 

"A Catholic Teacher" through the 
Ecclesiastical Rcvictv (LX, 1, 54 sq.) 
calls attention to the alarming fact that 
the status of American Catholics in re- 
gard to higher education is far worse 
than the statistics in the Official Catho- 
lic Directory would lead one to expect. 

He says he recently had occasion to 
compare the number of Catholic stu- 
dents in Catholic colleges in a certain 
State with those in non-Catholic insti- 
tutions. There were five dioceses in 
the State, and the Catholic Directory 
credited them with two universities and 
eight colleges. The attendance was 
given only for two dioceses, but in those 
amounted to 478. A personal inquiry 
showed that instead of ten colleges with 
a total of at least 500 students, the five 
dioceses in question in reality had only 
three colleges, i. c., colleges that were 
really colleges and not mere high 
schools, with an average attendance of 
a dozen each! 

As the Catholic population of the 
State in question is about 500,000, 
some interesting conclusions might be 
drawn from these figures as to the in- 
difference of the Catholic people to 
Catholic education. The writer of the 
article does not enter into this aspect of 



his theme, but he does call attention to 
"the inadvisability of sending false sta- 
tistics to the Catholic Directory." The 
editors of the Directory, he says, wish 
to give correct figures, and the man- 
agers of our educational institutions 
and the chancery offices ought to supply 
correct figures. 

"It does not help Catholic institu- 
tions, or the cause of Catholic educa- 
tion, to call a high school a college. In 
fact, there are two ways in which it 
hurts our cause. First of all, it lulls us 
into security where there is really need 
for alarm. If we had two universities 
and eight colleges in the State I spoke 
of, with an attendance of 2,000, as one 
might judge from the Catholic Direc- 
tory, the showing would be very good 
indeed. But when we get behind the 
appearances, and learn that there are 
only three colleges and thirty students, 
the story is quite different. Then we 
see that there is genuine cause for fear 
instead of congratulation. Again, it 
throws direct discredit on all our insti- 
tutions when some of them assume 
titles which they do not deserve. When 
a Catholic high school calls itself a 
'university,' other Catholic institutions 
suffer. Our critics lump them all to- 
gether ; and, because this one institution 
which they know calls a high school a 
university, they think that we do not 
really know what a university is." 

The writer quotes Bishop Spalding's 
saw, "The saddest fact is better than 
the merriest lie," and appeals to the 
diocesan and educational authorities to 
"get the facts accurately into the Di- 
rectory." We cordially support his ap- 
peal. As we have so often insisted, 
there is no hope for the future of 
Catholicity in America if we beguile 
ourselves with falsehoods. 


A Plea For Liberal Studies 

In the era of "reconstruction" now 
setting in, the studies which were for- 
merly regarded as the essentials of the 
"liberal arts" course will meet even with 
more opposition than was the case be- 
fore the Great War. For the partial 
abandonment of the classics, and of 

practically all humanitarian studies in 
most of the colleges for men, owing to 
these institutions becoming components 
of the Student's Army Training Corps, 
has relegated the classics to the back- 
ground and given an immense impetus 
to the so-called practical branches and 
to those fitting for immediate proficiency 
in one of the scientific callings. How- 
' ever, the danger of pursuing this course 
in our educational methods and of giv- 
ing over-emphasis to the things of 
every-day concern, without any refer- 
ence to the ideals and lessons of the 
past, is being pointed out by men who 
have not lost their vision and judgment 
in the long-continued hue and cry in 
favor of an "up-to-date" school pro- 
gramme. The following criticism is from 
the Dial (April 11, '18). The reference 
to President Eliot and Mr. Flexner as 
members of an "old-fashioned school 
of thought" will amuse those who have 
been following the "revolutionary" sug- 
gestions of these two gentlemen. Says 
the Dial: 

"There are signs of healthy discon- 
tent among us ; the future does not 
seem so secure as it did a few years 
ago ; and the law of automatic progress 
has been discredited, except among the 
members of that earnest but old-fash- 
ioned school of thought to which Presi- 
dent Eliot and Mr. Flexner belong. It 
is, for example, manifest from Presi- 
dent Eliot's pamphlet on Latin that he 
still believes in Herbert Spencer; the 
world has only to abolish a few more 
'requirements for the A.B. degree,' and 
to put 'science' on the pedestal, in order 
to be quite happy and virtuous. If we 
desire the next generation to be even 
more sleepy and self-satisfied than this 
one is, then we can follow President 
Eliot's advice. But if we are tired of 
narcotics and if we are fond of liberty, 
then we shall insist that the next gen- 
eration study science to be sure, and 
plenty of it, but above all that they 
apply themselves more and more vigor- 
ously to the study of the history and 
literature and thought of the past. Our 
freedom in the present is exactly pro- 
portionate to our understanding of the 
failures as well as of the successes of 



March 1 

the past ; and that understanding can be 
won only by hard personal work. There 
will of course be nothing easy in this 
process ; it is always easier to relax 
'requirements' and to take the class on 
a jaunt to the City Hall to study 'civics,' 
or to show them how to make a fireless 
cooker. But (pace Mr. Flexner) it is 
never easv to be free." A. M. 

A Warning Against Radicalism 

We hear much, in these days of be- 
ginning reconstruction, about the evils 
of the wage system and the need of 
industrial democracy, which is a rather 
vague term. Father Philip H. Burkett, 
S.J., in a paper contributed to the Cath- 
olic Charities Review (Vol. II, No. 10), 
warns against radicalism. 

"Before we abandon the wage sys- 
tem," he says, criticizing an article in 
a previous issue of the same magazine 
b\ Father McGowan, "we ought to be 
sure that our leap will not be into a 
great unknown, or be, perhaps, a transi- 
tion from the frying pan into the fire. 
The 'agencies to iron out the difficulties' 
ought to be at hand and their effects 
well known. There ought to be more 
than 'strong hopes for the success' of 
the system. The insuperable difficulties 
I suggested have thus far not been 
ironed out by arguments or remedies. 
How 'governmental supervision of a 
fairly rigid kind, and the community as 
a partner with the guilds in control of 
all industry' is going to work out well 
and at the same time safeguard the 
workman's much vaunted liberty, and 
us free from the shackles of So- 
cialism when government even 'appoints 
the directors,' I fail to see. If a uni- 
.! cooperative system of production 

is the panacea and the wag'- system is 

inherently wrong how is it that 

XIII, a learned and far-seeing 

Pontiff, has not extolled the oik- in his 

great and practical encyclical and put 
the stamp of condemnation on the 
other? Father McGowan has evidently 

taken deep draughts of Hilaire I'elloc's 
'Servile State,' which is known to be 
overcharged. In a great question he 
attempts a solution which, to say the 

least, is very far distant, namely uni- 
versal cooperation, and he repudiates 
schemes which are partial solutions for 
the present and have contributed might- 
ily in the past to improve conditions. 
Wouldn't it be wiser to adopt these in 
the meantime, build on them and thus 
advance to the millennium? Radical 
and sweeping measures seldom succeed 
except in time of revolutions. The 
'great propaganda to be carried on' — 
unless it be carried on in a proper way 
— has this evil effect among many, that 
it foments Socialistic discontent among 
the whole laboring class." 

"Father McGowan," concludes Father 
Burkett, "has well planned an ideal co- 
operative state. But, like an unwary 
general, he has not taken any account 
of the strategic moves of his enemy in 
the meantime. The enemy is, first, 
fallen human nature, which is and ever 
will remain selfish and greedy, and, 
secondly, government, which is fre- 
quently corrupt and venal." 


Revival of Spanish-American Culture 
in the Southwest 

In a lecture before the Woman's Club 
of Albuquerque, N. M., Mr. Aldo Leo- 
pold told his hearers some things which 
deserve wide circulation, not only in the 
Southwest. We quote from a synopsis 
of the lecture published in Vol. V, No. 
13 of El Palacio, the valuable and al- 
ways interesting weekly organ of the 
Museum of New Mexico, the School of 
American Research, the Archaeological 
Society of New Mexico, and the Santa 
Fe Society of the Archaeological Insti- 

Mr. Leopold began by telling his 
hearers that the largest defect of Albu- 
querque is that it is just like other 
western cities of its size, with prosaic 
street names, commonplace buildings, 
< tC. "With two hundred years of his- 
tory and traditions behind us — with a 
native architecture, an indigenous cult- 
ure, and surroundings entirely different 
from the rest of the country," he said, 
"we have nothing distinctive but a 

He went on to explain that south- 
western culture is just as truly Ameri- 




can as that of New England, and that 
the people of the Southwest, instead of 
aping the East, should adopt the spon- 
taneous and natural style of art indige- 
nous to their soil. "We had in New 
Mexico an indigenous [Spanish- Ameri- 
can] culture as full of color, as rich in 
character, as that of any other section 
of America." This culture ought to be 
revived and expressed in the arts, in 
literature, and in everyday life. 

To do so would not hinder but rather 
advance the material development of 
our cities, as the example of Santa Fe 
shows, of which Mr. Leopold says : 
"Santa Fe is the .only southwestern 
town which has not made this same 
mistake, and Santa Fe is prospering — 
commercially and esthetically — chiefly 
from this very reason. Santa Fe is the 
intellectual capital of New Mexico." 

Testing the Child Mind 

The little paper on "Testing the Child 
Mind" (F. R., Vol. XXV, No. 21) was 
read with extraordinary interest by a 
number of our readers. At least two 
of them have written for further bibli- 
ographical hints with regard to the 
pedagogic scales of measurement, their 
mode of application and their value. 

Binet and Simon's "Method of Meas- 
uring the Development of the Intelli- 
gence of Young Children" was pub- 
lished in English by the Chicago Med- 
ical Book Co. in 1915. "The Develop- 
ment of Intelligence in Children" (the 
Binet-Simon scale) by the William & 
Wilkins Co., of Baltimore, 1916. The 
same publishers issue Binet and Simon's 
"Intelligence of the Feeble-Minded." 
"Mentally Defective Children," by the 
same authors, tr. by W. B. Drummond, 
was published by Longmans Green & 
Co. in 1910. F. Kuhlmann published a 
"Revision of the Binet-Simon System" 
at Faribault, Minn., in 1912. 

"A Measuring Scale for Ability in 
Spelling," by Leonard Porter Ayres, is 
one of the publications of the Russell 
Sage Foundation. His "Laggard in Our 
Schools," a study of retardation in city 
schools, was published by the N. V. 
Charities Publication Committee in 
1913. "A Manual of Instructions for 

Giving and Scoring the Courtis Stand- 
ard Tests in the Three R's," by Stuart 
Appleton Courtis, was issued by the 
Department of Cooperative Research 
of Detroit, Mich., in 1914. These are 
also used in "Arithmetic : A Cooperative- 
Study in Educational Measurements," 
by Melvin E. Haggerty, a bulletin of the 
Indiana University, Vol. 12, No. 18, 
with a bibliography. Of William Ilealy's 
studies of juvenile delinquency the latest 
is "Mental Conflicts and Misconduct" 
(Little, Brown, 1917). There is a chap- 
ter on the subject in "The Individual 
Delinquent" (Little, Brown, 1915). The 
second edition, revised and enlarged, of 
Edward L. Thorndike's "Introduction 
of the Theory of Mental and Social 
Measurements," with tables and dia- 
grams, was published by the Teachers 
College, Columbia, in 1913. The same- 
press issued Milo B. Hillegas's "Scale 
for the Measurement of Quality in 
English Composition by Young Peo- 
ple," in 1912. 

Other works of this class include 
"The Examination of School Children," 
by \V. H. Pyle (Macmillan) ; the com- 
prehensive "Manual of Mental and 
Physical Tests," by G. M. Whipple, and 
M. R. Trabue's "Completion Test Lan- 
guage Scales" (Teachers College "Con- 
tributions to Education," No. 77). 

A recently published work that fur- 
nishes a new scale for the measurement 
of mentality is "A Scale of Performance 
Tests," by Rudolf Pintner and Donald 
Patterson (Appleton), authors of "A 
Psychological Basis for the Diagnosis 
of Feeble-Mindedness," in the Journal 
of Criminal Law, Vol. 7, 1916. and 
"Mental Surveys of Small Communi- 
ties," published in School and Society. 
Vols. 5 and 7. This differs from the 
scales in common use in that no tests of 
the original Binet series are included. 
They are especially useful for workers 
with foreign children, deaf children, 
and speech defectives, for whom, the 
authors say. the scales in common use 
are inadequate. Professor Pintner has 
also just published "The Mental Sur- 
vey" (Appleton), a series of standard- 
ized tests for measuring the intelligence 
of large groups of people. 


March 1 

Moral Theology and Canon Law 

Fr. M. A. Gearin, C.SS.R., says in a 
letter addressed to the editor of the 
Ecclesiastical Review (LX, 1, 68) that 
no little confusion and uncertainty in 
the interpretation of laws may be traced 
to the fact that moral theologians have 
at times unduly assumed the role of 
canonists. He says that this was the 
complaint of no less an authority than 
the celebrated canonist, Msgr. Lombardi. 
It is also, we may add. the complaint 
of Fr. Augustine. O.S.B., in his "Com- 
mentary on the New Code of Canon 
Law." passim. 

Father Gearin suggests that "both 
Moral Theology and Canon Law would 
greatly benefit by combining, each re- 
taining its own respective sphere." How 
these two distinct branches of sacred 
science are to be combined, he does not 
say. We can imagine no satisfactory 
method of combination. But the author 
is right in demanding that moralists and 
canonists cease to clash and restrict 
themselves each to his own domain. 
This has lately been the tendency of the 
best writers. Koch's Handbook of 
Moral Theology, for example, now 
appearing in an English adaptation 
(Herder), is certainly not open to the 
charge that it unduly trenches on the 
precincts of Canon Law. The author 
90 rigorously confines himself to what 
belongs to Moral Theology that he 
passes by the marriage impediments 
with the curt remark that they lie out- 
side the scope of Moral Theology and 
belong to ( anon Law. What we need 
are, on the one hand, text-books con- 
fined strictly to their respective sciences. 
and, on the other, cordial co-operation 
between moralists and canonists on all 
those questions, and there are many, 
which in some aspect or other belong to 
both of these important sciences. Now 
thai the new (ode lias bound lis closer 
than ever to the common law of the 
Church, we cherish with Fr. Gearin the 
fond hope that onr country may, raise 

Up a body of highly trained canonists 

who will shed lustre on the Church. 
Hitherto the moralists had to supply 
much that the canonist! failed to 


How We Got West Florida 

The tangled and dishonorable story 
of our long diplomatic struggle for 
West Florida is unravelled by Isaac 
foslin Cox in "The West Florida Con- 
troversy, 1798-1813" (John Hopkins 
Press). The work is summarized as 
follows by a reviewer in No. 2785 of 
the Nation: 

From the day that Jefferson knew 
that Louisiana was to become a part of 
the United States till the end of the 
second war with England, the American 
representatives in London, Paris, and 
Madrid, the petty officials along the 
southern bord, and the higher officials 
in New Orleans and Natchez played the 
game of diplomacy as it was played at 
the time, and as it has been played since 
by all who wish to drive unfair and 
narrowly selfish bargains. It was a part 
of Jefferson's policy to annex both the 
Floridas and Cuba. If he could accom- 
plish this by diplomacy, well; if not, 
then he would risk war or engage in 
the European scramble in the hope that 
the waters of American rivers might 
flow unvexed into the Gulf. In fact, 
as Professor Cox makes very plain, this 
lower Mississippi region was to young 
America just what the Netherlands 
have been to France or Germany for a 
thousand years. And Spaniards, En- 
glishmen, and Frenchmen saw clearly 
enough that whoever held the mouth 
of the Mississippi, the Tombigbce, or 
the straits of Florida, held the whip 
hand over the growing republic which 
most Europeans regarded with so much 

If the author fails at any point of his 
careful and detailed account, it is just 
at this juncture. It was not alone the 
rich sugar lands of West Florida or 
the interests simply of the multiplying 
cotton fanners of the lower South that 
swept the idealistic mind of Jefferson 
s'i far from its accustomed moorings, 
but that problem of the control of 
American rivers then so much more 
important than it would be in this day 
i>\ railroads and rapid transit. 

Still, the evasions of all the Presi- 
dents of the "Virginia dynasty," the 
positive wrong of seizing Mobile in 




1805, and the shifty conduct of most 
of the local representatives of the gov- 
ernment for a period of fifteen years, 
make a bill of indictment against the 
early Republic that none of us can read 
with any degree of satisfaction. 

It was the frontiersmen who solved 
the problem. They seized lands, intimi- 
dated Spanish officials, and finally 
seized Baton Rouge, and would not let 
go till the United States made settle- 
ment with European claimants. More- 
over, the rapid increase of American 
squatters and border ruffians, not unlike 
those who later overran Kansas, com- 
pelled all the governments concerned to 
a settlement. 

It is a good and a wholesome account 
which we now have of this difficult 
phase of our history. 


The Catholic Movement Among the 
Free Churches of England 

It is well known to all our readers 
that there is and has been for some time 
in the Church of England a ritualistic 
movement that is approaching the Cath- 
olic Church more closely from year to 
year and leading many of its individual 
members into her maternal bosom. But 
few are probably aware that there 
exists also among the so-called Free 
Churches of Great Britain a "Society 
of Free Catholics" who are headed in 
the same direction. 

The ideas and aims of this movement 
are set forth in detail by the Rev. W. G. 
Peck, a Free Church minister, in a book 
entitled "The Coming Free Catholi- 
cism," just published by Allen & Unwin, 
of London. From this book we gather 
that the Society of Free Catholics is 
composed mainly, if not entirely, of 
members of the various Free Churches, 
who "would emphasize the existence of 
a Holy Catholic Church and find their 
membership in it the solution of most 
of the difficulties which affect modern 
Christian life." They disclaim any in- 
tention to make Rome the goal of their 
desire, nor do they hope much from the 
Church of England or Protestantism in 

Mr. Peck is not convincing on all 
points, but his book proves one thing 
beyond a doubt, — namely, that there is 
growing up among the members of the 
Free Churches of England a new re- 
spect for Catholic practices and the re- 
adoption of the time-honored liturgical 
forms of worship. Some of the younger 
Free Church ministers wish to make the 
"Sacrament of the Holy Communion" 
the central act of worship with the vest- 
ments and ritual belonging to tradition, 
and we are told : — "It is not long since 
a certain Free Church minister aston- 
ished the congregation at a united serv- 
ice held by the Free Church Council of 
his town by devoutly crossing himself 
before he went into the pulpit to preach 
the sermon." 

The Catholicism described in this 
volume is sui generis and differs in not 
a few points from the true Catholicism 
of the Church of Rome, but there can 
be no doubt of the earnestness of its 
propaganda, and we therefore have 
strong hope that, though it may not 
result in corporate reunion, it will be 
the instrument of the conversion of 
thousands of Free Church Englishmen 
to the Mother Church. And if but a 
single soul be saved through its agency, 
the movement deserves our sympathy 
and, so far as may be, our cooperation. 
Co-operation in a good work by prayer 
is always permitted, always desirable, 
and always an act of true charity. 

— The Hon. William Kent says in a 
current magazine article that he could 
not read philosophy until one day a 
friend put a book by William James 
into his hands. "When I read James's 
'Pragmatism,' " he says, "a sunrise 
came. I learned in this little book, that 
nothing was so. just because something 
else was so, and that if you wanted to 
find out whether anything was so. the 
only thing to do was to try it out. and 
then, although it might have been so 
that time, it might never be so again. 
The relief was inconceivable. Deduction 
be damned — think of it. A vast, dreary 
library was destroyed." That is as neat 
a reductio ad absurd inn of Pragmatism 
as we have yet seen. 


March 1 


Latin Americans in the U. S. 

An Asociacion I bero- Americana de 
ios Estados L'nidos was recently found- 
ed in New York. It aims at organizing 
the members of Latin American nations 
resident in this country with a view to 
collective representation when occasion 
arises. Among its secondary purposes 
are to encourage acquaintance between 
the citizens residing here and those 
from Latin America, to establish closer 
relations of the members with tjie peo- 
ple of this country for the purpose of 
establishing greater harmony between 
the two branches of the great American 
family, to render help and give protec- 
tion to any citizen of a Latin American 
country residing here, or who may 
come as a visitor, or to seek work, do 
business, or study, and to organize the 
workingmen of the Ibero-American 
element < Mexicans, Cubans, etc.) for 
mutual protection and assistance. A 
brief sketch of the new Association 
and a list of its officers appears in the 
Sep tem ber number of the Bulletin of 
the Pan American Union, 17th & B. 
. Washington, D. C. 

The Asociacion is evidently non- 
denominationa] in character, but as 
Latin Americans arc mostly of the 
< atholic faith, it is to be hoped that the 
members will not allow the old Church 
to be besmirched by our Anglo-Saxon 
Vohaireana (see Dr. Culemans's arti- 
cle in Vol. XXV, No. 22, pp. 340 sq. of 
this Review >, aa has been the practice 
hitherto. Latin Americans themselves 

Could do more to silence these attacks 

than all the Catholic newspapers of the 
1 5. put together. 

A Curious British Inconsistency 

We note from recent reports thai the 
sanitation of J< rusalem has already 

taken up by the British and thai 
a perfed tern of drainage is being 
installed in the city. In connection 
therewith the New Witness (XII, 309) 
a strange inconsistency in the 
British character. "It i> one of the 

curious thing our London 

contemporary, "that while no govern- 
ment dares to oppose the structural im- 
provements of any place under British 
protection, there is an immediate howl 
of protest if it is suggested that decent 
dwellings should be erected for our own 
people even if the cost fall on the rates. 
The English taxpayer will in the ulti- 
mate pay for the drainage of Jerusalem, 
and will very rightly be pleased to do 
so. Why, however, he should be moved 
to indignation at the thought of assist- 
ing to pay for the erection of decent 
houses for our fellow countrymen it is 
not easy to understand. There is, more- 
over, an essential difference in the hand- 
ling of the two problems. In Jerusa- 
lem, it is obvious that the best system 
of drainage has been planned. In Lon- 
don the formula is changed. It is the 
cheapest the politicians want." 

Stars in the Vicinity of Our Sun 

Until a short time ago Alpha Centauri 
was regarded as the fixed star nearest 
to our sun. By comparing old photo- 
graphs of the firmament with such of 
recent date, the renowned astronomer 
Barnard found that a very small star, 
of the magnitude 10.5, and therefore 
not visible to the naked eye, in the con- 
stellation Ophiuchus, possesses a very 
large proper motion, traversing 10.3 
seconds a year on the firmament. The 
distance between this star and our sun 
was later determined to be 3.3 light 
\ears or three- fourths of the distance 
from Alpha Centauri to the sun, and 
its velocity at right angle to the line of 
vision, 32 miles per second. Spectro- 
scopic measurements showed that this 
star approaches us with a velocity of 
56.5 miles per second along the line 
of vision. This would make its combined 
velocity 63 miles per second, — an un- 
usually lii^'h value. The value of three 
light years used in this calculation was 
d< termined by Gonnessiat, who found 
it by the study of old photograps from 
Algeria, lie calculated the parallax of 
this star to be one second. According 
to later measurements, however, (see 
Harvard Bulletins Mo. 616 and 617), 
its parallax is only 0.7 seconds, its dist- 
ance from the sun 4.6 light years, and 




its speed perpendicularly to the line of 
vision 43.5 miles per second. Campbell, 
in the Lick Observatory, determined its 
radial velocity and found that it ap- 
proaches the sun at the rate of 79 miles 
per second. Its total velocity, accord- 
ing to these two last determinations, is 
91 miles per second. 

Dr. Svante Arrhenius ("The Desti- 
nies of the Stars," tr. by J. E. Fries, 
Putnam, 1918, p. 74, n.) thinks it "by 
no means improbable that similar dis- 
coveries will be made in the future, so 
that the sun will be found to have more 
stars in its immediate 'vicinity' than 
previously assumed." 

Froude, the Arch-Liar 

The unreliability of James Anthony 
Froude as a historian is an inexhausti- 
ble theme. The latest writer to apply 
himself to it is Father Hull of the 
Bombay Examiner. He discusses 
Froude under the title, "that arch-liar," 
and incidentally calls attention to James 
F. Meline's half-forgotten book, "Mary 
Queen of Scots and Her Latest English 
Historian." Col. Meline is the man who 
first forced the conclusion on English 
judges, much against their will, that 
Froude "did not seem to know the 
value of quotation-marks." His book 
was published in 1872, twenty-two years 
before Froude's death, and it stands 

We ourselves have during the twenty- 
five years of this journal's career had 
many occasions to show what a system- 
atic falsifier Froude was. (For the last 
instance of the kind see our Vol. XXV, 
No. 7, p. 108). It would be worth while 
to combine the innumerable refutations 
of his lies and blunders into one volume. 
They are scattered over numbers of 
books, magazines, and newspapers, each 
writer tackling him on a particular part 
of his work. The ensemble would be 

Translating from the French 

R. L. G. Richie and J. M. More have 
written a treatise on "Translation from 
the French" (Cambridge University 
Press), which has a much wider field 
of usefulness than that for which it 
seems immediately destined, i. c, the 

use of students with examinations in 
view. Some public benefactor should 
present a copy to our official and un- 
official translators of documents and 
news reports, so that they might learn 
that pretcndu should not be rendered by 
"pretended," or demand cr by "demand," 
or caves by "caves," or "un tristc spec- 
tacle" by "a sad spectacle." 

The publishers of most translations 
from the French are beyond praying 
for, otherwise we would advise them to 
keep a copy of this book on their desks, 
and when a new translator presents 
himself, to offer him a dollar to prac- 
tice on one of the passages the authors 
have selected as exercises. As the 
Saturday Reviczv .(No. 3284) rightly 
says, a work of this kind has long been 
badly needed, for in no department of 
our literary output are we so disgrace- 
fully bad as in translating from the 
French (unless it be in translating from 
the German). It seems so easy, yet it 
is in reality more difficult than translat- 
ing from Latin or Greek. The speci- 
mens given by the authors of what 
passes for translation from the French 
are mercifully selected from out-of- 
date books, but as bad or worse mis- 
takes could be pointed out in nine out 
of ten of last year's translations. 

Horace and His Secret 

Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch, in his 
lately published "Studies in Literature" 
(Cambridge University Press), devotes 
some pages to Horace. 

Horace, he says, still defies transla- 
tion, and if we are to appreciate fully 
his individuality, we must turn to his 
odes, which have almost been the de- 
spair of imitators. Sir Arthur appro- 
priately describes the attractiveness of 
their style, "which, the moment you lose 
grasp of it, is dissipated into thin air. 
and eludes your concentrated pursuit — 
so that like any booby schoolboy, you 
have your hands for certain over the 
butterfly, and. opening them ever so 
cautiously, find it gone." 

It may well seem a puzzle why so 
many men of widely differing tempera- 
ment find a perennial delight in Horace, 
and that English poets from the days 



March 1 

of the revival of learning, in their en- 
deavor to make this charm their cap- 
tive, should have worked upon the 
Horatian model. Sir Arthur maintains 
that of all who have attempted to prohe 
the secret, the nearest to succeed in 
becoming our English Horace was 
William Cowper, who "alone caught the 
serious side of the Roman poet." The 
Horatian manner and phrase may have 
been attained, bur who, he asks, "has 
tamed the Horatian meter to the En- 
glish tongue with the skill with which 
Horace tamed foreign meters?" And 
he is convinced that the only way to 
capture Horace's secret is to render him 
"in delicate meters divorced from 



— Apropos of Dr. Thompson's ad- 
mission, in his book on "The Church 
and the Wage-Earners," that the reli- 
gious orders acted as bridge-builders 
and road constructors in the Middle 
Ages, Dr. John A. Ryan points out in 
the Catholic Charities Review (III, 1) 
that the social services of the religious 
orders continue to this day. Mission- 
aries everywhere are instructors not 
only in religion but in agriculture and 
other useful arts. The Salesians are 
carrying on fine social work in the 
spirit of Don Bosco in Italy and South 
America. The Fathers of the Divine 
Word have been teaching their black- 
children in Africa the Christian reli- 
gion and the arts of life. The sons of 
St. Francis have brought the light of 
faith and material prosperity to the 
Navajofl of Arizona and New Mexico. 
The Oblates are working for the spir- 
itual and social uplift of the Denes of 
British Columbia. Men like DeSmet 
and Marty, who labored among the 
Sioux, were not only missionaries of 
the "good tidings," but apostles of 
charity and promoter-, of social peace 
and happinej 

— Measured bv the criterion of the 

conduct of foreign policy, the United 

- -til! to go to school to learn 

democracy. "\\ ho of us," asks a writer 

in the Dial (No. 780), "will ever have 
a chance to vote on a single one of the 
peace conditions now being drawn up? 
What means have we for assuring our- 
selves that we shall even know what all 
those conditions are? In a word, our 
conduct of our foreign policy is in 
working fact, if not in form, as irre- 
sponsible as that of any autocracy or 
monarchy. In fact, if not in form, it 
is still being determined for us behind 
our backs, and without our knowledge 
or consent, by a small clique of per- 

— The coming of prohibition will 
throw upon States and cities the task 
of finding new sources of income. In 
New York, for example, the taxes col- 
lected on the liquor traffic have fur- 
nished between a fifth and a sixth of 
the total State receipts. Evidently a 
number of our States will soon be com- 
pelled to overhaul their tax systems. 
We hope that they will do so on the 
most modern principles of equitable 
taxation. Meanwhile the nation will be 
casting about for means of replacing 
the $443,839,544 that in 1918 it drew 
from the internal revenue tax on intox- 
icating beverages. 

— According to the Catholic Temper- 
ance Advocate (Vol. X, No. 3) there is 
no reason to fear that national prohibi- 
tion will interfere with the Mass. The 
amendment to the Federal Constitution 
has been worded so as to safeguard 
communion wines. It forbids the man- 
ufacture, sale, etc., of intoxicating 
liquors solely "for beverage purposes." 
The Advocate prints a legal comment 
on the amendment by Judge William 
H. De Lacey, a distinguished Catholic 
lawyer of Washington, D. C, who 
holds that "there never has been any 
doubt in the minds of the courts or 
anyone else that liquor sold or used for 
beverage purposes is not liquor for sac- 
ramental or medicinal purposes." On 
the other hand we note that Cardinal 
Gibbons in an interview declared that 
sacramental wine cannot be manufac- 
tured, and the Denver Catholic Register 
(XIV, 26) says, its manufacture is 
forbidden under the "dry" law of 
( olorado. 




— The Norwegian daily Tidens Tegn 
recently offered a substantial prize for 
the best epigram on the war. About 
1,800 poets competed. The epigram 
which was judged the best is rendered 
by the Manchester Guardian as follows : 

Right did triumph, 

So men will see 

Right as touchstone 

In times to be. 
The successful poet, Irma Hansen, cre- 
ated a sensation when she came to the 
office of the Tidens to get her prize, for 
she turned out to be a school-girl only 
eleven years old. 

— "The time will come," says the 
Public (No. 1079), "when it will appear 
to every person as atrocious that pro- 
duction should be curtailed while the 
wealthy live on their surpluses and 
jockey for high prices, to be created 
through scarcity." We hope it will not 
take a social revolution to bring about 
this consummation. 

— The Boston Monitor calls attention 
to an organization that is not so widely 
known as it should be, namely, "The 
Friends of Our Native Landscape." 
This society is about five years old and 
numbers over 200 members, scattered 
throughout the U. S. Its purpose is to 
preserve the picturesque and beautiful 
bits of landscape in neighborhoods 
where the "march of progress" threat- 
ens to destroy them, and that, we fear, 
is the case pretty nearly everywhere. It 
it to be hoped that the exhibition of 
American landscapes in color and etch- 
ings recently held at the Chicago Art 
Institute will be shown also in other 
cities, particularly in the smaller places 
where art exhibitions rarely take place 
and where many persons would be in 
sympathy with the movement to pre- 
serve landscape beauty if they saw 
more of it around them. 

— In No. 539 of the Annals of the 
Propagation of Faith, Father J. L. Le 
Texier, O.M.I., describes his experi- 
ences among the Zulu Kaffirs. He ex- 
plains some of their characteristics and 
superstitions, their feasts and customs, 
and concludes with the significant re- 
mark : "Obviously it would take a life- 

time to study the ethnology of the Kaf- 
firs. The practice of circumcision and 
the leviate law which they have re- 
tained, point to the conclusion that they 
were acquainted with the times of the 
Patriarchs and even of Moses. A deep 
study of their traditions would be 
eminently useful and instructive. Schol- 
ars will undertake this some day, and 
I am convinced that it will throw fresh 
light on many questions of Hebrew 
history and Genesis." 

— Sleeping car porters are now gov- 
ernment employees and as such come 
under Section 1782 of the U. S. Revised 
Statutes, which makes it a misdemeanor 
for any officer or clerk in the employ of 
the government to receive or agree to 
receive any compensation for services 
rendered or to be rendered from private 
individuals, under penalty of imprison- 
ment of not more than two years or a 
fine of not more than $10,000, and con- 
sequent incapability, upon conviction, 
of holding any office of trust, honor, or 
profit under the government of the U. S. 
forever after. Before we deprive the 
poor porters of the tips by which they 
eke out a living, let us call upon the 
railroad administration to pay them a 
living wage. 

— It has been generally held by can- 
onists that the obligation of clerical 
celibacy arises not merely from ecclesi- 
astical law, but also from a vow, which 
is tacitly taken at the reception of the 
subdiaconate. Some authors, however, 
deny the existence of any such vow and 
assert that the ecclesiastical law is the 
sole source of the obligation. (Cfr. 
Wernz, "Ius Decretalium," III, n. 199: 
IV. n. 393). The new Code is silent on 
this point, and hence the controversy 
cannot be regarded as settled, though in 
the opinion of Dr. J. Kinane (Irish 
Pedes. Record, No. 606, p. 473). the 
fact that the vow is not mentioned in 
the new legislation is some indication 
that it does not really exist at all. The 
practical difference, as the same writer 
points out. is very small : no matter 
what the source of the obligation, its 
violation is a sin, not only of unchastity, 
but also of sacrilege. 



March 1 

— Prof. E. A. Ross, of the University 
of Wisconsin, in an address delivered 
at Milwaukee the other day, advocated 
a law compelling employers to pay em- 
ployees whom they discharge through 
no fault of the latter, a week's to a 
month's pay as a ''dismissal wage." He 
pointed out that while the insecurity of 
the wage-earner has been gradually 
lessened through mechanics' lien laws, 
accident compensation, old age pensions, 
etc.. the risk of losing his job remains 
a constant menace to every w r orker. 
Besides protecting the worker, the law 
would benefit the employer by compel- 
ling him to take measures to prevent a 
high labor turnover, which has been 
one of the greatest wastes of industry. 
Experts in "human engineering" would 
be employed who would find the right 
place for every man in the shop and 
provide him with the instruction that 
would enable him to make good on the 
job. Professor Ross has seen the dis- 
missal wage system in operation in the 
large industries of Russia and says it 
works out there to the advantage of 
both worker and manufacturer. 

— The home and foreign mission 
l>oards of nineteen different denomina- 
tions have decided to raise $100,000,000 
annually for church purposes, and pro- 
ls are in the air for Catholics to do 
what Protestants are doing, on a still 
more magnificent scale. A writer in the 
r.cclcsiaslical Review urges an an- 
nual "drive" for the foreign missions. 
Thr Western Watchman (LIII, 38) 
think- die proposed nation-wide collec- 
tion should not bo limited to one need. 
"Why not make it include at least the 
• vital gene r al needs at home and 
abroad?" queries our esteemed contem- 
porary. The Watchman's suggestion is 
that the parole be given out to Ameri- 
can Catholics: Not one eent for pleas- 
ure during Lent, and our savings from 
A h Wednesday to Lecture Sunday for 
the general needs of the Church at 
home and abroad. By a perfect propa- 
ganda and collective organization ten 
million dollars could easily be raised in 
this way, to be divided equally between 
home and foreign needs. We heartily 
ond the motion. 

— More than forty States have 
ratified the prohibition amendment to 
the Federal Constitution, and after 
June 30th next the country will be 
"bone-dry." We should be better re- 
signed to the approaching "era of 
snoopers and breath-smellers," to quote 
Mr. W. M. Reedy, if we did not know 
that these legislative ratifications of 
the amendment were so largely voted 
by politicians who do not believe in 
prohibition, who do not care for the 
principle of the thing, but are for it 
solely because they think that by such 
action they can hold their jobs. Mr. 
Reedy fears that prohibition will prove 
"the beginning of the end of free Amer- 
icanism," — but is there much of this 
precious rarity left under the Espion- 
age Act and the reign of terror brought 
on by the war? We may as well hail 
the reign of "Prussianism" if we are 
content to let the professional politi- 
cians run the country. 

— Under the title, "Disproportionate 
Representation," the Manchester (Eng- 
land) Guardian (No. 22,588) prints the 
following short but highly significant 
communication from a Lancashire 
reader: "Is it fair representation that 
gives Coalition Tories with 4,134,000 
votes 388 seats, whilst Labor with 2,- 
500,000 votes only gets 59 seats ? Coali- 
tion Liberals with 1,600,000 votes get 
136 seats, but free Liberals with l J / 2 
million votes only get 28 seats. The 
total vote of the Independents of all 
parties outside the Coalition is almost 
equal to that of the Coalition. Yet the 
Coalition has an enormous majority in 
the House." 

Such is "democracy" in England! 


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128 East Eighth Street 


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its facilitiea f«r quick delivery of printed 
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Literary Briefs 

— "Madame Cecilia" publishes a volume of 
"Outline Meditations," which she hopes will 
be useful for private meditation and for in- 
structing sodalists. The subjects are grouped 
according to, and deal mostly with the mys- 
teries of, the ecclesiastical seasons. (Benziger 
Bros.; $1.50 net). 

— "The Gospel and the Citizen" is the title 
of a neat little brochure by Father C. C. 
Martindale, S.J., which forms No. 2 of the 
Catholic Social Guild's "First Text Books." 
The "lessons" embodied in its forty-eight 
pages aim at indicating what are the social 
implications of the Gospel, for "that it does 
not contain a scheduled programme of social 
reform or organization," says the author, 
"or even a complete social philosophy as 
such, all will admit." All do not admit this, 
however, and Fr. M. might profitably have 
added a few words of refutation of the 
teachings of the late Prof. Rauschenbusch 
and other "Christian Socialists." Apart from 
this defect, the brochure, concisely written 
and full of the meat of sound doctrine, is 

well adapted to is purpose, and we cordially 
recommend it. (B. Herder Book Co.; 15 cts. 

— Father Francis Finn's latest story, "His 
Luckiest Year," strikes one as a bit too rose- 
ate in its denouement to be proclaimed as 
altogether satisfactory by the average youth. 
As one remarked the other day, "Some stories 
have too good an ending." However, it will, 
for all that, be read with genuine relish by 
every live and healthy-minded boy. If the 
lessons it embodies are taken to heart, a 
more virile and militant Catholicity in our 
American youth should be the logical result. 
(Benziger Bros.; $1). 

■ — While neatly gotten up and well printed, 
with rubrics in red, the "Manual of the So- 
dality," by the Rev. James J. Duffy, lately 
issued from the press of Peter Reilly, is too 
limited in its contents to find a wide field of 
usefulness. In its 133 pages there is not a 
line of the important general rules of all 
Marian Sodalities. Just three pages of par- 
ticular local rules are given. The Little Office 
of the Immaculate Conception, too, is want- 
ing. There are no ordinary prayer-book de- 
votions. (50 cts.) 



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March 1 

— Canon A. C. Deane includes Francis 
Thompson's "Hound of Heaven" in his re- 
cently published list of books for religious 
reading ("A Library of Religion'*), but 
thinks the poem much ever-rated. He is even 
daring enough to hint that when you have 
taken "the Latinisms and the laudanum" out 
of Thompson's work, there is not much left. 
tCr'r. Fr. Hull's estimate of Thompson in 
this Review, Vol. XXI, Xo. i ; Vol. XXV, 

Xo. s). 

Books Received 

Suppltmtmlmm Continent ea qnibus ex Codicc Inn's 
met Summa Theologian Moralis Auctore H. 

■in Exarata vei Mutatur vei Explicating Edidit 
Alberttu Schmitt, S.J., S. Theol. Prof, in C. R. 
I'niversitate Oenipontana. Editio 2a Emendata. 
81 pp. Umo. New York and Cincinnati: Fr. Pustet 
Co. (Inc.) (Wrapper). 

A Handbook of Moral Theology. By the Rev. An- 
tony Koch, D.D., Adapted and Edited by Arthur 
Preuss. Volume II: Sin and the Means of Grace. 
it & 230 pp. Umo. B. Herder Book Co. $1.50 net. 

Essaxs in Occultism, Spiritism, and Demonology. By 
Dean \V. R. Harris, vi & 181 pp. 12mo. B. Herder 
Book Co. SI net. 

Background* for Social Workers. By Edward T. 
Menge, M.A., Ph.D., tf.Sc., Professor of Bio!og*v, 
Dallas University. Boston: Richard G. Badger. 
1918. $1.50 net. 

7 'he Lord Jesus. His Birthday Story Told For You 
by Little Children. Illustrated. Chicago: Exten- 
sion Press. 50 cts. 

.\farriage Legislation in the New Code of Canon 
Law. By V. Rev. II. A. Ayrinnac, S.S., President 
of St. Patricks Seminary, Menlo Park, Cal. 335 
Dp. Umo. Benziger Brothers. $2 net. 

The Bedrock of Belief. The Foundations of Reli- 

?on. By William I". Robison, S.J., Professor of 
heology, St. Louis University, x & 206 pp. 12mo 
B Herder Book Co. $1.25 net. 
H hence Cometh Victoryt By Mary Brabson Little- 
ton. 2nd ed. 109 pp. 12mo. Baltimore: John 
Murphy Co. 50 cts. (Wrapper). 
.If on no of the Soul. By Rev. F. X. Lasance. Thin 
Edition. Benziger Bros. Price, from 75 cts. to 
$-'.75, according to binding. 

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March 15, 1919 

1'hotographed by Jesse Nusbaum 

Courtesy of "El Palacio" 



Together with Tabira to the south (of 
which we shall publish a picture later) 
and Abo to the west (see our last issue), 
Quarai forms a trio of superb mission 
ruins the like of which will not be found 
anywhere else. Quarai is the most 
beautifully located of the three; — in 
front of it a great spring with a cotton- 
wood grove, and around it the Manzano 
mountains, with a view in the distance 
of the mysterious salt and alkalin lakes 
of the Estancia plains. 

At the time of its occupancy Quarai 
was the southernmost Tigua pueblo of 
the Salinas region. In 1629 the Fran- 
ciscans established a mission there, con- 
sisting of a monastery and a church, of 
which the ruins are pictured above. Ac- 
cording to Vetancurt, Quarai had 600 
inhabitants immediately prior to its 
abandonment. Between 1664 and 1669 
the people of this pueblo connived with 
the Apaches, during a moment of 
friendliness of the latter, to rout the 



March IB 

Spaniards, but the plot was discovered 
and the leader executed. About 1674, 
the Apaches compelled the Quarai peo- 
ple to flee to Tajique, twelve miles 
northward. The latter village remained 
inhabited probably a year longer, when 
its occupants were also forced to suc- 
cumb to the persistent hostility of the 
Apaches, and fled to El Paso, Texas. 
They were afterwards settled in the 
village of Isleta del Sur. farther down 
the Rio Grande, where their descen- 
dants, almost completely Mexicanized, 
now reside. (Hodge in Handbook of 
American Indians, II, 336 sq. ; Ban- 
delier in Arch. Inst. Papers, IV, 258, 
261 sqq.) 

"Like Abo," says Lummis ("The 
Land of Poco Tiempo," pp. 296 sqq.), 
"the ruined city [of Quarai] itself is a 
huddle of indeterminate mounds of 
masonry, and less imposing than many 
longer-abandoned pueblos. But, like 
Abo, too, it is companioned by a huge 
and mysterious edifice — an edifice in 
ruins, it is true, but so tall, so solemn, 
so dominant of that strange, lonely 
landscape, so out of place in that land 
of adobe box-huts, as to be simply over- 
powering. On the Rhine it would be 
superlative ; in the wilderness of the 
Manzano it is a miracle. Its great, 
shadowy walls are neither so lofty nor 
so thick as those of Abo ; but neither 
are they so breached. The great rec- 
tangle is practically complete, with three 
wall- largely perfect, and part of the 
fourth. The masonry is quite as fine 
a« at Abo, and the architecture is im- 
posing. A big modern chapel, a few 
rod- to the east, is built of plundered 
stone, but the ancient temple seems 
scarce to feel the robbery. Its roof long 
ago disappeared, but the massive walls 
Stand firm afl the mother ledges, and 
c till hold the careful mortises for long- 
forgotten raft<r-. At the foot of the 
hillock is a tiny rivulet, sentinelled by 
a tall and lonelv pine : and upon the hill- 
side, a few hundred yards south, is a 
large, strange circular enclosure fenced 
about with upright slabs of rock." 

A Chorus From "The Bacchae" 

Translation from EURIPIDES 
by Gilbert Murray 

O Strength of God, slow art thou and still, 

Yet failest never ! 
On them that worship the Ruthless Will, 
On them that dream, doth His judgment 

Dreams of the proud man, making great 

And greater ever, 
Things which are not of God. In wide 
And devious coverts, hunter-wise, 
He coucheth Time's unhasting stride, 

Following, following, him whose eyes 
Look not to Heaven. For all is vain, 
The pulse of the heart, the plot of the brain, 
That striveni beyond the laws that live. 
And is thy Faith so much to give, 
Is it so hard a thing to see, 
That the spirit of God, whate'er it be, 
The Law that abides and changes not, ages 

The Eternal and Nature-born — these things 
be strong? 

What else is Wisdom? What of man's en- 
Or God's high grace so lovely and so great? 
To stand from fear set free, to breathe 

and wait : 
To hold a hand uplifted over Hate: 
And shall not Loveliness be loved forever? 

■ •-♦<$>-•-• 

The Pilgrim Fathers 

The record of the Pilgrims, says Prof. 
Roland G. Usher in his lately published 
book, "The Pilgrims and Their His- 
tory" (Macmillan; $2), "is much more 
nearly a study in the psychology of 
religion and its relation to the neces- 
sities of political and economic life than 
a political history in the ordinary sense 
of the word." 

In dealing with their social life dur- 
ing the first generation after their leav- 
ing England, Dr. Usher emphasizes the 
spontaneity of the idealism they applied 
to the problems of daily existence. 
Their discipline was not intended 
simply to repress the wayward; it was 
an end in itself, and a delimitation of 
life as they loved to live it and wished 
all to love to live it. 

Though the idealism was so literal, 
the colony was by no means an impos- 
sible place for ordinary human beings. 
Sober, rather than dour, the Pilgrims 
knew the rudiments of social relaxa- 
tion. The upper ranks or gentlemen de- 




lighted in evenings of conversation on 
suitable themes, enlivened with moder- 
ate portions of wine, beer, or ale, and 
one reason why they did not indulge 
this taste oftener was the expensiveness 
of candles and the long hours of work. 
Bradford wrote of his friend Brewster 
that he was of "a very cheerful spirite, 
very sociable and pleasante amongst his 
friends." The commoner people and 
servants had rougher enjoyments, some 
of a robust Elizabethan character. Bowls 
and pitch-bar were played ; card-playing 
seems to have been sanctioned on week 
days, and we gather that the sexes 
were allowed to dance as long as they 
did not dance with each other. There 
were taverns with beer, wine, and spir- 
its, and degrees of drunkenness were 
carefully graduated: excess "upon re- 
freshing," plain drunkenness, beastly 
drunkenness, filthy drunkenness, and 
extreme drunkenness. 

Like King James, the Puritans dis- 
approved of smoking, and though men 
might indulge within doors or in the 
fields, they were repeatedly fined "for 
drinking tobacco in the heighwey." 
Church attendance was compulsory. 
No Sunday work was allowed ; one 
wight was fined for writing a letter on 
Sunday, "at least in the evening some- 
what too soon." 

Christmas was not wholly under the 
ban. The first year the whole Colony 
spent Christmas at hard labor. The 
second year some newcomers on the 
Fortune refused to follow Bradford to 
the fields, saying that it "wente against 
their consciences to work on that day," 
and being tender on consciences, the 
leaders excused them. When they re- 
turned to Plymouth village for lunch, 
they found these conscientious objec- 
tors to Christmas labor playing stool- 
ball and other good English games in 
the street, and this public "gaming or 
revelling" was promptly stopped. 

The regulation of young people's 
conduct was very strict. In 1638 a law 
was passed that no man should pro- 
pose to a girl without the consent of 
her parents or (if she were a servant) 
her master. The gallants of Plymouth 

were wroth, and it became necessary to 
inflict numerous punishments for "ir- 
regular" proposals and acceptances. 

An interesting chapter on "The 
Tares" in the New England Canaan 
pays special attention to Merrymount, 
which gave Hawthorne material for a 
story. Morton, who founded Merry- 
mount, arrived in Massachusetts only 
five years after the Pilgrims had land- 
ed, and being a gentleman of choicely 
cultivated vices, disliked the atmos- 
phere of the place. He was a sort of 
junior partner or helper to one Captain 
Wollaston, who had a number of in- 
dentured servants with him ; Wollaston 
went to Virginia and wrote Morton to 
bring on these servants to the same 
place, where they could be sold at an 
advantageous figure. But with an eye 
to the main chance, Morton proposed 
that instead the servants go with him 
into the wilderness, and found a settle- 
ment where they could be (under his 
loose authority) their own masters. 
They did so, and this settlement of Mer- 
rymount became a sort of gambling-hell 
and resort for the riffraff of the region. 
Morton, captain of a crew of desperate 
white sailors and settlers, rogues, run- 
away servants, and even dissolute In- 
dian women, held high sway — till Capt. 
Standish appeared on the scene. 

Among the new contentions advanced 
by Dr. Usher is the statement that the 
Pilgrims were never actively persecuted 
in England by Church or State. They 
left England to avoid contact with the 
Establishment and the Puritans who 
accepted it, that was all. He shows also 
that Robinson's congregation at Leyden 
was a good deal smaller than has been 
supposed, and that far from proving a 
favorable haven, Holland offered them 
a hard life and uncongenial atmosphere. 
Again, contrary to the general belief that 
Plymouth Colony was not an economic 
success, he shows that it decidedly was. 
The chief reason why it did not grow 
as successive waves of Puritan immi- 
gration came in from England, was the 
spiritual sensitiveness which had led the 
Pilgrims to avoid any contact with the 
ereat bodv of Puritans at home. 



March 15 

Free Entry to Churches 
Regarding "free entry to churches" 
(F. R.. Vol. XXVI, Xo. 1) a great 
many of the laity will welcome the 
abolition of the pay-as-you-enter cus- 
tom now prevalent in some parts of 
this country. 

Those of us who have lived a long 
time in the Archdiocese of Boston, for 
instance, have acquired such a habit of 
"digging down" into our pocket as we 
approach a church on Sunday morning, 
that when we move away into other 
dioceses, where the pre-payment plan 
does not prevail, we still continue to act 
iis if we expect to be held up at the door 
for our church "fare." It has always 
seemed to some of us a decidedly un- 
Catholic sort of thing to place a collec- 
tor at the church door on Sunday to 
receive the offerings of the faithful. 
When collected in this way, the money 
received hardly seems so much like an 
offering as it does an entrance fee. We 
all remember that some few years ago 
Cardinal Falconio, then Apostolic Dele- 
gate, admonished pastors throughout 
the United States to abolish this pay-at- 
the-door system, but his letter had no 
effect, in some parts of the country at 
least. It remains to be seen whether or 
not the inclusion of this regulation in 
the new Code of Canon Law will suc- 
ceed in putting an end to a custom 
which is all right at a moving picture 
show, but which hardly seems right at 
a Catholic church door. 

The argument against this is, of 
course, that the collection within the 
church is more or less haphazard, 
whereas if everyone is expected to 
it a ten cent piece on the table 
with the collector before he enters, 
there is a greater assurance that nobody 
will be able to cheat the Lord out of 
Bering. But in the case of people 
who really caMIOt afford to give any- 
thing — the j/oor "whom we have always 
with us," ']]>■ poor who we are assured 
are especially loved by the Lord — in the 
people it U an unnecessary 
humiliation to be faced, when t'hev go 
to Matt, with a collector at the door 
whom they are compelled to pass with- 
out paying. Tt is true that in some 

churches poor people may receive from 
the members of the St. Vincent de Paul 
Society tickets which will enable them 
to pass the collectors without suspicion 
of being evaders of the collection. But 
isn't this also an unnecessary and un- 
Catholic humiliation of the poor? And 
are there not a great many people poor 
enough in most of our congregations 
who still are not badly off enough to be 
ministered to by the St. Vincent de 
Paul Society? 

Any rule or any plan or any system 
which makes it difficult for the poor to 
enter our churches is bad for them, bad 
for the Church and bad for society at 
large. We must bind the poor to us in 
the coming years with "hooks of steel" 
and not estrange them from the Church 
by too much zeal in the collection of 
monev. A Catholic Layman 


A Masonic Hoax 

I have before me, in the Christian 
Science Monitor, the report of a special 
committee of the Grand Lodge of Cal- 
ifornia, recommending to the latter full 
recognition of the two national Masonic 
bodies in France. This report, we are 
told, was adopted by the Grand Lodge 
of the Golden State at a recent meeting. 
It contains the results of an "exhaustive 
inquiry into the origin and nature of 
the differences existing between Anglo- 
Saxon and French or Latin Masonry," 
and. "sets forth many facts and obser- 
vations of interest, not only to the 
Masons of the world, but to all [pro- 
fane | observers of world movements 
and tendencies," especially those, we 
presume, which owe their origin to 

I have read this report with care and, 
as a profane "observer" of Masonic 
movements for nearly fifty years, beg 
leave to state that, to the best of my 
knowledge and belief, we have to deal 
here with a new Masonic hoax of the 
kind in which the history of the craft 
abounds. This hoax seems to have 
been concocted for the special benefit 
of the so-called blue lodges, i. e., the un- 
initiated who constitute the bulk of the 
craft in all countries and are mere tin- 




conscious tools in the hands of the 
leaders. These "knife and fork 
Masons" blandly swallow the "Grand 
Architect of the Universe," (see Arthur 
Preuss, "A Study in American Free- 
masonry," pp. 141 sqq.), the "Bible 
covered with square and compass" 
(ibid., pp. 221 sqq.), unaware of the 
true cabbalistic meaning of such "cover- 
ing" ; they swallow without question 
the trilogical sham slogan, "Fraternity, 
Equality, Liberty" ; they listen, igno- 
rantly but with pleasure, to such other 
big Masonic words and phrases as 
"Philanthropy," "Humanity," "Tolera- 
tion," "Progress," etc., and confidently 
believe that Freemasonry is a superior 
religion, never hostile to Christianity. 
They know nothing of the true kabbal- 
istic origins of the sect, so cleverly con- 
cealed under a hundred masks from 
century to century {ibid., 170 sqq.), 
they are ignorant of the fact that Albert 
Pike, Masonic High Priest and Sover- 
eign Grand Commander, has admitted 
("Morals and Dogma of the Ancient 
and Accepted Rite of Scottish Free- 
masonry," pp. 744 sq.) that "all the 
Masonic associations owe to the Jewish 
Kabbalah their secrets and symbols." 
In reality they owe them even more 
than that, namely, their dogmas, their 
morals, their creed, their satanical 
atheism and profound hypocrisy. These 
poor dupes are sure that Masonry is 
absolutely non-political, whereas in 
reality it is the greatest political machine 
in the world. Disraeli said in 1876: 
''For a century Masonry has taken a 
considerable part in most of the wars. 
It will be so in the wars which are yet 
to come. Few people know the true 
motives of European wars." In his 
novel "Coningsby" the same keen ob- 
server says : "In conducting the govern- 
ments of the world, there are not only 
sovereigns and ministers, but secret 
orders to be consulted, which have 
agents everywhere, reckless agents, 
who countenance assassination and, if 
necessary, can produce a massacre." 
Disraeli made no distinction between 
French. Anglo-Saxon, American, Ger- 
man. Belgian or other Masons. He had 
seen the Masonic "patriarch" Palmers- 

ton working hand in hand with the 
Italian Masons Mazzini, Cavour, and 
Garibaldi. No doubt Worshipful 
Grand Master Whitten knew, when he 
declared at Washington, in December, 
1917, that "Our country is waging the 
war of Masonry," that Masonry is 
one and the same international sect 
throughout the world, under the occult 
dictatorship of the executive "Supreme 
Rite," founded in 1870 by Mazzini and 
Pike and since then centred in Rome, 
not far from the Vatican, in the Justini- 
ani Palace, which is the residence both 
of the Grand Orient of Italy and the 
Supreme Central Council of the Inter- 
national, so-called Scottish Rite, trans- 
ferred thither from Washington, in 
1893. I strongly suspect that W. G. M. 
Whitten also knew the occult origin of 
the crime of Serajevo, as set forth in 
the Revue Internationale des Societcs 
Secretes, Paris, Sept. 1912, and defi- 
nitely organized at Belgrade in June, 
1914, by the Balkan lodges under cover 
of the pseudo-nationalist society "Nar- 
odna Obrana," an offshoot of the Balk- 
anic Omladina Association, founded in 
1860 by the arch-assassin Mazzini. 

L. Hacault 
Holland, Manitoba 

The "New Revelation" 
Whereas Dr. James H. Hyslop, after 
all his years of psychical research, is still 
a skeptic with regard to the phenomena 
of Spiritism, (see his latest book, "Life 
after Death," Dutton & Co.), Dr. W. 
J. Crawford, on the contrary, is a con- 
vinced believer. 

"I am," he says in "Hints and Ob- 
servations for Those Investigating the 
Phenomena of Spiritualism" (Dutton & 
Co.), "perfectly certain that all human- 
ity, of whatever race or creed, survives 
death and passes at once to another 
state of existence or plane of being." 

• Of conditions on that plane he says 
that the inhabitants of the other world 
can report to us anything in the way of 
their personal emotional states, but 
"they cannot tell us anything very satis- 
factory about the composition of their 
world. They can tell us if they are 
happy or sad, gay or gloomy, energetic 


March 15 

or indolent; they can say if they are 
pleased with their surroundings or 
otherwise, if they would like to return 
to the earth, and so on, but they cannot 
tell us in a convincing way if their 
world contains what we know here as 
mountains and seas." The spirits are 
not "angels by any manner of means, 
they do not exceed us in intelligence, but 
are in fact only good-natured beings of 
much the same capacity as our familiar 
selves." They have a psychic body which 
is invisible to normal sight, but may oc- 
casionally be made visible to clairvoyant 
sight. There are different spheres in the 
next world, some pleasant, some ap- 
proximating the orthodox hell. 

Such is some of the "information" 
that Dr. Crawford has elicited from his 
"spirit" friends. It has the advantage 
01 being definite, and the disadvantage 
of being contradicted, wholly or in part, 
bv the "spirit" friends of other inquir- 
ers, e. g.. Hariette A. and F. Homer 
Curtis, who describe the "Realms of the 
Living Dead" in a volume under that 
title (Edward J. Clode, New York) as 
seven, corresponding to the worlds of 
manifestation — the Realm of Reflection, 
the Ethereal Realm, the Realm of Life 
Force, the Desire Realm, the Mental 
Realm, the Inspirational Realm, and 
the Ecstatic Realm, which latter "cor- 
responds to the seventh principle in 
man" and is "almost beyond the com- 
prehension of the ordinary student, for 
its vibrations reach each man through 
the heart, being too high to be registered 
by the physical brain." (See N. Y. 
ning Post, Book Section, Jan. 4th, 
P. 3). ' 

"Scions" in "How to Speak With the 
T>< ad w (Dtltton & Co.) has still another 
and, if possible even more fantastic 
theory. And so the "new revelation," 
as Sir Arthur Conan Doyle calls it, goes 
rfly on. 

Strangly enough these writer- do not 

inspect that they may he the dupes of 

among the spirits of the other 


• •#> • • 

— In reply to a query whether we still 
arrept lif'- m b a cri ptioni at fifty dollari and 
take Liberty bondf in payment for them, we 
i '-ply that we f \o. 

Capital, Labor, and the Church 
"The World Problem: Capital, La- 
bor, and the Church," by the Reverend 
Joseph Husslein, SJ. (Kenedy; $1.25 
net), is annouced as "a complete and 
authoritative treatment of every phase 
of the question of capital, labor, and the 
Church." We fear the reader will be 
disappointed. The reverend author 
merely skims the surface. Nowhere 
does he go to the root of the problem. 
He speaks repeatedly of the rights of 
capital. But capital, like labor, is a 
mere abstraction. Rights and duties 
belong only to living persons. Both 
capitalists and laborers come under the 
sentence of St. Paul : "He who will not 
work, neither let him eat." The Apostle 
enforces the duty on all; he does not 
recognize profit as a legitimate means 
of acquiring anything. 

It is true, as Fr. Husslein says, that 
"suppressed Catholicism is at the center 
of the great social unrest." But he 
should have followed out the idea and 
developed it in Ch. Ill, "The Substance 
of Socialism." What is Catholic and 
what is Socialistic? The author merely 
says : "The economic doctrine of So- 
cialism is all centered in the common 
socialistic ownership of the means of 
production and distribution." He does 
not tell us whv. The reason must lie 
in "the substance of Socialism." It is 
a truth proclaimed by Carl Marx that 
the laborer is entitled to the whole 
product of his labor. It is also a Cath- 
olic truth. Leo XIII says in his encyc- 
lical "Rerum Novarum" : ".Verissimum 
est non aliunde quam ex opificum labore 
gigni divitias chritatum," which Fr. H. 
translates : "It may be truly said that 
it is only by the labor of the working- 
rnan that states grow rich." A more 
accurate translation would be : "It is 
certainly very true that the wealth of 
communities is created only by the work 
of the laboringmen." Wc have here 
simply an old Catholic principle decked 
out in Socialist ribands. 

Marx, in applying this natural truth, 
i onceived bis "future state" according 
to the autocratic notions of his time. 
That was a mistake because in practice 
such a system would destroy liberty and 




transform the State into a penitentiary. 
English Guild Socialists have perceived 
the error and propose to return to the 
medieval idea. 

If, as St. Paul says, all the fruit of 
his labor belongs to the worker, the 
value of labor in each article is the just 
price and the right wage. Besides the 
articles created by labor there is other 
property — land and the resources of 
nature. Father Husslein draws no dis- 
tinction between these different kinds 
of property. He seems even to indorse 
the present unjust property law. He 
quotes Blackstone, but Blackstone plain- 
ly says that there is no reason in natural 
law for the existing property laws, 
which are made without regard to the 
divine commandments. God ordained 
through Moses : "Land shall not be sold 
because it is mine." If land is salable, 
it becomes a means for the mighty and 
the cunning to enslave their fellowmen. 
By acquiring the land they create a 
proletariat and destroy "the right to 

This is the point where Christianity 
and Socialism part company. 

Fr. Husslein advocates social reform 
legislation. Germany introduced the 
most extensive system of social reform 
laws ever known in history before the 
war, but Catholic leaders said that the 
final aim was not yet reached. That aim 
can only be attained by restoring to all 
men the right to work. All other social 
reform measures will remain patch- 

Our time is similar to that of the 
Saviour and St. Paul. There are a few 
very rich men and a great mass of de- 
pendent poor. St. Paul won the latter 
by his social reform programme. The 
same can be clone to-day, but not by 
books like Fr. Husslein's. 

Little Rock, Ark. C. Meurer 


— Father F. X. Lasance's popular short 
prayer-book, "Manna of the Soul," can now 
be had in a thin edition, printed on India 
paper, at from 75 cts. to $3.75, according to 
the style of the binding. The booklet weighs 
but three ounces and will not prove cumber- 
some on the way to church. (Benziger Bros.) 

Reminiscences of Blessed Thomas 

Mr. P. S. Allen contributes to the 
Literary Supplement of the London 
Times (No. 884) an interesting paper 
on Blessed Thomas More's first mar- 
riage and the circumstances of his early 
married life, a topic hitherto involved 
in much obscurity. 

More's biographers concur in telling 
us that he chose for the wife of his 
youth an Essex girl, Jane Colt. She 
was not his first love. "His mind most 
served him" to a younger sister, whom 
he thought fairer and better favored. 
But, on the principle expounded by 
Laban to Jacob, he "considered that it 
would be both great grief and some 
shame" to Jane to see the younger mar- 
ried first, and so he "of a certain pity 
framed his fancy toward her." From 
her Essex home he bore her away to 
London ; and their new life began in the 
narrow streets of Bucklersbury, near 
Cheapside. After a few years she left 
him a widower with four young chil- 
dren ; and within a month he took to 
himself a new wife, Mrs. Alice Middle- 
ton, a widow with a child of her own. 
There is some reason to suppose that 
this was in 1511; and the date of the 
first marriage has been conjecturally 
placed at 1505, when More was twenty- 

Mr. Allen fills in the picture thus 
barely outlined from Erasmus's "Collo- 
quies." According to Erasmus, More 
married Jane Colt when she was but 
seventeen and quite undeveloped, hop- 
ing to mold her to his own tastes. He 
began to interest her in books and 
music, to accustom her to repeat the 
substance of sermons she heard, and 
to train her to other useful accomplish- 
ments. The girl, who had been brought 
up in complete idleness, soon began to 
be bored and refused to comply with 
her husband's wishes. 

"When her husband urged her," 
Erasmus relates, "she would burst into 
tears ; sometimes even throwing herself 
to the ground and beating her head on 
the floor, as though she wished to die. 
As this went on, the young man, con- 
cealing his vexation, suggested that they 



March 15 

should pay a visit to her parents in the 
country : with which she joyfully fell in. 
On arrival he left her with her mother 
and sisters, and went oft" with her father 
to hunt. As soon as the two were alone, 
he told his story : how instead of the 
happy companion he had hoped for, he 
found his wife perpetually in tears and 
quite intractable ; and he begged for 
assistance in curing her. 'I have given 
her to you.' was the reply, 'and she is 
yours. 1 f she doesn't obey you, use your 
rights and heat her into a better frame 
of mind/ 'I know.' said the husband, 
'what my rights are ; but I would rather 
the change were effected with your aid 
and authority, than resort to such ex- 
treme measures.' The father consented, 
and after a day or two found an oppor- 
tunity to speak with his daughter alone. 
Setting his face to severity he said: 
*\ ou are a plain child, with no particu- 
lar charm : and I used often to be afraid 
I shoulil have difficulty in getting you 
a husband. After a great deal of trou- 
ble I found you one whom any woman 
might envy: a man, who, if he weren't 
very kind, would hardly consider you 
h having as a servant; and then 
you rebel against him.' And with this 
he grew so angry that he seemed about 
to beat her ; all of course in pretence, 
for he is a clever actor. The girl was 
frightened, and also moved by the truth 
of what he had said. Falling at his feet 
'.he vowefl to do better in future ; and 
he promised continuance of his affec- 
tion, if she would keep her word. Then 
returning to her husband, whom she 
found alone in his room, she fell down 
before him and said . 'Until now I have 
known neither you nor myself. Hence- 
forth you shall find me quite different : 
only forget what is passed.' He sealed 
her repentance with a kiss ; and in this 
happ of mind she continued till 

her death." 

The years they had spent together 
remained green in More*l memory, and 
when he wrote hi- own epitaph, he 
referred to her -i- hi- 'Vara vxorcula." 

Mr. Allen, in conclusion, calls atten 

Hon to England's ingratitude to Sir 

Thomai .'lore. "England owes much 
to him." I "Of all the characters 

in our history there is none that is so 
intelligible and that makes appeal to so 
wide a circle. With the high devotion 
of an enthusiast he combined the serene 
common sense of a man of action ; lov- 
ing his life with cheerful humour, but 
ready without complaint to lay it down 
for the cause his conscience bade him 
choose, upon the cruel demand of his 
own familiar friend whom he had 
trusted. And besides this great part, 
he is one of the founders of our mod- 
ern literature. Yet how little has Eng- 
land done to cherish his memory ! The 
house that he made at Chelsea is clean 
gone out of sight ; even his tomb in the 
old church there, with its long plain in- 
scription, is hidden in darkness, almost 
as though he had died a death of 
shame. Heroic efforts could not save 
Crosby Hall from transplantation ; and 
the great Holbein portrait of the Chan- 
cellor, immeasurably more beautiful 
than any reproduction of it, was 
allowed to go out of the country with- 
out a single word of protest. No one 
has collected More's letters, and there 
is no critical edition of his English 
works. It is time that reparation 
should be made." 

Holbein's portrait of Sir Thomas is 
known to many readers through the 
frontispiece of the "Life and Writings 
of Sir Thomas More," by the Rev. T. 
E. Bridgett, C.SS.R., which, we may 
add, is by far the best biography of 
the Lord Chancellor extant. Strangely 
enough, it has not found the circulation 
it deserves. Even less known is the 
same learned author's charming vol- 
ume, "The Wit and Wisdom of Blessed 
Thomas More; Being Extracts from 
Such of His Works as Were written 
in English," London, 1892. We heartily 
recommend both these excellent books 
to our readers. They are real classics 
of Catholic literature. 

— After sin, there is no greater mis- 
fortune than that of falling, however 
involuntarily, into the slightest dog- 
matic error. — Dom S. Louismet, O. S. 
B., "The Mystical Life," p. xxiv. 




Fenimore Cooper on the American 

A reverend friend calls our attention 
10 some interesting passages in James 
Fenimore Cooper's book, "The Red- 
skins." This novel was published in 
1846, to promote the anti-rent move- 
ment. The land near the Hudson 
River in New York State belonged 
originally to large proprietors known 
as patroons, and the holders in Coop- 
er's time still had to pay an annual 
"quit rent" of ten or twenty cents an 
acre to the descendants of the original 
owners. In 1839, a violent public agita- 
tion against the payment of such rents 
came to a head in a series of anti-rent 
riots, in which sheriffs and some rent- 
payers were killed. Popular sympathy 
was with the agitation, and the land- 
lords finally gave up their claims in 
return for a small lump sum from the 
State. Cooper's other two anti-rent 
novels are "Satanstoe" (1845) and 
'The Chainbearers" (1846). In "The 
Redskins" he says (Lovell-Coryell edi- 
tion, pp. 235 sq.) : 

"One of the astounding circum- 
stances of the times is the general 
prevalence of falsehood among us, and 
the almost total suppression of truth. 
No matter what amount of evidence 
there may be to contradict a statement, 
or how often it has been disproved, it 
is reaffirmed with just as much assur- 
ance, as if the matter had never been 
investigated; ay, and believed, as if 
the substance were uncontradicted. I 
am persuaded, there is no part of the 
world in which it is more difficult to 
get a truth into the public mind, when 
there is a motive to suppress it, than 
among ourselves. This may seem sing- 
ular, when it is remembered how many 
journals there are which are uttered 
with the avowed purpose to circulate 
information. Alas ! the machinery 
which can be used to give currency to 
truth, is equally efficient in giving cur- 
rency to falsehood. There are so many 
modes, too, of diluting truth, in addi- 
tion to downright lies which are told, 
that I greatly question if one alleged 
fact out of twenty, that goes the rounds 
of the public prints, those of the com- 

moner sort excepted, is true in all 
essentials. It requires so much integrity 
of purpose, so much discrimination, 
such a sensitiveness of conscience and 
often so large a degree of self-sacrifice, 
iu men, to speak nothing but truth, that 
one is not to expect that their more 
vulgar and irresponsible agents are to 
possess a quality that is so very rare 
among the best of the principals." 

( The priest who copied this passage 
for us is good enough to add, by way 
of comment, that the Fortnightly 
Review may justly apply these beauti- 
ful words of praise to itself.) 

In another page of the same book 
(p. 112) Cooper says: "There is the 
curse of this country, — pointing to a 

table covered with newspapers, 

So long as men believe what they find 
there, they can be nothing but dupes or 
knaves. ['But,' some one objects, 'there 
is good in newspapers.'] That, [the 
speaker continues,] adds to the curse. 
If they were nothing but lies, the 
world would soon reject them ; but how 
few are able to separate the true from 
the false ! Now, how few of these 
pages speak the truth about this very 

anti-rentism Jefferson said, if he 

were to choose between a government 
without newspapers, or newspapers 
without government, he would take 
the last. Ay, Jefferson did not mean 
newspapers as they are now. I am old 
enough to see the change that has taken 
place. In his day, three or four fairly 
convicted lies would damn any editor ; 
now, there are men that stand up under 
a thousand." 

One cannot but wonder what Cooper 
and Jefferson would say could they 
return to see the degenerate American 
press of to-day ! 


— Denver has an interdenominational 
club of Catholic, Protestant, and Jewish 
clergymen, who meet fortnightly at a 
dinner to "discuss topics or movements 
for the uplift of the community in 
which all churches can engage without 
compromising their various beliefs." 
There are twelve members, among them 
Fathers William O'Ryan and Hugh L. 



March 15 


A Unique Christmas Celebration 

We reproduce the following remark- 
able news item from the Memphis 
Catholic Journal, of Jan. 4th: 

Beautiful Xnias lit St. BrigitTs 
Rev. Father Whitfield in his beautiful and 
solemn celebration of the Mass on Christmas 
morning readied the acme of possibilities in 
the perfectly planned ceremony which in 
keeping with the spirit of the times united 
the patriotic feature harmoniously with the 
religious. Soldiers and sailors in full uni- 
form, former altar boys who have done their 
bit and returned, acted as guard of honor 
and served the priest at Mass. From the 
choir loft magnificent music completed a 
medley of the Old Peace Song of the Angels 
mellowing down to the Star' Spangled Ban- 
ner, the world's new peace anthem. St. 
Brigid's was crowded to its utmost, and if 
any one there failed to go to the communion 
rail they were not found. 

Why Do Catholics Fall Away? 

Why do so many clever men and 
women, educated in Catholic institu- 
tions, leave the Church ? Here are a few 
instances of such lapses coming under 
our personal observation : The late edi- 
tor of a New York daily, who became 
a Buddhist ; the editor of a national 
literary weekly ; a journalist with an 
international reputation, whose syndi- 
cated articles on politics are features 
of all the leading dailies; the editor of 
a New York weekly with a national 
circulation ; the manager of the person- 
nel of Roosevelt's last campaign, who 
as a boy served Mass in a Catholic col- 
in the West, but was buried with 
< hristian Scientist services in New 
York la>t year ; his sister, who was 
ted in a convent, married in a 
-tant church ; a woman illustrator 
e name is known wherever the En- 
glish language is spoken, married twice 
and twice divorced; the governor of a 
large Western State; the daughter of a 
much-lauded Catholic general, who was 
married in a 1'rotestant church ; a young 
man who was medal-bearer in the o 
dality when at college, but is now an 

Episcopalian minister and a bitter foe 
of the Church. 

Why do they leave ? Can our Catholic 
educators supply an answer? — J. A. 

The Catholic Educational Association 

For the first time in its history the 
Catholic Educational Association, in 
1918, met in the queen city of the Pa- 
cific Coast. Judging from the Report 
before us, the meeting was very success- 
ful and the usual proceedings were car- 
ried on during the five days' session. 
The customary discussions make up the 
contents of the volume. We are glad 
that there is an apparent breaking away 
from the hackneyed subjects so often 
presented in reports of this kind, — 
"methods" of teaching this and that 
subject, and the "relation" of one course 
of study to another in the curriculum. 

Among papers of special note we 
mention Father Dillon's on "The Junior 
High School Plan." Father Dillon has 
a wide outlook upon the educational 
activity of the day and the knack of 
bringing home to our teachers the really 
valuable features of developments that 
have not as yet been universally intro- 
duced into Catholic schools. We have 
been hearing a great deal of "the wider 
use of the school of late." Father 
Bruno Hagspiel, S.V.D., shows us how 
we can extend our efforts in the school- 
room in a truly Catholic way, by pro- 
moting the missionary spirit. 

As an instance of a healthy broadening 
of the scope of papers hitherto included 
in these reports, we mention Father Z. 
Engelhardt's sketch of "Catholic Edu- 
cational Work in Early California." It 
is worth while to know what the "Cath- 
olic pioneers" have wrought in the field 
of education. And if we do not tell the 
story, the bigots will certainly not make 
good our negligence. 

Copies of the Report can be obtained 
from the Secretary General, 1651 East 
Main St., Columbus, Ohio. 

Reduced Fares to the Clergy 

Apropos of our remarks concerning- 
the reduced fare granted to clergymen 
by the railroads (Vol. XXVI, No. 4, 
page 61) Rt. Rev. Abbot Charles Mohr, 




O.S.B., D.D., of St. Leo, Fla.. writes 
to us: 

"A few weeks ago I was travelling on 
a trip pass. A fellow passenger asked 
me how it came that I had a pass. I 
said, 'You see, I am the spiritual adviser 
of the Atlantic Cost line.' To this my 
friend made answer: 'If you are re- 
sponsible for half the crooked things 
done by the Coast Line, you will have a 
hell of a time on judgment day.' 

Most people are hostile to the rail- 
roads and are saying irresponsible 
things against them. As far as I am 
concerned, I must say that I have no 
complaint to make, nor do I feel like a 
pauper when I fill out one of those re- 
quest blanks asking for a reduced rate 
ticket. When I was on the North 
Carolina missions, old Col. Turk was 
the division passenger agent to whom I 
had to apply for my clergy permits. 
Every time he granted my request, he 
would say : 'Pray for a poor sinner, 
Father, and 'when you go to heaven, let 
me hang on tc your coat-tails. You 
clergymen are instruments for good and 
that is why the railroads favor you.' 

When I came to Florida, Col. H. R. 
Duval was president of the old Florida 
Central and Peninsular Railroad Com- 
pany. With the pass generally came a 
letter saying, 'The F. C. & P. realizes 
the power for good that the clergy wield 
in this State and is sending you this an- 
nual as an earnest of its appreciation 
of your services in uplifting mankind.' 
Neither Col. Turk nor Col. Duval, 
nor any of the other railroad officials 
ever made the slightest hint to the effect 
that ministers were underpaid and that 
the railroads had to come to the rescue. 
The majority of our ministers are 
well paid. Everybody knows, however, 
that the more we receive, the more we 
are expected to give to the poor. 

Whether travelling on a pass or on a 
reduced rate ticket, I have always been 
treated with uniform kindness by the 
employees and the officials of the roads. 
My observation has been that most 
clergymen are treated more like presi- 
dents of large railroads than like under- 
fed and underpaid ministers of reli- 

The Fortnightly Review Abroad 

We read in Catholic Book Notes, the 
able organ of the English Catholic 
Truth Society (No. 245, p. 22) : 

"Commenting upon and quoting from 
our notice of Mr. Belloc's book on 'The 
Free Press' (C. B. N., 1918, 160) Dr. 
Arthur Preuss writes in his Fort- 
nightly Review that his magazine 'has 
also tried long and hard, and with a 
measure of success, to maintain its in- 
dependence against boycott and persecu- 
tion, and to serve its readers without 
fear or favour, so that in its own hum- 
ble way it can claim to be part of that 
small but powerful 'Free Press' in 
which alone, according to Mr. Belloc, 
lies salvation for the future. To many 
it may seem that the deliberate and con- 
tinued labour of truth-telling without 
reward, and always in some peril, is 
useless, and that those who, like Mr. 
Belloc and Mr. Britten, have for so 
many years given their best work gen- 
erally for the establishment of a Free 
Press, have toiled in vain. But this 
would be a wrong conclusion. The serv- 
ice can «and should be continued, and 
we for one mean to continue it, first, 
because, in Mr. Belloc's own words, 
though the work is so far negative only, 
there is a vis medicatrix naturae: merely 
in weakening an evil you may scon be, 
you ultimately will surely be, creating a 
good ; and secondly, because self-respect 
and honour demand it.' 

"Less limited in its scope than C. B. 
N., the Fortnightly Review is able to 
express itself with freedom upon a 
number of subjects which are tabu in 
these columns ; but the same principle 
of telling the truth inspires both period- 
icals, and it is gratifying to know that 
in each case this is becoming increasing- 
ly recognized both at home and abroad." 


— A literary investigator has discov- 
ered that, despite his facility of expres- 
sion, President Wilson in his seventy- 
five most important public addresses, 
between 1913 and 1918, used only 
6,221 words, whereas the dictionary 
contains approximately 300,000. 



March 15 


— M. Pierre Chaignon de la Rose ex- 
plains in the January Ecclesiastical Rc- 

. bo the coats of arms of the new 
archbishops of Philadelphia and New 
Orleans and the new bishops of Lead, 
San Antonio, and Los Angeles. These 
coats, evidently designed by M, de la 
Rose himself, are in conformity with 
the best- traditions of the heraldic art 
and show how at last an orderly method 
is emerging from what the writer justly 
calls "the heraldic chaos of ten years 
ago." Gratitude is due to the bishops 
concerned as well as to M. de la Rose 
himself for the reestablishment of 
sound canons in the practice of an art 
which, as he truly observes, "was an- 
cientlv one of the lesser glories of the 

— The American College of Surgeons 
is making an extensive survey of the 
hospitals of the country, "to determine 
their efficiency from a medical and so- 
cial standpoint." The survey has for its 
purpose to work out a system for 
hospital standardization with a view to 
improve the service these important in- 
stitutions render to the public. Sub- 
jects coming up for standardization are : 
training of medical internes and nurses, 
methods of diagnosis, post-mortem 
examinations, means of cross infection, 
hospital dietetics, etc. The American 
College of Surgeons is a society of 
surgeons of the U. S.' and Canada 
organized in 1913. Its president is Dr. 
\\ m. J. Mayo, of Rochester, Minn. Its 
ital surrey of which we have 
sj>oken was undertaken from the con- 
rictiou that hospitals are public service 
in s t itu tio n s and thai the medical profes- 
sion owes it to itself to raise them to 
the highest attainable standard; if the 
doctors do not do so, the public will. 

— With reference to the article "Test- 
the Child Mind" (No. 5, p. 71) 

Father Albert Muntsch, S.J., writes : 
"I would refer your readers also to the 
Bibliography of Child Study for the 
Years 1910-1911, Bulletin No. 26, whole 
number 498, of the U. S. Bureau of 
Education, Washington, D. C, 1912. 
It contains 1910 titles on that and re- 
lated subjects. These bulletins, I may 
add, are sent gratis to those interested, 
and no doubt more recent bulletins on 
later literature have been published." 

— American newspapers have lately 
published, under the heading "Bolshev- 
ist Marriage," or some similar caption, 
a Russian decree "nationalizing" women 
and children. The document may be 
genuine, but it has nothing to do with 
the Bolshevists. It declares itself to be 
issued by "the Free Association of An- 
archists of the Town of Saratoff." Now 
anarchists and Bolshevists are not the 
same ; on the contrary, they are severed 
by a great gulf of theory and practice. 
The decree does not represent Bolshe- 
vik ideas with regard to the family. It 
would hardly be worth while to draw 
attention to this matter but for the il- 
lustration it offers of the difficulty of 
getting reliable news about the Bolshe- 
viks. Any wild thing said about them 
finds acceptance, even when it bears its 
refutation upon its face, and yet it is 
really important to understand these 
extremely unpleasant people, whose 
ideas are spreading across the earth. 

— Mr. E. A. Phipson, in a letter to 
the Saturday Review, calls attention to 
the fact that a simplified Latin, under 
the name of "Interlingua," has been 
worked out, and a grammar and vocab- 
ulary published, by the "Academia pro 
Lingua Intcrnationali," under the presi- 
dency of Professor Leano, of the Uni- 
versity of Turin, who will be pleased 
to give inquirers any information 
desired about the new international 



2735-2737 Lyon Sliced, cor. Lynch 
Church Bells and Chimes of Best Quality 



— The statistics of the votes cast at 
the German elections have come to 
hand in the Manchester Guardian. 
They are even more instructive than 
those of the distribution of the seats. 
The majority Socialists got over eleven 
million votes, or 33.3 per cent, and the 
minority Socialists over two million, or 
nearly 7.7 per cent. Together the So- 
cialist parties polled almost half the 
total vote cast, and such a Socialist poll 
has never been exceeded in any coun- 
try, save possibly Russia. In popular 
support the Democrats (or Radicals) 
are second, with over five and a half 
million votes, or nearly 20 per cent. 
The Centre party got less than 19 per 
cent of the total vote, although the 
Catholic population of Germany is more 
than one-third. The Conservatives, the 
only outspoken Royalist party, polled 
less than 4 per cent of the votes, and 
the National Liberals less than 10 per 
cent. The voting indicates a very pro- 
nounced swing to the Left in German 
politics and shows that the people want 
not only political but also economic 

— It will be news to many that there 
is a branch of the "Daughters of Sion" 
in this country. The nuns of this order 
have a convent, called Notre Dame de 
Sion, at 36th Street and Warwick 
Boulevard, Kansas City, Mo., and are 
in charge of the Archconfraternity for 
the Conversion of Israel in the U. S. 
All who desire information about the 
work of this Archconfraternity, or, bet- 
ter still, wish to co-operate with it, 
should get in touch with these Sisters. 

— The working of proportional rep- 
resentation at the recent German elec- 
tion deserves study. The Germans fol- 
lowed the usual continental system. The 
constituencies are very large (only 38 
in the whole republic) and each re- 
turns from 6 to 16 members (average 
11). The voting is by lists. Each party, 
or any local group of 50 electors, may 
present a list, which may contain as 
many names of candidates as there are 
seats. The order of the names is fixed 
by the party. Electors vote not for in- 
dividual candidates but for party lists. 
The votes cast determine how many 

candidates of each list are elected, fol- 
lowing the prearranged order. Thus the 
more valued names, which come first in 
each list, are fairly sure of election. 
Combination ( Verbindung) of two lists 
is permitted, but rarely practiced. The 
system is less accurate than that advo- 
cated by the late Lord Courtnev, and 
gives more power to the disciplined 
party and less to individual choice, but 
is simpler, and makes for strong leader- 

— Recent advices from Rome are to 
the effect that the new "reformed" edi- 
tion of the "Missale" will hardly be 
ready before the end of this year. 

— Apropos of a note in the Review 
of Feb. 1, referring to the Non-Partisan 
League of North Dakota and its modi- 
lied form of Socialism, a North Dakota 
priest writes : "This new government 
introduced certain legislation that 
makes it very difficult to collect a first- 
mortage note from a farmer. For 
some time a law existed here making 
it impossible to foreclose on a first 
mortgage within less than a year after 
its maturity. This period has now been 
prolonged to three years. In conse- 
quence it is difficult to obtain a loan on 
a North Dakota farm from outside 
banks. Lately a party advertised in 
two leading papers of St. Paul and 
Minneapolis for a $5000 loan on a 
North Dakota farm, of more than 
twice the value, and with the same end 
in view inquired at many banks in those 
cities, without success. The Minnesota 
banks prefer to loan their money on 
Canadian lands. Thus the N. D. enact- 
ment has proved a boomerang. While 
trying to protect some farmers, it has 
made it almost impossible tor many 
others to obtain a loan, except at ex- 
orbitant interest rates. A farmer may 
obtain a loan from the Federal Bank, 
but it takes from four to six months to 
obtain the money after making appli- 

— A man shows himself in what in- 
terests him much more completely than 
he does in what horrifies him or is 
merely accepted by him. "I will judge 
men," said Emerson in one of his 
flashes, "not by what they tolerate, 
but bv what thev choose." 



March 15 

Literary Briefs 

— In a footnote (p. 442) to his "'Liturgica 
Historica" Mr. Edmund Bishop says: "The 
particular object of the introduction of the 
elevation [of the Sacred Host at Mass] was 
that the faithful might expressly "gaze on' 
the Blessed Sacrament in adoration. Indeed, 
jubes and choir-screens were not infrequent- 
ly ordered to be removed by the bishops in 
their visitations, on the express ground of 
their preventing the people gazing on the 
Blessed Sacrament at the elevation." The 
Catholic Book Notes, to which we are in- 
debted for this quotation, comments on it as 
follows: (VoL XXII, Xo. 238. p. 117): "It 
is not .only the laity who sometimes forget 
this 'particular object.'" 

—Professor Mingana contributes to the sec- 
ond and last volume of Hasting's '"Dictionary 
of the Apostolic Church," recently published, 
an interesting paper on the so-called Odes 
of Solomon. This work, published less than 
ten years ago (J909) by Dr. Rendel Harris, 
consists of a collection of forty-two old 
Syriac hymns. It has given rise to much 
discussion and a variety of opinions among 
experts. Harnack holds that the Odes are 
a Jewish composition interpolated by a 
Christian hand, and that they form the 
"quarry from which the Johannine blocks 
have been hewn." Prof. Mingana maintains 
tiiat they are entirely Christian in origin and 
probably an attempt to imitate the canonical 
psalms, thus differing from Dr. Bernard and 
others who believe that the Odes were re- 
stricted to baptismal purposes. Fr. Drum in 
the Catholic Encyclopedia has suggested that 
the Odes "are a new link, long lost, of the 
Johannin<- tradition," the product of a 
"Juda<-<. -Christian genius, who perhaps 
worked over some pre-existing and baser 
Jewish metal." 

—The article on "Mysteries" in the second 
volume of the "Dictionary of the Apostolic 
Church." edited by Dr. James Hastings, i- a 
! study of those phenomena in early 
Christianity which are supposed to find their 
explanation in the contemporary Oriental 
religions, I>r. Groton, who contributes the 
article, comes to the conclusion that, "on the 
whole, the mystery-religions ex< rcised but a 
«Ii«ht influence on the oldest Christianity." 
This verdict will no doubt receive wider 
endorsement in ihc future 

— The bibliography of the European war 

• nsive that the St. Louis 

Public Library has set apart a special cata- 

fOT all addition- tr, the subject. 

books and brochurei bearing on tin 

world conflict are all listed under catalogUi 
number 040.01. The monthly bulletins of the 
Library publish the new addition which are 
being made to the collection from month to 
month Book have been added in English, 
German, French, and Italian, with a sprink- 
ling of works in Hungarian and Spanish. 

— Mr. Arthur Penty, whose "Old Worlds 
for New" introduced Guild Socialism to the 
general public, has a new volume in prepara- 
tion on "Guilds and the Social Crisis," in 
which he discusses the social and economic 
perils confronting the world at the present 
time and again looks back to the Middle 
Ages for inspiration and guidance. 

with first-class references, is looking for a good 
position, where true Church music is in vogue. 

Address: "Organist," care F. R. 

WANTED, position by a competent organist, 
single, with good references. Would like to have 
a place where there is a High Mass to play daily. 
Apply to N. N., c. o. The Fortnightly Review. 



Stereopticons and Moving Picture Machines for 

Churches and Schools 

608 Olive St. 511 North Grand Av. 


will find it to their advantage to consult 

= THE = 

Jos. Berning Printing Co. 

128 East Eighth Street 



Its facilities for quick delivery of line- 

or monotyped, printed in first-class 

manner books, booklets, pamphlets, 

folders, etc. are unexcelled 



go to 


408 Washington Avenue 




— "Codificationis Iuris Canonici Recensio 
Historico-Apologetica et Codicis Piani-Bene- 
dictini Notitia Generalis'' is the title of a 
booklet just published by Descle & Co., of 
Rome. Its author is Father Joseph Noval, 
O.P., professor of Canon Law in the Col- 
legio Angelico and consultor of the Codifi- 
cation Commission. He relates briefly the 
history of the Commission's labors, in which 
he had a share, and then treats of the spirit 
which animates the new Code, its general 
characteristics, its relation to the old law, 
its interpretation, and the methods to be 
followed in teaching its prescriptions. The 
volume forms a useful introduction to, and 
preparation for, the study of the new Code. 

— A new magazine which will be welcomed 
by the lovers of the "new poetry" has recently 
appeared under the title, "Youth — Poetry of 
Today." It is published at Cambridge, Mass. 
The first issue contains contributions by 
Edwin Arlington Robinson, Amy Lowell, 
Josephine Redmond Fishburn, Witter Byn- 
ner, and others. The cosmopolitan tone of 
the new venture is shown by the list of 
"corresponding editors," who represent the 
following countries : England, France, Spain, 
India, China, Italy, and Japan. The policy 
of the editors is expressed in a brief edito- 
rial, "Youth the Symbol of Growth," which 
begins : "It is at ftnce the curse and the bless- 
ing of poetry that its roots are sunk in the 
long ages which have witnessed the develop- 
ment of mankind." Of course, vers libre is 
well represented in the selections. 

—The Children's Bureau of the U. S. De- 
partment of Labor has begun the publication 
of a series of timely brochures on dependent, 
defective, and delinquent classes. The latest 
addition to this series, entitled "Juvenile 
Delinquency in Rural New York," contains 
sound doctrine on the importance of home 
and family life in keeping down the number 
of juvenile offenders. We read: "The fam- 
ily is, indeed, the fundamental social agency 
for the child. The community surveys made 
for this report, and other studies as well, 
show how close is the connection between 
the bad home and the bad child. Among the 
most important means to improve the child 
is the improvement of the home. However 
good the school, the church, or the com- 
munity, if the home is bad, a fertile source 
of juvenile delinquency is left open. There- 
fore our best efforts must be exerted to deal 
with the family as well as with the child." 

— In a pamphlet of thirty-nine pages, Mr. 
J. Godfrey Raupert, K.S.G., presents in a 
summary manner a brief conspectus of the 
evidence available to prove the divinity of 
Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. The 
presentation of the argument is for such as 
are of good will and sincerely seek enlighten- 
ment. Hence there is no detailed discussion 
of the relative value of the separate points 
of proof, the purpose being rather to show 
forth the rich abundance of the evidence at 
hand. The Bishop of Clifton has premised 
a short introduction. (Ave Maria Press, 
Notre Dame, Ind.) 

Second and Revised Edition, Augmented by an Appendix Containing Supplementary Roman 

Decrees on the New Codex 

The New Canon Law 


With a Preface by Very Rev. Msgr. Philip Bernardini, J. U. D. 

Professor of Canon Law at the Catholic University, Washington, D. C. 

Second and Revised Edition, augmented by an Appendix containing : 

The Election to Office in Religious Communities, Supplementary Official Decrees 

and Declarations on Various Points of the Code. 

Complete in one volume, large 8vo, 452 pages. Cloth, net, $3.50 

Added zveight and authority are given to the work by the commendatory preface written for 

it by the Very Reverend Monsignor Philip Bernardini,/. U. D., Professor of 

Canon Law at the Catholic University in Washington . 

A very full Index of Subjects enhances the usefulness of the work, 

facilitating ready reference to its contents on any particular subject. 

f The New Marriage Legislation? 
DO YOU WISH The New Laws Concerning the Clergy? 

}Tbey are all stated 
in full and concisely 
explained in this book 

JOSEPH F. WAGNER (Inc.), Publishers, 23 Barclay Street, New York 



March 15 

— "Alberta: Adventuress," is a new volume 
of fiction by the well-known French author, 
Pierre L'Ermite. It has been done into En- 
glish by John Hannon and is published by 
Benziger Bros. Though sombre and tragic in 
theme, its strong and vivid portrayal of char- 
acter and its dramatic development of plot 
easily hold the reader's attention. The Fore- 
word, a note of commendation by Francois 
Coppee, had better have been omitted, as the 
average reader is apt to find it a check rather 
than a spur to his interest to be told at the 
outset that the story is written to denounce 
a great evil of present-day France, to-wit, its 
abandoning of life in the country for that 
of the modern metropolis with its many un- 
wholesome and malign influences. Pierre 
L'Ermite writer a strong, masterly, and 
wholesome story. It will be a distinct gain 
to have more of his work in good English. 


— Here is a little book-verse in the style 
of "Hie liber meus est." from the Ecclesi- 
astical Rtvitw (Vol. LIX, No. 5) : 

Librum meum — recole — 

Manibus tu tenes. 

Quamprimum restituas 

Si vis ut sint lenes 

Qui tormentant fures 

Infernorum poem's. 

Nomen mihi N. N. est, 

Nosti ubi dego. 

Memento quod etiam 

Aliquando lego. 


Books Received 

Your Sciahbor and You. Our Dealings With Those 
About L's. By Rev. Edward F. Caresch6, S.J. 
215 pp. 16mo. Benziger Bros. 75 cts., net. 

Musa Americana. First Series. Patriotic Songs in 
Latin, Set to Popular Melodies. With English 
Text. By Anthony D. Geyser, S.J., Professor of 
Latin Literature, St. Stanislaus Seminary, Floris- 
sant, Mo. 31 pp. Svo. Chicago, 111.: Loyola Uni- 
versity Press. 15 cts., postpaid. 
God and Man. Lectures on Dogmatic Theology. 
From the French of the Rev. L. Labauche, S.S. 
Authorized Translation. Vol. II: Man. xii & 
343 pp. 8vo. P. J. Kenedy & Sons. $1.S5, post- 
The Divine Trinity. A Dogmatic Treatise by the 
Rt. Rev. Msgr. Joseph Pohle, Ph. D., D. D. 
Adapted and Edited by Arthur Preuss. Third, 
Revised Edition, iv & 299 pp. 12mo. B. Herder 
Book Co. $1.50 net. 
Grace, Actual and Habitual. A Dogmatic Treatise 
l.y the Rt. Rev. Msgr. Joseph Pohle, Ph.D., D.D. 
Adapted and Edited by Arthur Preuss. Third, 
Revised Edition, iv & 443 pp. 12mo. B. Herder 
Book Co. $2 net. 
Souvenir of the Sixtieth Anniversary of St. An- 
thony's Parish. Melrose Township, Adams Coun- 
ty. Illinois. 85 po. 8vo. Illustrated. Quincy, 111., 

[From the Catholic Truth Society, 69 Southwark 
Bridge Road, S. E. 1, London, England, we have 
received the following new penny pamphlets, which 
can be ordered in this country through the B. Her- 
der Book Co., 17 S. Broadway, St. Louis, Mo.] 

The Faith of To-Morrow: Catholic or Pagan ? By 
Leo Ward. — A Christmas Vigil. By Mother St. 
Jerome. — "A Chapter of Accidents." (Anonymus.) 
— Christ and the Christian. (Anonymous). — Why 
Catholics Go to Confesion. By G. E. Anstruther. — 
The True Church. By the Rev. Jos. Keating, S.J. — 
A Talk with Children about Foreign Missions. By 
Maisie Ward. — ■ Our Common Christianitv. By the 
Rev. J. B. McLaughlin, O.S.B. 

-\f— -w'" ~^sj^\sr 

STEINER e « n d!!C?c 



The Catholic Tribune 


Price $4.00 Per Year 


Firs/ and ONLY Catholic Tri- Weekly 

in 1 he English Language in the (J. 8. 

Send for Sample Copy to 


The Fortnightly Review 



April 1, 1919 

Photographed by Jesse Xusbaum 

Courtesy of "El Palacio" 



Jemez is an Indian village on the 
north bank of the Jemez River, about 
twenty miles northwest of Bernalillo. 
It is far from the travelled highway 
and still maintains the ancient life un- 
interrupted. The mission ruins, shown 
above, are among the most spectacular 
in the State. 

Castaneda, the chronicler of Coron- 
ado's expedition of 1541, speaks of 

seven pueblos of the Jemez tribe in ad- 
dition to three others in the province 
of Aguas Calientes, identified by Simp- 
son with the Jemez Hot Springs region. 
Espejo, in 1583, says that seven villages 
were occupied by the Jemez, while 
Oiiate, in 1598, heard of eleven, but 
saw only eight. 

The first resident missionary was 
Frav Geronimo de Zarate Salmeron. 



April 1 

To him is ascribed the construction of 
die two mission churches, about 1618. 
At the outbreak of the Pueblo rebellion, 
in 1680. Jemez killed one of its two 
Franciscan missionaries. Fray Juan de 
Jesus. In 1694. the pueblos of Jemez 
were defated in a bloody battle by De 
Vargas. In 1696. they again rebelled 
and killed Fray Francisco de Jesus 
Maria Casanes. The rebels were joined 
in the mesas by some Navaho, Zurii, 
and Acoma allies, but were repulsed and 
fled to the Navaho country, where they 
remained several years, finally return- 
ing to their former home and construct- 
ing the present village. In 1782, Jemez 
was made a visit a of the mission of Zia. 
The pueblo to-day has about 500 people. 
The School of American Research, 
under the direction of Dr. Edgar L. 
i !t\vett, has made extensive excavations 
on ancient sites of the Jemez country, 
i Hodge in Handbook of Am. Indians, 
!, 629 sqq. ; El Palacio, Santa Fe, 1918, 
Vol. Y, Xo. 8, pp. 120 sq. : Bancroft, 
Arizona and New Mexico, 1889 ; Ban- 
delier in Arch. Inst. Papers, IV, 200 
sqq. . 1892: Hewett in Bull. 32 B. A. E., 



The Worm 

Where all is vile he stays 

In dark and loathsome ways, 

And builds his home away from light 

In horrid alleys out of sight 

And feeds on rottenness; 

Who can but acquiesce 

That shamed and cankered things be his 

Since God, the wise, has ordered tin'-. 

I'm if he sometimes sees 

The glitter of the trees 

And dainty girls, be-muslincd sweet 

With daistd iprouting at their feet — 

I low c.iii be do his part, 
bill empty eyei and heart, 
And in cold husks, untenanted 
<'.o m and out among the Dead? 

How s'.iy, without demur 

God'l tiny scavenger 

Denied of limits and scent* and hue-. 

In his downtrodden avenues? 

And is it sweet to take 
The Foul for God's fair sake, 
To grope beneath the mud for Him 
Who planned the Snow-fleeced Seraphim? 
May O'Ror-RKi: 

Ven. Maria d'Agreda's Alleged Mirac- 
ulous Flights to New Mexico 

Pursuant to the Editor's request for 
my opinion, "as a historian," whether 
the much discussed "alleged presence 
of Ven. Maria d'Agreda, (nearly 300 
years ago) among the Indian tribes in 
New Mexico" has a historic basis or 
should be rejected as apocryphal, I 
have devoted some time to an examina- 
tion of the principal authorities bear- 
ing upon the subject and now take 
pleasure in submitting to the public, 
through The Fortnightly Review, 
the results of my investigation, and 
also my opinion regarding the weight 
that ancient story merits "from the 
standpoint of a historian." 

The Name of the Nun 
According to Fr. Alonzo de Bena- 
vides — the first source on this matter — 
the religious name of the nun was 
"Mother Maria de Jesus." She is also 
called by some ancient historians, 
"Mother Maria Luisa de la Ascencion" 
and by others "Maria de Agreda." She 
was (in 1631) "the Abbess," says Fr. 
Benavides, "of her convent of the vil- 
lage of Agreda on the borders of Ara- 
gon and Castile." For my purpose, I 
shall refer to her simply as "Mother 
Maria de Jesus" or "Mother Mary." 

First Appearance of the Story 
in Print 

In the course of his Memorial, which 
he read before the King at Madrid, 
Spain, in 1630, Fr. Alonso de Bena- 
vides related what he had heard in 
New Mexico, (where he had labored 
among the Pueblo Indians and also 
among the savage tribes from 1622 to 
1628) from some Indian ambassadors 
sent to the Franciscans from the Jum- 
asas tribe to request the Friars to send 
some priests to christianize and baptize 
that tribe. Speaking on that point ( I am 
using Mrs. Edward E. Ayer's transla- 
tion of "The Memorial of Fray Alonso 
de Benavides," 1916, p. 63, which cor- 
responds with my translation thereof 
in my "Illustrated History of New 
Mexico," p. 700) bather Benavides 




"Arid so we immediately dispatched the said 
Father (Salas), with another, [his] compan- 
ion, who is Father Diego Lopez, whom the 
self-same Indians went as guides. And before 
they went, [we] asked the Indians to tell us 
the reason why they were with so much con- 
cern petitioning us for baptism, and for Reli- 
gious to go to indoctrinate them. They re- 
plied that a woman like that one we had 
there painted, which was a picture of the 
Mother Luisa de Carrion, used to preach to 
tach of them in their [own] tongue, [telling] 
them that they should come to summon the 
Fathers to instruct and baptize them, and that 
they should not be slothful [about it]. And 
that the woman who preached to them was 
dressed precisely like her who was painted 
there ; but that the face was not like that one, 
but that she [their visitant] was young and 
beautiful. And always whenever Indians 
newly came from those nations, looking upon 
the picture and comparing it among them- 
selves, they said that the clothing was 'the 
same but the face [was] not, because the 
[face] of the woman who preached to them 
was [that] of a beautiful girl." (See my 
"Historia Illustrada de Nuevo Mexico," p. 430, 
for the Spanish version). 

Upon further discussion of the fore- 
going statement, had in Madrid, be- 
tween Fr. de Benavides and Fr. Ber- 
nardino de Siena, later General of the 
Franciscan Friars, the Father-General 
informed Fr. Benavides that he, the 
Father-General, had, "more than eight 
years previously," been told by "Mother 
Maria de Jesus, abbess of her convent 
of the Village of Agreda," that that 
nun had had "apparitions and revela- 
tions concerning the conversion of 
New Mexico." The information re- 
ceived, seemingly, induced Fr. Bena- 
vides to believe that Mother Maria de 
Jesus was none other than the "young 
and beautiful woman" the Indian am- 
bassadors had referred to. Acting on 
that belief Fr. Benavides made a visit, 
in April and May, 1631, of some two 
weeks' duration to Agreda, for the sole 
purpose of hearing from the nun her- 
self the story of her apparitions to the 
Indians in New Mexico. From the in- 
formation obtained from the Mother 
by Fr. de Benavides, which he conveyed 
to his co-laborers in New Mexico by 

a letter written after his call on the 
nun, 1631, enclosing a written state- 
ment which the Mother gave him, and 
in which she goes into details regard- 
ing her "flight," etc. to New Mexico, 
Fr. de Benavides came to the conclu- 
sion that Mother Maria de Jesus was 
the person alluded to by the "Indian 

~ What we have reproduced, supra, 
from Fr. de Benavides' Memorial and 
what we have read in the preceding 
paragraph, forms the only basis for the 
extraordinary story about the "mirac- 
ulous nights" of Mother Maria de 
Jesus to New Mexico. That is the 
source, the only source there is; the 
sole and only source all past and pres- 
ent writers have had to rely upon. I 
will now make a brief review of the 
references made by the most reputable 
authors of our day and also of by-gone 
ages, winding up with the statements 
made by Fr. de Benavides and Mother 
Maria de Jesus, and, finally expressing 
my own opinion thereon. 

Fr. Junipero Serra 

Rev. Fr. Zephyrin Engelhardt in his 
"Missions and Missionaries of Cali- 
fornia" (1908-15, Vol. II, Part I, pp. 
100-1), after reciting the sad conditions 
of "the Missions of San Gabriel and 
San Diego," in the year 1772^ quotes 
(footnote 1) "Comandante Fage's" let- 
ter to De Croix, wherein the "Coman- 
dante" states that "provisions [at San 
Gabriel and San Diego] would not 
last two months; that they [the Spani- 
ards and Friars] had been largely living 
on a few vegetables and milk," repro- 
duces a letter which Fr. Junipero Serra 
wrote to Fr. Francisco Palou and in 
which he emphasizes the distress felt at 
San Gabriel and San Diego, stating that 
"the principal supporters of our people 
are the heathen Indians. 4 Through them 
we live as God wills, though the milk 
from the cows and some vegetables 
from the garden have been the chief 
means of subsistence in these establish- 
ments ; but both sources are becoming 
scanty." Fr. Serra then refers to Mother 
Maria de Jesus, saying that "much as 
the Fathers regret and deplore the vexa- 


the; fortnightly review 

April 1 

tions. hardships, etc.," not one of them 
"thinks of leaving his post," and adds : 
"It moreover appears to me that I see 
already verified the promise made by 
God in these last ages to our Father St. 
Francis (as .the seraphic Mother Mary 
of Jesus says), that the gentiles would 
be converted to our holy Catholic Faith 
by the mere sight of his sons." Strange 
as it may seem, this is the only reference 
made by Father Junipero Serra to 
Mother Maria de Jesus. Father Zephy- 
rin does not mention her at all in any 
other part of his work, although he will 
undoubtedly refer to her in his com- 
ing book, "The Franciscans in Xew 

Bancroft's Views 

In his "Arizona and New Mexico" 
! p. 163) H. H. Bancroft makes the 
only comment to be found in his work 
on the "supernatural visits" of the nun. 
Only he calls her "Sister Luisa de la 
Ascencion." Referring to Fr. de Bena- 
vides' Memorial, Bancroft says : 

'"The author recounts the miraculous con- 
version of the Jumanas living 112 leagues 
east of Santa Fe, through the supernatural 
visits of Sister Luisa de la Ascencion, an old 
nun of Carrion. Spain, who had the power 
of becoming young, and of transporting her- 
self in a state of trance to any part of the 
world where there were souls to be saved." 

It is self-evident that Bancroft never 
saw Fr. Benavides's letter to his evan- 
gelical co-laborers in Xew Mexico, for 
his account varies from that of Father 

Frederick Webb Hoqge 

In describing Fr. de Benavides's visit 
to Mother Maria de Jesus, at Agreda. 
Spain, in the year 1631, Mr. F. \V. 
Hodge, in hi>, "Xotcs" to Mrs. Edward 
E. Ayers' translation of that Friar's 
Memorial ( note 2. p. 190), commenting 
on the alleged "miraculous flights" of 
the nun to Xew Mexico, says: 

"Some of the tribal names mentioned by 

Mother .Maria -: as night be expected 

were, like the joiirmys themselves creations 
Of imagination ; others, it may be suggested, 
were derived from the Memorial published 
the year before/* 

SpeaJfjqg on the "miraculous mani- 

festations of Maria de Jesus, as set 
forth in her "La Mistica Ciudad" (note 
55, p. 276), Mr. Hodge comments on 
what seems an irreconcilable conflict 
between Fr. de Benavides and Don 
Damian Manzanet's (note 55, p. 277) 
letter to Don Carlos de Sigiienza y 
Gongora, regarding the color of the 
garments worn by Mother Maria de 
Jesus. In the letter alluded to by Mr. 
Hodge (writen in 1689), Manzanet, 
among other things, informs Sigiienza 
that he (Manzanet), "on account of 
facts gathered from a letter now in my 
possession, which had been given in 
Madrid to the Father Fray' Antonio 
Binaz. This letter treats of what the 
blessed Mother Maria de Jesus, de 
Agreda. made known in her convent to 
the Father Custodian of New Mexico, 
Fray Alonso de Benavides. And the 
blessed Mother tells of having been fre- 
quently to New Mexico and to the Gran 

Manzanet then goe? on and states 
how an Indian governor of a "Tejas" 
village had asked him "for a piece of 
bine baize to make a shroud in which 
to bury his mother when she died" ; that 
the governor declined to take baize of 
any other color saying, when Manzanet 
asked him for the reason, that "they 
[the Indians] were fond of that color, 
particularly for burial clothes, because 
in times past they had been visited fre- 
quently by a very beautiful woman 
who used to come down from the hills, 
dressed in blue garments, and that they 
wished to do as that woman had done." 

Referring to the Indian's allusion to 
the color of the garments worn by the 
"beautiful woman," Mr. Hodge (n. 55, 
p. 77) says: "Regarding the color of 
the baize so particularly specified by the 
Indian, it should be noted that Bena- 
vides just as explicitly states that the 
habit of the nun was gray." 

It is well not to forget this last com- 
ment of Mr. Hodge, so that the reader 
may draw his own conclusions from 
what Fr. de Benavides says on the color 
of the nun's habit as well as on the. 
color of her cloak, her habit being, 
according to the Friar, "gray" and her 
cloak "blue." 




Dean W. R. Harris 

The V. Rev. Dean W. R. Harris, in 
his "Occultism, Spiritism, and Demon- 
olgy," chap. IV, pp. 47 et seq. (1919), 
quoting from John Gilmary Shea's 
"History of Catholic Missions Among 
the Indian Tribes of the United States," 
and also relying on "the full history 
(p. 51) of this extraordinary case of 
bilocation" as told "by the scholarly 
Benedictine, Dom Gueranger" ; says : 

"I deem the subject [the bilocation 
of Mother Maria de Jesus] of such im- 
portance in association with the pos- 
sibility of St. Thomas or St. Brendan 
teaching to the Maya tribes of precol- 
umbian Yucatan, that I will condense 
it from the French work." 

The V. Rev. Dean then proceeds to 
state how Mother Maria de Jesus, in 
the year 1622, (the Mother herself says 
it was in 1620!) "experienced the sensa- 
tions of aerial transportation and in the 
same year instructed the tribe." And 
further that, according to Dom Guer- 
anger, "the Franciscans laboring among 
the Indians of New Mexico had not 
reaped a harvest of souls commensurate 
with their zeal and their expectations." 

Dean Harris uses, or rather presents 
the foregoing statement as a sort of 
preamble or explanation for the state- 
ment he himself makes (pp. 56-57) 
regarding the miraculous "aerial" trans- 
portation of the nun, which is as fol- 
lows : 

"One morning, as one of the Fathers on 
the mission of San Augustin de Isleta, was 
coming out of his adobe church, he was met 
by five Indians whom he had never before 
seen. Their speech was that of his own mis- 
sion tribe, with dialectic variations. They 
claimed to have come from beyond the Rio 
Pecos, said that they came as messengers 
sent by their chief who asked them for a 
priest to live among them and concluded by 
requesting to be baptized. The missionary in- 
quired, in the name of their tribe, in what 
direction their country lay and what river 
flowed through it. He added he could not 
accede to their request for baptism until they 
were instructed in the faith. They replied 
that they and the members of their tribe 
were already instructed; that a woman 
strangely dressed had visited their people 

and made known to thein the life and doc- 
trines of Jesus Christ; that her visits to them 
were many, and that it was she who had told 
them to come to the missionaries. Where she 
lived and how she came they did not know." 

The V. Rev. Dean then discusses the 
meaning and doctrine of bilocation ; also 
the "interview" (which, in a way, is at 
variance with Fr. de Benavides's account 
thereof) the Father had with Mother 
Maria de Jesus, referring to the 
Mother's book, "La Ciudad Mistica de 
Dios." The V. Rev. Dean, finally, quotes 
what he, relying on Dom Gueranger's 
book, "Maria d'Agreda et la Cite de 
Dieu," says was Mother Maria de Jesus' 
concluding statement, which she gave 
in writing and under her own signature, 
to Fr. de Benavides, as follows : 

"That which appears to me to be more 
certain as regards the manner by which these 
occurrences took place, is that an angel from 
heaven appeared among these people under 
my figure, preached to and instructed them, 
and that I saw here, while in an ecstatic state, 
all that there happened in the country so far 
away." (This statement does not tally exact- 
ly with Fr. Palou's extract). 

In conclusion Dean Harris gives his 
judgment, in so far as he is concerned, 
declaring the entire account as a matter 
which (p. 65-6) "we are free to believe 
or not to believe." "To me," he adds, 
"it appears to be an establishe'd case of 
clairvoyant trance, and in a process of 
canonization would not, I am of the 
opinion, have a place with the dona 
SHpernatiiroIia, nor among proved mir- 
acles." Benjamin M. Read 
(To be concluded) 

— The most thorough and practically use- 
ful of the commentaries hitherto published 
on the marriage law of the Church, as 
recently modified, is "Marriage Legislation 
in the New Code of Canon Law," by the V. 
Rev. H. A. Ayrinhac, President of St. Pat- 
rick's Seminary, Menlo Park, Cal., with an 
Introduction by Archbishop Hanna. The 
author shows not only what the marriage law 
of the Church now is, but the stages it has 
traversed until it grew to the perfection in 
which the Code presents it. The book is in- 
tended for seminarists and for the clergy and 
will no doubt serve its purpose well. (Ben- 
ziger Bros. ; $2 net). 



April 1 

The Sacred Heart in the Home 

One of the greatest needs of the 
Church in the United States today is 
the safeguarding of the sacredness of 
the family, as well in its fundamental 
principles and duties, as in its manifold 
and weighty relations towards society. 
It follows that whatever sound and 
helpful instrument may be devised for 
this purpose, should be given prompt 
welcome and serious trial. 

Now, such a worthy and promising 
means is without doubt the consecra- 
tion of each individual family to the 
Sacred Heart of Jesus and its dedica- 
tion to a more fervent and devoted 
service of Christ in the mystery of His 
divine Love. The Enthronement of 
the Sacred Heart in the Home is the 
title under which this wholesome and 
practical devotion has more recently 
been preached and propagated. 

The very nature of the sublime ob- 
ject proposed ; the supernatural treas- 
ures of grace put in action in its appli- 
cation ; the appealing charm of its 
motive power ; the love, that is, of the 
Heart of God Himself, evinced by the 
clear proof of facts in the life of the 
Saviour as long-suffering, and gener- 
ous, and of infinite tenderness — all 
these surely are evidence sufficient to 
show that there is question here of a 
most excellent instrument for good. 

Add to Lhis the ardent appeal of the 
late Pope Pius X to a promoter of the 
work: "Not only do I permit and sanc- 
tion it [the work of Enthronement], 
but I command you to devote yourself 
to this work" ; and those other solemn 
words of our present Holy Father, 
Benedict XV: "In our times there is 
and can be no work more sacred than 
that of consecrating the family to the 
most Sacred Heart of Jesus." 

It is no wonder then, that prelates 
keen and zealous for the welfare of 
their people, such as the Rt. Rev. Jo- 
seph Schrembs Hi -hop of Toledo, O., 
charge and earnestly exhort their 

tl to promote this salutary work 

among their people, and thus to help 
ii a practical and effective way to sal- 
and to save where lethargy and 

neglect threaten disaster to the Church 
and countless souls. 

And facts, too, can be furnished, 
facts of consoling experiences and of 
fruitful harvests that give answer to 
the tantalizing question, "But, will it 
work?" It will work, it has worked 
before, worked with the rich produc- 
tiveness of the works called into being 
in the Church by the Spirit of God, and 
made potent by the full authorization 
of Christ's Vicar. 

These facts can be read in many a 
number of the many "Messengers of 
the Sacred Heart" published in prac- 
tically every civilized language. Such 
facts, — many astonishing ones, too — 
can be read, in particular, in an inter- 
esting pamphlet lately issued by one 
of the authorized centres of the work, 
the Benedictine Convent of Perpetual 
Adoration at Clyde, Missouri, "Six 
Discourses on the Enthronement of the 
Sacred Heart in the Home and Con- 
secration of the Family," by Reverend 
Father Matheo, SS.CC. The pamphlet 
contains sixty-four pages and retails at 
ten cents the copy. 

Of the many striking experiences 
told by Father Matheo (the Rev. Mat- 
thew Crawley-Boevey) of his tour of 
preaching across Europe at the out- 
break of the world war, the following 
deserves to be recounted here : 

"When I was at Lourdes, a laborer 
approached me and asked, 'Are you the 
Father who preached the kingdom of 
the Heart of Jesus?' — 'Yes,' I an- 
swered, T am he.' — 'Oh, how happy 
I am to see you ! I must tell you some- 
thing. For twenty years I have offered 
up the "holy hour" for the intention 
that the kingdom of the Heart of Jesus 
should be established in families.' 

"So that poor man," Father Matheo 
concludes, "was the precursor of this 
work. I fe sowed the seed of prayer, 
which brought forth a bountiful har- 
vest, for the sermons at Lourdes were 
crowned with glorious success." 

This timely and effective form of 
devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus 
seems to have taken its rise in the days 
v/hen the famous Father Ramiere, S.J., 
was still at the head of the League of 




the Sacred Heart. In March, 1882, he 
published a number of letters on the 
subject, written by a young Jesuit then 
studying in the Isle of Jersey. These 
letters were the result of a practical 
trial made of the idea of consecration 
of families and of the precious fruits 
derived therefrom. 

But the most remarkable successes 
seem to have been achieved since the 
zealous Father Matheo, SS.CC, has 
taken up the work. A cure, in 1908, at 
Paray-le-Monial, from a disease pro- 
nounced hopeless by physicians, in- 
duced him to devote himself wholly to 
this task, and since that time this in- 
defatigable apostle has been giving his 
life to preaching and propagating the 
Enthronement of the Sacred Heart in 
the Home, with the consoling and 
inspiring result recounted in his "Six 

No doubt, as with all undertakings 
of like nature, active zeal and sustained 
interest are necessary, not a mere occa- 
sional spurt of fervor. But when these 
are not wanting, and this "providential 
work," as the Holy Father himself has 
styled it, is energetically taken in hand, 
who will doubt but that the ardent wish 
of Pope Benedict XV will be well on 
the way of realization : "Oh, if all 
families would fulfil the obligations of 
such a consecration, the social reign of 
Jesus Christ would be assured!" (For 
detailed information about the act of 
consecration, etc., the reader is referred 
to a second pamphlet, entitled, "En- 
thronement of the Sacred Heart in the 
Familv," same price, same publisher.) 

J. P. 

— A French adage says that if everyone 
knew what others said of him behind his 
back, there would not be left three friends 
in the world. This is but too true, for even 
our best friends judge us with a rigor which 
we would not relish. 

—By keeping hens up sixteen hours a day 
through the use of artificial light, Cornell 
has demonstrated that they can be made to 
lay more. This deepens one's regret that the 
goose that laid the golden eggs is no longer 

Shall it be "On" or "Off" With 
the Dance? 

The Denver Catholic Register prints 
the following on its editorial page under 
the heading "Important Announce- 
ment" : — 

The Register, in the future, will not carry 
announcements of any dances, no matter by 
whom given. A regulation established by the 
Third Council of Baltimore, renewed some 
months ago by the Pope, forbids dances for 
the benefit of Catholic churches. While this 
prohibition did not extend so far as to in- 
clude dances for Catholic fraternal societies, 
nevertheless it is not permitted to announce 
such fraternal affairs from the pulpit, and it 
is also .deemed best that the Register should 
refrain from announcing them, inasmuch as 
it is, in a sense, an auxiliary of the pulpit. 
We will adopt the rule already in force in 
some of the leading Catholic papers and will 
announce no dances. 

Last summer I lived in a parish, the 
pastor of which arranged for dances to 
be held once or twice a week in the 
parish hall adjoining the church. He 
announced these dances every Sunday 
and urged the young people to attend ; 
arguing that it was better they should 
dance in their own parish hall than go 
elsewhere for their amusement. The 
parish was filled with young war-work- 
ers (girls) from all parts of the coun- 
try, and the dances were, no doubt, in- 
tended as a form of entertainment and 
recreation for them. Young men in 
uniform were invited and were always 
present in large numbers, the dances 
being free. The pastor and his assist- 
ant were often present at these dances, 
and gave every possible countenance to 

Knowing the attitude of the Church 
toward dances (as alluded to in the ex- 
tract just given from the Register) I 
often wondered what circumstance was 
present in the case I have just cited 
which made the dance praiseworthy. 
Was it a war measure ? 

On the other hand, the most success- 
ful of all attempts to furnish entertain- 
ment for war workers and soldiers was 
that made by a large Protestant church 
i:i Washington, D. C, — the Church of 



April 1 

the Covenant. There was no dancing in 
the service house of this church, yet its 
lectures, musicales, etc.. were always 

During the war. at all the camps and 
cantonments and in the halls in which 
>oldiers and sailors were entertained in 
the towns and cities, dancing was the 
chief form of amusement. If it were 
sinful or unworthy of Catholics, why 
was it allowed in K. of C. huts and at 
service clubs conducted by Catholic 
women? If it is not either sinful or 
unworthy of Catholics, why should a 
Catholic paper, intended for the laitv, 
taboo all mention of it ? 

The other evening in New York, a 
crowd estimated to number 15,000 to 
18.000 people thronged Madison Square 
Garden, to participate in a ball given 
under the auspices of the K. of C. We 
read in a Catholic paper: 

The feature of the ball, aside from its 
record-breaking attendance, was a drill and 
review <>f hundreds of troops from overseas, 
members of the old Sixty-ninth Regiment. 
These battle-scarred veterans provided a 
thrill t<> the thousands of onlookers. The 
Right Rev. Patrick J. Hayes, Bishop Ordi- 
nary of the Armed Forces of the United 
States, was the reviewing preiate. The Paul- 
i-t Choristers, directed by Father Finn, S.J., 
sang several -.elections, and there were other 
admirable numbers on the entertainment pro- 
gram. In the early evening dancing was out 
Ot the question, but later, when the crowd 
thinned out somewhat, t lie dancers appeared 
and kept two orchestras of 100 pieces each 
I'tisy until about 3 a. m.. when Home Sweet 
Home was played. 

Could we not have some definite and 
d< tinitivc ruling on this subject of danc- 


\ Sv> Liberty Bond will make you a life 
MtbfCribef '>f the Kf.vikw and procure you 
a place on the rotter of the journal's bene 

f actors. 

— If you do not bind your Rkvikw, hand 
the copies to others after you have read them. 

—We are always ready to furnish itft h 
hack numbers of die P. R. as we have in 

A Word for Our Catechisms 
The Ecclesiastical Rcviezv lately con- 
tained an article on "Catechism Teach- 
ing." One of the chief means to make 
religious teaching effective, the author 
says, is a proper textbook. But are the 
catechisms employed in our schools 
really such? He thinks they are not. 
"We are on the whole still wedded to a 
system that appears radically wrong. 
The almost universal practice embodies 
the question and answer method. That 
method was once used in the teaching 
of all other branches of knowledge. 
But it is so no longer. Teachers have 
come to realize more and more that the 
child mind is not to be regarded as a 
memory faculty chiefly, by which we 
are enabled to lay in a store of ready- 
made knowledge which awaits its de- 
velopment and application with the 
growth of the faculties later on." 

Having received my religious instruc- 
tion as a child by the help of a "ques- 
tion-and-answer" catechism, I am un- 
able to understand why such objections 
can be made at all. It seems to me that 
all those who speak against the cate- 
chism labor under a wrong impression, 
namely, that those who advocate the 
retention of this kind of textbook im- 
agine that nothing is required for the 
religious instruction of a child but to 
make him learn mechanically the an- 
swers to the questions, and that the 
catechism itself will do all the rest. If 
this is so, the opponents of the cate- 
chism fight against windmills. No sane 
man considers the catechism, or any 
other textbook for that matter, as more 
than the substratum, and, as it were, 
the crystallized result, of the oral ex- 
planation, which holds the principal 
place. As the substratum, because it is 
a guide for the catechist, prevents him 
from omittitlg anything of importance, 
and, to some moderate extent, spurs 
on the attention of the children. As the 
crystallized result, because the answers 
represent in well-considered terms 
what has been the subject of his talk 
to and with the children. The catechis- 
ing is the main feature, and the cate- 
chism is neither more nor less than an 
excellent help to it. 




But the "memory-cram," the learn- 
ing by heart of the answers, — is that 
not highly un-modern, unscientific? 
Well, does Fr, Kelly, the author of the 
article, get along without it? Accord- 
ing to our "radically wrong" catechism 
method, we learned that five operations 
— this word was not used, however, — 
are necessary to make a good confes- 
sion, namely, examination of con- 
science, contrition, purpose of amend- 
ment, accusation, and penance. We had 
to learn them by heart and to be pre- 
pared to recite them. Of course, our 
good catechist spent ten times more 
time in explaining them to us than in 
listening to our recitation. Do the chil- 
dren instructed by Fr. Kelly perform 
these acts? If they do, they must re- 
member, and consequently must have 
memorized them. It makes no differ- 
ence in what manner they have com- 
mitted them to memory. But if his 
children do not know them by heart, 
they are in danger of making invalid 
confessions. — And do not his children 
memorize the Ten Commandments, the 
Seven Sacraments, etc.? 

It seems as if the opponents of the 
catechism imagined that there is no 
danger in over-emphasizing memory 
work, except in the case of a question- 
and-answer book. Yet this danger exists 
everywhere. A friend told me that his 
history teacher spent the entire period 
in listening to the mechanical recital by 
the class of the two pages which con- 
stituted the home-work for the day, 
and he wound up the instruction, when 
the bell rang, by saying. "Next two 
pages for to-morrow." When Fr. Kelly, 
or some one else, will have brought out 
his ideal textbook of elementary reli- 
gious instruction, what guaranty will 
he have that some teachers will not 
commit the same mistake? And if on 
account of the severe strictures of Fr. 
Kelly against memory-cram, he will not 
have it memorized, maybe he will 
think he does his duty if he simplv has 
it read in class. 

Fr. Kelly quotes some instances from 
current catechisms to show how utterly 
wrong is the memorizing method. He 
reprints a few questions on contrition, 

after which he continues : "The ordi- 
nary Catholic child has made many 
confessions long before he is capable of 
grasping the sense of a series of ques- 
tions and answers expressed in the 
above form." Here we fully agree 
with him. A child can learn much prac- 
tical religion before he is able to read 
a catechism. He can pray, and pray 
well, long before his mind is sufficiently 
developed to appreciate a catechism 
answer on prayer. (This is another of 
Fr. Kelly's instances.) Why, then, he 
asks, "should we insist upon his still 
learning these definitions?" We reply, 
to give him a better, a more distinct, 
knowledge. Or is no greater, no more 
reasoned knowledge possible than what 
a child of perhaps seven years can 
grasp? If that were so, why should 
we try to improve upon the elementary 
knowledge of the boy by giving him an 
advanced course in religion during his 
highschool and college career? Can we 
really learn no more of praying than 
our good mothers taught us? But any 
advanced instruction must necessarily 
make use of distinctions and definitions. 
And again : distinctions and definitions 
must be committed to memory in some 
way or other. Fr. Kelly is, however, 
right in supposing that in the case of 
small children the catechism or any 
other printed aid is of very little value, 
if of any value at all. 

One of his instances is the question, 
"How should we prepare for Holy 
Communion?" I grant that the word- 
ing of the answer which he reproduces 
is an unhappy one ; but that has nothing 
to do with the question-and-answer 
method as such. I can assure him that 
the answer which I learned in my cate- 
chism, fifty years ago, is still in my 
mind and has often greatly assisted me 
in making my preparation for the 
reception of the Blessed Sacrament. 
Of course it had been committed to 

What does it matter if many of the 
words are forgotten later on? They 
have served an excellent purpose, — the 
child's elementary instruction. And 
the things they have taught do not so 
easilv vanish from memorv. 



April 1 

"But so many terms are not under- 
stood!" I reply, first, this depends 
greatly on the catechist and the trouble 
he takes; secondly, it will happen in 
every branch that is taught in any 
school, no matter how much the teacher 
will endeavor to prevent it, and no mat- 
ter whether the book he uses follows 
the question-and-answer method or any 
other method. Many of such terms will 
be understood later on by the hearing 
of sermons, reading of religious books, 
etc. In this regard the catechism is in 
a better position than the textbooks of 
most other branches, the study of which 
is given up for good as soon as the 
student leaves school. 

Let me finally remark that nobody 
considers the question-and-answer form 
as equally suited for all branches, or for 
all stages of the same branch. It will 
be difficult for Fr. Kelly to prove his 
cff-hand statement, that is was former- 
ly employed in all branches taught in 
the schools, while at the same time 
there are "catechisms" of various 
higher disciplines intended for the 
private use of maturer people. 

F. S. B. 


The Campaign Against Spiritism 

Mr. J. Godfrey Raupert, K.S.G., the 
well-known convert and author, who 
has recently been lecturing in this coun- 
try on the evils of Spiritism, has re- 
ceived a letter from the Cardinal Secre- 
tary of State, in which the latter, speak- 
ing in the name of the Holy Father, 

"Among the evils which are at the 
present time causing havoc to humanity, 
we may number those occult practices 
of Spiritism which, if permitted to be 
spread unchecked, threaten to inflict on 
ootmtlcM persons the loss of body and 
-oul. Therefore His Holiness can but 
rn worthy of praise and of real 
benefit to humanity the work that is 
accomplished, either by word . or by 
writing, in order to save men from the 
meshes of such an intricate and peril- 
OUI practice. It was, therefore, with a 

special sense of satisfaction that our 
Holy Father learned that, after having 
been yourself engaged in the experi- 
mental investigation of this kind of 
superstition, in all good faith and for 
many years, with the hope of finding 
therein the solution of problems which 
agitate humanity, and having finally be- 
come convinced of the radical falsehood 
of such a system, you have assailed it 
with such efficacy as to win the applause 
of both laity and clergy in the old as 
well as in the new world. I am directed 
to say, therefore, that His Holiness en- 
courages your whole-hearted zeal, and 
trusts that by the means of your own 
experience in this matter, and by sound 
explanation of the Church's teachings, 
you may yet preserve many souls from 
the deadly contamination of the above- 
mentioned practice." 

Mr. Raupert, by the way, has in press 
a new book on Spiritism, which will be 
brought out shortly by the Devin-Adair 
Co., of New York. 

Socialism and Capitalism 

By pointing out that it is. not enough 
for Catholics to combat Socialism, but 
that they must also fight the opposing 
evil of Capitalism, Father Fitzgerald 
and other recent writers in the London 
Universe have thrown a timely truth 
into clearer relief. It is Capitalism 
rather than Socialism that lies at the 
root of the social question. The pri- 
mary object of Leo XIII in the encyc- 
lical "Rerum Novarum" was to show 
the injustice of the present social order, 
of "the yoke little better than that of 
slavery itself [which] a small number 
of very rich men have been able to lay 
upon the teeming masses of the labor- 
ing poor." In other words (we quote 
from a letter of T. O. S. D. to our Lon- 
don contemporary, No. 302), "prima- 
rily he denounces Capitalism and de- 
mands a remedy for . the evils conse- 
quent upon it; incidentally (but none 
the less strongly) he condemns the sug- 
gested remedy of Socialism as false and 
dangerous. It will hardly be possible, 
therefore, to decide, or even adequately 
to discuss, what precisely should be the 
attitude of Catholics here and now with 




regard to Socialism, without deciding 
first their immediate attitude to the 
prior evil of Capitalism. Without the 
Church as within, it is notorious 
that she condemns Socialism. Is the 
Church's condemnation of Capitalism 
equally notorious — even among Catho- 
lics? If not, does it not rest as a duty 
(and also a privilege) upon the Catho- 
lics of to-day, laymen as well as priests, 
to help to make it so — not only among 
ourselves, but among all our fellow- 

A Trip to Northern Quebec 

The Naturalist e Canadien quotes a 
word of well-deserved praise bestowed 
upon it by a subscriber, who says : "Le 
Naturaliste Canadien has a personal, 
familiar tone — entirely wanting in the 
more pretentious reviews — that is very 

The Naturaliste, like the Fort- 
nightly Review, is, to employ the 
words of our confrere Father F. M. 
Lynk of the Christian Family, "a little 
one-man review," and its editor, the 
Very Rev. Canon V. A. Huard, is an 
accomplished litterateur, who imparts 
to his journal, despite its necessarily 
somewhat technical character, a delight- 
ful literary touch, which lures the cul- 
tured reader on from page to page. 
The number from which we have just 
quoted is devoted almost entirely to a 
description of a pleasure trip made last 
summer by the editor to Lake St. John, 
away up in the northern part of the 
Province of Quebec. The party went 
from Chicoutimi to Roberval, and 
thence, by auto and by boat, up the lake 
and the Mistassini River and down 
again by way of the Peribonca. 

All through this fertile region, as 
far as the town of Mistassini, which 
Canon Huard had not visited for twenty 
years, are now many flourishing settle- 
ments with fine churches and schools, 
and a few institutions, such as a Trap- 
pist monastery and a big orphan farm 
conducted by Brothers of the Society 
of St. Francis Regis. Beyond this pros- 
perous agricultural belt, which now 
forms the outpost of civilization, lies 
an immense fertile plain, extending 

towards the North, where thousands 
of diligent colonists will some day find 
a home and a living. The extension 
into this new country of the Roberval- 
Saguenay Railroad, now under way, 
will no doubt greatly hasten its develop- 

The present inhabitants of the coun- 
try around St. John's Lake are nearly 
all Catholics of the French-Canadian 
nationality, who practice their reli- 
gion faithfully and whose numerous 
descendants will one day populate and 
develop the vast stretches to the North. 

A Critical Estimate of Joyce Kilmer 

The San Francisco Monitor (LX, 
40, 4) prints a sensible reminder that 
there were great men before Agamem- 
non. The writer says that certain 
poets have been proclaimed great by 
reason of adventitious circumstances of 
one kind or another that had nothing 
to do with their poetry. Rupert Brooke, 
for example, was not a great poet. 
Neither was Joyce Kilmer. "I have 
before me," says this critic, "two large 
volumes by Robert Cortes Holliday, 
and I am still wondering what Kilmer 
did to deserve them. I have a natural 
and, I think, reasonable desire to be 
kind to him because he was a devout 
Catholic; but if I would give my ver- 
dict honestly, it would be simply this : 
'much ado about nothing.' Unquestion- 
ably, Kilmer has written a few really 
good poems. 'Rouge Bouquet' is the real 
vintage. 'Trees' also is pretty. But is 
that any reason for inflicting upon us 
a whole carload of third rate verse that 
can find its equal in almost any current 
magazine one lays hands on? Why the 
letters and essays should be added is 
more puzzling still. The letters may 
interest the circle of his personal 
friends. But there are only two reasons 
why letters ever interest the general 
public, either because they are the let- 
ters of some great man, or because they 
are literature. It is absurd to pretend 
that either reason is present in the case 
of Kilmer. As to the essays, they are 
good journalese with a certain literary 
'flair.' They should have been allowed 
to go the way of all ephemeral litera- 



April 1 

ture, into the oblivion of the periodicals 
or newspapers where they first saw the 
light. Joyce Kilmer's talent was medi- 
ocre, and it is a bad precedent to put 
mediocrities on pedestals. It tends to 
lower our standard of excellence in 
literature and art. And we Catholics 
just now can't afford to do that." 

Had Kilmer devoted himself to the 
Catholic press, instead cf the N. Y. 
Times and the Literary Digest, his 
name would no longer be mentioned 
among us. We have better talent that 
has never met with proper recognition. 



— Professor Lindsay Kogers, of the 
University of Virginia, contributes to 
the London Quarterly Review for Janu- 
ary an interesting paper on presidential 
dictatorship in the United States as ex- 
emplified in Woodrow Wilson. 

— It seems impossible to come to an 
agreement as to what are acceptable 
photo plays. Some of those recom- 
mended by the Pennsylvania State 
Board of Censors, for instance, have 
been strongly objected to by our read- 
ers. Perhaps it would be easier to agree 
upon, and more helpful to publish, lists 
of condemned films. The Pennsylvania 
Board presents such a list, extending 
up to Sept. 30. 1918. The pamphlet is 
too long to be reproduced in the Re- 
vikw, but interested persons can obtain 
it for a two-cent stamp from the head- 
quarters of the Board, at 1025 Cherry 
Str., Philadelphia, Pa. 

— Another difficulty with the lists 
of clean photo plays that have been 
given out by a few zealous individuals 
(see our No. 1. pp. 5 sqq.. No. 2, pp. 
21 sq.) is that new plays arc produced 
with such lightning rapidity that any 
list grow- obsolete in a few weeks. 
Thus a Minnesota pastor writes to us: 

"We tried to get some of the plays con- 
tained in the list you printed in Janu- 
ary, but found that practically all of 
them were 'out of commission.' Could 
you not publish a list that would be up 
to date?" To edit such a list and keep 
it an courant, some organization would 
have to be formed, with means to test 
each film as soon as it is "released," 
and to report immediately to a central 
bureau, which would issue weekly, or 
better still, daily lists to the newspapers. 
No one man or journal can possibly do 
this work ; and yet it is almost necessary 
that it be done if we want to combat 
the evil of the "movies" successfully. 
Here, as in so many other things, our 
lack of efficient organization is proving 
a great hindrance. 

— For the twofold purpose of in- 
creasing the circulation of Catholic 
periodical literature and providing con- 
verted Protestant ministers with work 
by which they can earn a livelihood for 
themselves and their families, Mr. 
Harry Wilson, himself a former minis- 
ter of, we believe, the Anglican Church, 
has established a magazine agency, 
which has the cordial approval of 
Bishop Cantwell. This agency solicits 
subscriptions for all sorts of magazines, 
secular as well as religious, but prefer- 
ably for Catholic ones, and asks Cath- 
olics to employ its services in ordering 
their favorite magazines. Mr. Wilson 
in a recent circular says that every 
5,000 subscribers who send in their 
magazine subscriptions through his 
agency will bring in sufficient profit to 
support a clerical convert and his 
family. As clerical converts, in the 
words of Bishop Cantwell, usually 
"have a very hard time after their con- 
version, since it is almost impossible to 
find any employment by which they can 
support themselves and their families," 
those who patronize the Harry Wilson 
Magazine Agency will be doing a good 



2735-2737 Lyon Street, cor. Lynch 
Church Bells and Chimes of Best Quality 




work. A list of Catholic papers and 
magazines will be sent free upon appli- 
cation to 1824 So. Kingsbury Drive, 
Los Angeles, Cal. 

— Commenting on the fact that the 
directors of the U. S. Steel Corporation 
at their last meeting reduced the extra 
quarterly dividend on the common stock 
to one percent, the stockholders hav- 
ing already received a regular dividend 
for the preceding three months at the 
rate of nine per cent per annum, Dr. 
John A. Ryan says in the Catholic 
Charities Review (III, 3) that the Steel 
Trust is violating a very urgent moral 
and social obligation when, in the midst 
of a wide-spread business depression 
and daily increasing unemployment, it 
pays dividends at the rate of nine per 
cent. Instead of merely reducing the 
extra dividend, the Corporation should 
have passed the dividend entirely both 
on its common and on its preferred 
stock, and used the savings to reduce 
the prices of its peculiarly important 
products. Had the Steel Corporation 
taken this course of action. Dr. Ryan 

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thinks, hundreds of other concerns 
would have heen constrained to follow, 
business enterprises would have revived 
more quickly, and the masses of the 
people would have come to the con- 
clusion that, after all, the capitalistic 
system is operated for something 
higher than mere profits for the mas- 
ters. The effort to keep profits up to 
the highest possible level at this time 
betrays an utter disregard of the social 
purpose of industry, which is the ad- 
vancement of social well-being, and not 
merely the accumulation of wealth. 

— One reason for the high cost of 
living is rarely mentioned in the news- 
papers, viz.: the prodigal war expendi- 
ture which had to be met by the issue 
of hundreds of millions of paper 
money, representing not assets, but 
consumption, and by huge loans. Cur- 
rency inflation, as the London Satur- 
day Review said in a recent issue (No. 
3303). is always followed by a rise in 
prices, and as there never has been in- 
flation on such a scale before, so there 
never has been such a rise in commodi- 
ties and wages, which have doubled and 
trebled. The necessity of feeding the 
world is, of course, a contributory 
cause of high prices at home. It is sad 
to think that there are hungry popula- 
tions in Poland and Armenia ; but 
charity begins at home, and unless the 
government is careful, there will be 
thousands starving in America. A 
great many people who have never 
known want or even discomfort, are 
drifting towards distress, and the tide 
of universal discontent is rising dan- 
gerously high. 

— In Missouri, Texas. Massachusetts. 
Ohio, Nebraska, and several other 
States bills have been introduced into 
the legislatures threatening the liberty 
of instruction and free exercise of 
parental rights, which is the funda- 
mental basis of our Catholic parish 
schools. No matter under what pre- 
text these constitutionallv o-uaranteed 
rights and liberties are attacked, may 
we not hope that at least all Catholics, 
regardless of nationality, will unite to 
defend them? Our Catholic schools 
must be saved at any price. 



April 1 

Literary Briefs 

— Father Charles Augustine's erudite "Com- 
mentary on the New Code of Canon Law" 
i? making rapid progress. Volume III, just 
out. commentates canons 487 to 725 and con- 
tains 469 pages. Cardinal Gasquet contributes 
a preface, in which he gives just praise to the 
author for his industry and learning. This 
volume is of special interest to religious and 
can he purchased separately at $2.50. (B. 
Herder Book Co.) 

— The Fr. Pustet Co., Inc., has just pub- 
lished a new edition (the eighth) of Lanslot's 
"Handbook of Canon Law for Congregations 
of Women with Simple Vows." The volume 
has been revised and enlarged to conform 
with the new Code of Canon Law. and con- 
sequently retains its usefulness. ($1.50 net). 

— Father Albert Brueserman, O.F.M., has 
compiled a neat historical souvenir to com- 
memorate the sixtieth anniversary of St. 
Anthony's Parish. Melrose Township, Adams 
Co. (near Quincy), Illniois. The little volume 
embodies much interesting information and 
:s handsomely illustrated. St. Anthony's 
has throughout the six decades of its exist- 
ence been in charge of the Franciscan Fath- 
ers of the St. Louis province, and the church 
possesses a unique oranment in the form 
of an oil painting made by a member of the 
congregation and enclosed in a beautiful 
frame carved by the present pastor. This 
painting was hung upon the wall of the 
church in pious memory of all the Franciscan 
Fathers who during the past sixty years have 
offered up the Sacrifice of the New Dispen- 
sation at its altars. Father Albert, by the 
way, is not only an expert with the chisel, 
but also has the gift of a popular literary 

— Those who have and use Noldin's excel- 
lent "Summa Theologiae Moralis" will want 
to purchase the "Supplementum" recently 
published by Fr. Albert Schmitt, S.J., as it 
indicates all the changes made necessary in 
the author's teaching by the new Code of 
Canon Law. (Fr. Pustet Co., Inc., 75 cts. 
net, wrapper). 

—The B. Herder Book C<»., of St. Louis, 
now has the agency for the Irish Theological 
Quarterly. This, the best periodical of it- 
kind in the language, is edited by Drs. 
<)'\)<<n\v:\\. J'i<r-c. Ki- a;i. . and Moran of 
the Maynooth theological faculty, and its 
current issue (No. 53) contains the follow- 
ing papers: "Mira< ]<■-," by !•>. Joseph Rick- 
aby, S.J.; "N'ew Llghl ,,n Hugh OCarolan, 
Bishop of Clogher (1535 1.^)," by l>r. W. 
if. Grattan; "The Galatian Churches," by the 
Rev. J. J. Conway; "IrMi Nature I'.oetry," 
bjrthe ReV. LP. Murray, "harius the M''le." 
by the Rev. K. J. Kissane, and many learned 
book reviews and note-, among them a par- 
ticularly interesting one by Or. Pierse on 

"Reconstruction in Theology." The subscrip- 
tion price of this excellent magazine is only 
$2.50 per annum. . ., 

— The Loyola University Press, of Loyola 
University, Chicago, has added another num- 
ber to its series of English classics for school 
use. It bears the title, "Memory Gems — A 
Book of Verse for Memory Lessons." The 
little work is well gotten up, contains some 
good remarks on the value of memory train- 
ing, and will prove serviceable in English 
classes. (Price 10 cts.). 

with first-class references, is looking for a good 
position, where true Church music is in vogue. 

Address: "Organist," care F. R. 

WANTED, position by a competent organist, 
single, with good references. Would like to have 
a place where there is a High Mass to play daily. 
Apply to N. N., c. o. The Fortnightly Review. 



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—"The Hand of God, A Theology for the 
People," by Martin J. Scott, S.J., will no 
doubt be read from cover to cover by a good 
niany Catholics as well as non-Catholics. 
Father Scott speaks to his readers in the 
terms of their daily experience, with graphic 
<Joncreteness and with a simplicity and direct- 
ness that wins confidence and convinces the 
understanding. The twenty-two chapters of 
the book treat of such varied subjects as, 
ipivorce and Remarriage, The Invisible 
World, Miracles, Dogma, Intolerance, etc. 
The author's first booklet, "God and Myself," 
i| reported to be approaching the hundred 
thousand mark. This second book will, if 
anything, outstrip the former in popularity. 
{P. J. Kenedy & Sons; $1.00; paper 35c). 

— Dr. R. S. Conway, in a lecture delivered 
in the John Rylands Library and published 
in pamphlet form ("The Youth of Virgil"; 
Longmans; 20 cts. net), among other things 
discusses the question which of the Eclogues 
were actually written by Virgil. He con- 
cludes that at least four or five may be con- 
fidently attributed to him, including the "Cu- 
lex," the "Copa," the "Moretum," and the 
Fourth, or Messianic, Eclogue. With these 
the "Crisis," almost certainly to be attrib- 
uted to Gallus, is compared. The Sixth 
and Tenth Eclogues are shown to be merely 
a catalogue describing a number of poems 
by Gallus, — a discovery that will remove at 
least one stumbling-block from the path of 
the schoolboy puzzled to know what on 
earth the poems are driving at. 

—Regarding "The Literary History of 
Spanish America," by Dr. Alfred Coester, 
which was reviewed so favorably by the late 
Bishop Currier in the Bulletin of the Pan 
American Union (Vol. XLVII, No. 3; see 
the reference in F. R., XXVI, 2, 27 sq.), a 
Jesuit of Spanish-American extraction sends 
us a criticism which he originally wrote for 
the Revista Catolica, of El Paso, Tex. We 
extract a few salient points because of the 
importance of the book and its subject-mat-: 
ter. Dr. Coester is a pioneer in this field. 
Herein lies his merit and also a serious draw- 
back. He is a historian rather than a critic, 
and takes too many of the authors he men^ 
tions at the exaggerated estimate of their 
admirers. Then, there are some grave omis- 
sions. Thus, in his account of the literature 
of Argentina, Dr. Coester omits some of the 
best authors, like the two Estradas, Nicolas 
Avellaneda, Felix Frias, Pedro Gozena, 
Pearson, Padre Palacio, Martinez Zuviria, 
— all, by the way, genuine Catholics. Some 
of the writers that are praised by Dr. Coes- 
ter, (as Lugones, Soto y Calvo, and Grous- 
sac), are of inferior merit. Again, the author 
does not point out emphatically enough the 
mania which led a great number of Latin- 
American writers to follow Zola, Dumas, 
and Victor Hugo, and to despise the great 
Spanish classics. Modernism seems to Dr. 
Coester to respond to the needs of Spanish 
Americans. This is not true. Modernism, 
though it had a few good leaders, on the 
whole has done only harm. Another serious 
defect of Dr. Coester's book is his neglect of 

Second and Revised Edition, Augmented by an Appendix Containing Supplementary Roman 

Decrees on the New Codex 

The New Canon Law 



With a Preface by Very Rev. Msgr. Philip Bernardini, J. U. D. 

Professor of Canon Law at the Catholic University, Washington, D. C. 

Second and Revised Edition, augmented by an Appendix containing : 

The Election to Office in Religious Communities, Supplementary Official Decrees 

and Declarations on Various Points of the Code. 

Complete in one volume, large 8vo, 452 pages. Cloth, net, $3.50 

Added weight and authority are given to the work by the commendatory preface written for 

it by the Very Reverend Monsignor Philip Bernardini, J. U. D., Professor of 

Canon Law at the Catholic University in Washington. 

A very full Index of Subjects enhances the usefulness of the work, 

facilitating ready reference to its contents on any particular subject. 

{The New Marriage Legislation? 
The New Laws Concerning the Clergy? 
The New Laws Concerning Religious? 
The New Canons on the Sacraments? 
And all other Church Laws of interest to you? . 


They are all stated 
-in full and concisely 
explained in this book 

JOSEPH F. WAGNER (Inc.), Publishers, 23 Barclay Street, New York 



April 1 

The Catholic Tribune 


Price $4.00 Per Year 


First and ONLY Catholic Tri- Weekly 
in the English Language in the U. 8. 

Send for Sample Copy to 


prose writers ; most of his space is devoted 
tc poets, and many of the poets whom he 
praises are impure and corrupt, — a fact which 
should have been mentioned. 

— We have already (F. R., XXVI, 3, 35) 
recommended the absorbingly interesting and 
instructive collection of papers which the 
V. Rev. W. R. Harris, more widely known 
as "Dean" Harris, has just published under 
tlie title, "Essays in Occultism, Spiritism, and 
Demonology." Besides Spiritism, the author 
deals with such subjects as "The Sixth 
Sense." "Wonders of Bilocation," "Dual Per- 
sonality," "Apparitions," "Bicorporeity," etc. 
In connection with the last-mentioned sub- 
ject we begin to-day to print a valuable paper 
by Mr. Benjamin M. Read, the historian of 
N'ew Mexico, on the alleged apparitions of 
Ven. Maria d'Agreda to the Indians of the 
American Southwest, to which Dean Harris 
refers on pp. 54 sqq. Meanwhile we hope 
that all our readers will procure these 

Ks-ays" and read them with care; they 
will richly repay the time spent in their 
perusal (B. Herder Hook Co.; $1). 

—In her latest story. "Children of Eve," 
Miss Isabel C. Clarke sustains her well 
ted place in Catholic fiction. There are 
interesting characters in the novel: a charm- 
ing Florentine COUnt e gg, a promising young 
English artist, a brilliant apostate litterateur; 
U ;m attractive love affair: and. in the 
midst of the Blowing eolor of Italian scenery. 
there is fought out the fierce contest of a lOui 
against the insidious influences of wily 
modern rationalism. Regarding this last 
of the ^tory, however, it may be enur 
d as a wise and safe principle, that fake 
theories, especially when speCiOttt and allur 

ing, as are those of modern rationalism, 
should never be set before the ordinary 
reader without the accompaniment of a 
thorough and convincing refutation. To 
picture the conversion of heart as taking 
place through the power of grace, is good ; 
but it is not sufficient in circumstances such 
as those described in the story. (Benziger 
Bros.; $1.35). 

.Books Received 

Handbook of Canon Law for Congregations of Women 
with Simple Cows. Iiy IX I. Lanslots, O.S.B., Pre- 
fect Apostolic of Northern Transvaal. Xth Edition, 
Revised and Enlarged to Conform with the New 
Code of Canon Law. .103 pp. 12mo. Kr. Pustet 
Co., Inc., $1.50 net. 

A Commentary on the New Code of Canon Law. 
By the Rev. Chas. Augustine, O.S.B., D.D. Vol. 
Ill: De I'ersonis, or Ecclesiastical Persons, Reli- 
gious and Laymen (Can. 487-725). With an Intro- 
duction by II. K. Cardinal Gasquet. xiii & 469 pp. 
12mo. 15. Herder Book Co. $2.50 net. 

I'ne Campogne Francaise. Par A. Baudrillart. Pre- 
f.'Hc de I'rcdcric Masson. 272 pp. 12mo. Paris: 
Blond & Cay. 3 fr. 50 (Wrapper). 

Sur lei Routci! du Droit. Par Louis Barthou. 335 
pp. 1 ..'mo. Same publishers. 

Dans les l'landrcs. Notes d'un Volontaire de la 
Croix Rouge, 1914-1915. Par I). Bertram! de La- 
I-'lottc. Preface de M. le Batonnier Henri-Robert. 
3rd ed. 2Xn pp. 12mo. Same publishers. 

Fire Insurance a State Monopoly in the Netherlands. 
By A. P. Breedenbeek, Fire Insurance Expert, 
viii & 95 pp. Hvo. Amsterdam: The International 
Pub. Co. "Mcssis." 1918. 90 cts. (Wrapper). 

/.<• Droit^ ParoUtial de la Province de Quibcc. Par 
Jcan-Knmcois Pouliot, Avocat. Precede d'un Kor- 
mulairc par W., C. R. xxvii & 636 pp. 

8vo. Quebec: [mprimerie de 1' Action Catholique. 


Compendium Theohoiae Moralis. Auctore Al. Sabet- 
li, S.J. Ivlitin 27a, ad Xiivum Codicem luris 
Canonic! Concinnata a Tim. Barrett, S.J. 1086 & 
111 pp. large Kvo. Pr. Pustet Co., Inc. $4.50 net. 

I hr BUtOnet. A Novel by [label C. Clarke. 399 pp. 

&vo, Benzigei Broil $1.35 net. 

The Fortnightly Review 



April 15, 1919 

The Truth About Bolshevism 

A writer in the Round Tabic for 
March traces very lucidly the perme- 
ation, subterranean but unceasing, of 
Russian intellectual circles by the teach- 
ing of Karl Marx. It emerged twenty 
years ago in the formation of an All- 
Russian Social-Democratic Party. The 
Congress of the Party, held in 1903, 
brought Lenin to the front, a man of 
great courage, vigor, and foresight, 
whose influence ranged the majority of 
delegates (the Bolsheviki) on the side 
of Marxianism. The Mensheviks, or 
the minority, remained democrats. 

The Bolshevists of to-day repudiate 
democracy. Their aim is the immedi- 
ate establishment of Communism by 
violent methods. Their leaders are ab- 
solutely sincere fanatics in devotion to 
their cause. Their aspiration is the 
abolition of all private property and of 
all forms of government except, appar- 
ently, a central bureau to control pro- 
duction and organize and distribute 
labor. And this aspiration is at the 
present moment actually achieved in 
Russia. It is achieved at the cost of 
civil war and by methods of calculated 
cruelty, starvation, and outrage. 

The Bolshevist fanaticism gets its 
character from the inability of the Rus- 
sian mind to harbor more than one idea 
at a time. It shrinks from no horrors 
in the furtherance of its aims, and it 
seems definitely to have flung religion 
aside. There seems, too, no doubt that 
it has absorbed into its organization 
the lowest type of criminal and degen- 
erate. In Lenin it has an all-powerful 
dictator of relentless determination. 
He has organized a governmental ma- 
chine deadly in its efficiency. He has 

set on foot a system of education which 
instils into the semi-educated workmen 
an unquestioning faith in every letter 
of the Communist gospel; he has in- 
stituted throughout the world a far- 
reaching propagandist programme ; 
and, being aware that a Communist 
Russia cannot exist alongside a capital- 
ist Europe, he has set himself to the 
task of establishing Communism 
throughout Europe by means of the 
international Bolshevist revolution ; 
and the writer in the Round Tabic tells 
us that "the Bolshevik Foreign Office 
has an infinitely better knowledge of 
labor conditions in foreign countries 
than any other Foreign Office." 

Bolshevism, as the writer says, can- 
not remain stationary ; it must either 
spread or die. And at the present 
moment it is a grave menace to the 
peace of the world and to the establish- 
ment of a League of Nations. 

—The Pittsburg Observer (XX, 37) 
says that a member of the Belgian 
Senate in a recent address read a 
quotation from St. Thomas (Summa 
Theol., 2a 2ae, qu. 105, art 1) which 
proves that the Angelic Doctor advo- 
cated "votes for women." We have 
looked up the passage and find that St. 
Thomas merely says that "all should 
take some share in the government" 
and "all are eligible to govern." It is 
not likely that he had women or chil- 
dren in mind when he said omncs. 
What he meant was probably, all men 
or citizens. Many of the assertions 
attributed to St. Thomas, even by 
learned doctors, can't be found when 
one takes the trouble, as we sometimes 
do, of looking for them in his writings. 



April 15 

Dies Irae 

Translated by Algernon' Chas. Swinburne 

Day of wrath, the years are keeping. 
When the world shall rise from sleeping, 
With a clamour of great weeping! 

Earth shall fear and tremble greatly 

To behold the advent stately 

Of the Judge that judgeth straitly. 

And the trumpet's fierce impatience 
Scatter strange reverberations 
Thro' the graves of buried nations- 
Death and Nature will stand stricken 
When the hollow bones shall quicken 
And the air with weeping thicken. 

When the Creature, sorrow-smitten, 
Rises where the Judge is sitting 
And beholds the doom-book written. 

For, that so his wrath be slaked, 
All things sleeping shall be waked, 
All things hidden shall be naked. 

When the just are troubled for thee, 
Who shall plead for me before thee, 
Who shall stand up to implore thee? 

Lest my great sin overthrow me, 
Let thy mercy, quickened thro' me, 
As a fountain overflow me ! 

l ; or my sake thy soul was moved; 
For my sake thy name reproved, 
Lose me not whom thou hast loved ! 

Yea, when shame and pain were sorest, 
For my love the cross thou borest, 
i-<>r my love the thorn-plait worest. 

By that pain that overbore thee, 
By those tears thou weptest for me, 
Leave my strength to stand before thee. 

For my heart within me yearneth, 
And for sin my whole face burnetii ; 
Spare me when thy day rcturncth. 

By the Magdalen forgiven, 

I'.y the thief made pure for heaven, 

Even to me thy hope was given. 

Tho* great shame be heavy on me, 
Granl thou, Lord, whose mercy won me, 
That hell take not hold upon me. 

Thou whom I have loved solely, 
Thou whom I have loved wholly, 
e me place among the holy I 

When thy sharp wrath burns like fire, 
With the chosen of thy desire, 

Call DM to the crowned choir' 

r, like flame with ashes blending, 
Prom my crushed heart burns ascending; 

Have you rare for my last ending. 
— From "Posthumous Poems? Published 

by the John Lane Company. 

Religion and the League of Nations 
The Rev. John J. O'Gorman, in the 
London Universe (No. 3035), expresses 
disappointment at the fact that the 
name of God is nowhere to be found 
in the draft covenant of the League of 
Nations, which is to organize inter- 
national peace, law, and justice. 

"That fatal absence of the name of 
God from the document," he says, "is 
due, of course, to the fact that the most 
powerful nation of Continental Europe 
is under an officially atheistic govern- 
ment. Otherwise, the high contracting 
parties would have thought it worth 
their while to have God as their ally in 
this, the most important international 
undertaking since the Tower of Babel. 
These words are penned, not with bit- 
terness, but with great sadness." 

Father O'Gorman further notes, with 
regret, that the only mention of reli- 
gion in the covenant of the League oc- 
curs with reference to the savages of 
Central Africa: "Other peoples, espe- 
cially those of Central Africa, are at 
such a stage that the mandatory must 
be responsible for the administration 
of the territory, subject to conditions 
which will guarantee freedom of con- 
science or religion, subject only to the 
maintenance of public order or morals." 
(Article XIX.) "This," comments Fr. 
O'Gorman, "is rather disappointing. 
Prom Mr. Wilson's previous utterances 
it was believed that he would have in- 
serted a similar clause with reference 
to all the territories which have changed 
sovereignty as a result of the war. 
Perhaps he tried to do so, and intends 
to have inserted clauses of this nature 
ill the separate mandates. Otherwise it 
would be odd that the whole might of 
the League of Nations would prevent 
Ihe liquor traffic in Central Africa, and 
yet apparently would permit Jugo- 
slavs, Ruthenians, or Alsatians to be 
persecuted as a result of the Allied vic- 
tory. The obvious thing for the dele- 
gates to have done was to proclaim 
freedom of conscience and religion not 
merely for the negroes of Central 
Africa, but also for the white, yellow, 
and black men of the whole world. If, 
however, the French Republic would 




consider it an unwarranted interference 
with its sovereignty to adopt a policy 
which would prevent it continuing its 
amiable programme of chasing French 
monks and nuns out of their homes and 
out of their country, of denying the 
Catholic Church or religous congrega- 
tions the right to own property, and of 
preventing Catholic schools and colleges 
from being conducted by French reli- 
gious, surely the Allies, who helped to 
restore Alsace-Lorraine to France, may 
insist that in these provinces, at least, 
religous liberty shall be acknowledged. 
The main and sane body of the great 
French nation, which has eighteen hun- 
dred years of Catholicity behind it, 
would rejoice if the odious system of 
religious persecution were stopped for 
ever. Nor should the religious rights of 
the Catholic schools of the Trentino fail 
to receive protection if the Italian gov- 
ernment should deny it to them, which, 
however, we have no reason to believe 
it will do. Even more important is the 
religious problem consequent upon the 
union of Catholic Croatia with Ortho- 
dox Serbia. Then the religious rights 
of the Ruthenians, both Catholic and 
Orthodox, may require protection in 
the new national units to which they 
will belong. The Jews are a special 
storm centre in some of the new coun- 
tries of Central Europe, and the League 
may yet have to deal with them. As 
regards the countries to be liberated 
from Turkish rule, it is no exaggeration 
to say that the religious problem is 
more important than the racial. The 
mandatory nation or nations who will 
be entrusted with the protection of the 
Christians of Syria should itself be 
Christian, and be bound by the League 
to protect religious liberty as under- 
stood in English-speaking countries. 
This list might be extended to much 
greater length, but enough has been 
said to show that religious liberty must 
be guaranteed at least in the territories 
which have changed sovereignty as the 
result of our victory." 

International law and justice are 
based on the will of God as manifested 
in the law of nature, and it is hard to 
see how any plan of international peace 

could be successful if dissociated from 
that necessary foundation. 

But the covenant of the League of 
Nations is only a draft; perhaps it is 
yet time to avoid the fatal mistake 
pointed out by Father O'Gorman. 


The Pope, the War, and Peace 

Lcs Nouvelles Religienses (Paris) 
note the following French books and 
pamphlets an the subject indicated 
a bove : 

"Benoit XV. et le Conflit Europeen," by 
Abbe Arnaud d'Agnel; Paris, Lethielleux, 
2 vols. 

"Le Pape et la Guerre," by Paul Dudon, 
S.J.; Paris. Letbielleux, 1915, brochure. 

"Benoit XV. et la Guerre"; Paris, Tequi, 
191 7, brochure. 

"Mediation Pontificate et Relations avec le 
Vatican," Paris, Tequi, 191 7, brochure. 

"Les Puissances Belligerantes et la Medi- 
ation Pontificale" ; Paris, Tequi, 1918. 

"La Paix du Pape," by T. Mainage, O.P. ; 
Paris, Lethielleux, 1917, brochure. 

"Le Pape, la Guerre et la Paix," by Charles 
Maurras ; Paris, 1917, 1 vol. 

"L'Ordre International," by A. D. Sertil- 
langes, O. P. ; Paris, Bloud, 1918 brochure. 

To this list the London Universe 
(No. 3035) adds the following English 
pamphlets : 

"Pope Benedict XV and the War," by An- 
thony Brennan, O.S.F.C. ; London, King & 

"No Small Stir," by "Diplomaticus" ; Lon- 
don, SS. Peter and Paul Society, 1917. 

"The Pope on War and Peace," a calendar 
of papal documents; London, Catholic Truth 

"The Pope and the War," by Cardinal 
Bourne, same publishers. 

"Neutrality of the Holy See," by the 
Bishop of Northampton, same publishers. 

"Vatican Policy and the War," by Msgr. 
Howlett ; London, The Catenian Association. 

"The Pope's Peace Note"; London, Catho- 
lic Social Guild. 

"The Pope and the War," by the Arch- 
bishop of Toronto; Toronto, Canada. 

" 'John Bull' and the Pope," London, Uni- 
verse Office. 

"The Vatican and the Allies," same pub- 

"Pope Benedict's Note to the Belligerents," 
by the Abbot of Gladstonbury ; same pub- 

"The Pope and the War," by Archbishop 
Mclntyre; same publishers. 

"Deeds, Not Words" ; same publishers. 

The last-mentioned five pamphlets 
sell at two pence each. 



April 15 

We may fitly add to this list "The 
Primer of Peace and War," hy the 
Rev. Chas. Plater, S.J., London, Catho- 
lic Social Guild, which contains a full 
discussion of international morality, an 
account of the various efforts towards 
peace made hitherto, and appendices on 
the action of the Church in mitigating 
the effects of the war and on the Pope 
as arbitrator, and a very useful bibli- 

Ven. Maria d'Agreda's Alleged Mirac- 
ulous Flights to New Mexico 
II (Conclusion) 
The Historic Interview 
As far as it can be ascertained, there 
never has been published a photographic 
copy of the letter which Fr. de Bena- 
vides wrote in 1631 from Madrid to 
his brother Franciscans in New Mexico, 
describing his interview with Mother 
Maria de Jesus. None of the ancient 
Franciscan historians claim to have seen 
the original ; all of them refer to a 
copy. Fr. Augustin Ventacurt and Fr. 
Francisco Palou, as far as I have been 
r-ble to discover, published what they 
claimed were copies of that letter. 
What I consider, for the purposes of 
this article, the most authentic and 
satisfactory copy is the one published 
i j Fr. Francisco Palou in his "Life 
and Apostolic Labors of Ven. Father 
Junipero Scrra," translated and pub- 
lished with an "Introduction and 
Notes," in 1913, by George Wharton 
James. From that book (pp. 327-333) 
! shall extract what I deem pertinenl 
to my discussion of the subject. 1 will 
n fer first to Fr. de Benavides's report 
of the interview and then follow his 
lint by reproducing the very words 
of Mother Maria de Jesus and her 

signed statement forming part of Fr. 
lenavides'fl letter. The letter does 

not form part of Fr. Palou's hook, hut 

i p. 7-8, chap. I .' ), in referring 

to a conversation he ( \ : \ . Palou) had 

with Fr. Junipero Sena, just prior to 

journey to found the California 

ions, about that very journey: "1 
should have been ungrateful if i had 

concealed what I have just stated, be- 

cause I confess that it was due to the 
prayers of my Reverend Father Juni- 
pero that I find myself among the Mis- 
sionaries for the propagation of the 
faith, a happiness so great that in the 
opinion of the Venerable Mother 
Agreda it is more to be desired than 
that of the Blessed, as said lady, the 
servant of God, wrote to the mission- 
aries of my Seraphic Order, employed 
in the conversion of the heathen of the 
custody of New Mexico, a copy of 
which letter I will put at the end of this 
volume if I have room." 

Fr. de Benavides states in his letter 
that he arrived in Spain on the 1st of 
August, 1630; that the Fr. General, 
Eernadino de Siena, at once called on 
him and, upon hearing de Benavides's 
account of his conversions in New 
Mexico, informed him (Fr. de Bena- 
vides) that "when he (Fr. Siena) was 
Commissioner of Spain, before being 
Father-General, more than eight years 
previously, he had had notice concern- 
in Mother Maria de Jesus, Abbess 
of her Convent of the Village of Agreda 
(on the borders of Aragon and Castile), 
how she had apparitions and revelations 
concerning the conversion of New 
Mexico; and now, with the account I 
had given him also the report which he 
had received from the Archbishop of 
Mexico, Francisco Manzo, concerning 
the same thing, his Reverence was 
greatly moved to tenderness and devo- 
tion and very anxious to set out at once 
for the little village of Agreda." 

The Father-General did not, after all, 
go to see the nun, but sent Fr. de Bena- 
vides. with authority to "oblige" the 
"Mother to obedience." It was on the 
last of April, 1631, that Fr. de Bena- 
vides met Mother Mary at Agreda. 
Describing her features and dress he 
says : 

"The form of her habit, and that of all 
the nuns of the convent, who are 29 in all, 
is exactly like our habit, thai is, it is of grey 
sackcloth, very coarse, and worn next to the 
|kin, without any other tunic, dress-skirt, or 
under skirl, and over tliis grey habit is worn 
the white sackcloth habit, also coarse, with a 
scapular of the same cord of our Father, 
Saint Francis. Over the scapular the rosary 
is worn ; on the feet there are no shoes or 
other footwear, except some wooden soles 




which are tied to the feet, or else, some 
sandals made of sparto grass. The cloak [the 
reader will please compare this statement 
about the color of the cloak with Mr. F. W. 
Hodge's comment on his point, ante] is of 
blue sackcloth, very coarse, and the veil is 

Fr. de Benavides (p. 329) then goes 
on describing the saintly appearance, 
Virtues, etc., of Mother Mary, and 
finally states how, from what he learn- 
ed from her, she came to be transported 
to the wilderness of New Mexico. On 
that point the Father says : 

"As His Divine Majesty has revealed to 
her all the savage nations who are living in 
the world without a knowledge of Him, she 
has been carried by the ministry of angels, 
whom she has for her guardians and her 
wings, Saint Michael and our Father Saint 
Francis, and in particular to those of our 
New Mexico whither she has been carried 
in the same way. The Guardian Angels of 
their Provinces have come to her personally 
at the command of God our Lord." 

Fr. de Benavides (p. 329) says, also, 
that Mother Mary's first flight to New 
Mexico was in 1620, and that "these 
flights were so continuous that there 
have been days in which there were 
more than three or four in less than 
2-1 hours." 

The Father follows the above state- 
ment by repeating the words of the 
Mother when, as she claimed, she was 
present in New Mexico and saw the 
Father baptizing the Pizos Indians ; 
described how she had witnessed other 
ceremonies among the Quiviras, the 
Jumanos, etc., and then says : 

"When I asked her why it was that she 
had never allowed us to see her when she 
allowed the Indians to have that privilege, 
she replied that they had a greater need than 
we, and besides it was the Holy Angels." 

Fr. de Benavides now calls the at- 
tention of his co-laborers to Mother 
Mary's letter, which he reproduces. .So 
we will now give the Mother's letter 
our consideration. 

Mother Mary begins by saying that 
she gives the written statement (p. 331 ) 
about "the mercies" which she declares 
"He has wrought in my poor soul" in 
obedience to the orders of "our Most 
Reverend Father-General and our 
Father, Sebastian Marcilla, Provincial 
of this Holy Province of Burgos, and 

our Father, Francisco Andres de la 
Torre, who is my spiritual director, and 
to the Reverend Father Gustos [Fr. de 
Benavides] of New Mexico." She then 
refers to her selection by God to set 
forth the might of His wonderful hand 
and to permit those of us who are now 
alive to know that all things are derived 
from the Father of Lights," concluding 
that part of her story thus : 

"And so I declare what it is that happened 
hi the Provinces of New Mexico, Quivira, 
and Jumanos, and the other nations to whom 
I was carried by the will of God, and by the 
band and assistance of his angels, where it 
happened to me that I saw and did all that 
I have told the Father. There are a great 
many other things which I have not told 
about, because they are so many which have 
to do with the carrying of the light of our 
Holy Catholic Faith to all ihose nations. The 
first tribes to which I went, I believe, are 
towards the East, and in order to reach them, 
one must travel from the Quivira nation. I 
call these nations, using our own terms of 
speech, Titlas, Cliillescas, and Caburcos, but 
these have not yet been discovered, and in 
order to reach them it seems to me there 
will be great difficulty on account of the 
many tribes that must be traversed before 
arriving at them." 

Further on (same page, 331) the 
Mother suggests a mode of reaching 
the last-mentioned tribes, saying: 

"It seems to me that the way in which they 
can be reached will be to have the Friars 
of our Father, Saint Francis, traverse their 
land, and for their security soldiers of good 
life and conduct might be sent to accompany 
them, who on account of their mildness, 
would be willing to suffer any insult which 
might be offered them, and who, with a 
good example of patience, might win them 
over, as so much can be accomplished by 

Referring to the length, of time she 
had been engaged in making her 
"flights," the Mother says : 

"The events concerning which I have 
spoken, happened to me since the year i6_>o 
and up to the present year of 1631, in the 
region of Quivira and Jumanos, which are 
the last to which I have been carried." 

Mother Maria de Jesus gives the 
Franciscan's words of encouragement, 
tells them that she "indeed envies your 
Reverences this task" and regrets that 
she is "able to do so little" ; her prayers 
and those of "this Holy Community" 
will, she assures them, be offered for 
their success. Then the Mother asserts 



April 15 

that the information thus imparted she 
had "learned of the Most High, and I 
.have also," she continues, "heard it 
from His holy angels, who have told 
me that they envy those who are cus- 
todians of souls and who are occupied 
in the work of conversion." 

In concluding her statement the 
Mother says : 

"And under the command of obedience I 
have signed it with my own name, and I beg 
all your Reverences, whom I have herein 
named, that for the sake of the Lord whom 
we serve and for whose sake I make the 
declaration, these secrets be kept hidden and 
guarded carefully, as the case demands, with- 
out their being seen by any other person. 
From the House of the Most Pure Concep- 
tion of Agreda, 15th of May, 1631. [Signed] 
Sifter Maria de Jesus." 

After a careful reading and mature 
consideration of the foregoing criti- 
cisms, comments, and statements I will 
Gnisfa by giving the reader the oppor- 
tunity of forming his own conclusions, 
and, also, by stating 

My Opixiox 
There is no doubt in my mind, 
1 1 that Sister Maria de Jesus had 
either dreamed of the Indian tribes 
inhabiting the territory mentioned by 
her as New Mexico, Quivira, and Ju- 
manos, her dreams resulting from the 
agitation caused in Spain in those 
times by the numerous emotional and 
mostly exaggerated reports sent from 
New Spain, ( which included New 
Mexico, Peru, the West Indies, etc.) ; 
that the impressions thus made upon 
her mind became "creations of imagi- 
nation," a> >ugge>ted by Mr. Hodge, 
or, as Mr. Hodge further thinks, she 
had ideas "derived from the Memorial 
[ol Fr. de Benavides] published the 
year before/' or, what to me seems 
hkciy, if in fact her "flights," 
etc., were "creations of imagination," 

-he had read the thrilling account given 
by Villagra, in his "Historia de la 
Nueva Mexico," published in Spain in 
1610, ten year- before the .Mother's 
alleged first flight to New Mexico, or 
other rep< imilar import, .which, 

in 1620, of the great 

battle the Spaniards fought with the 
Acoma Indians, January 1599, in which 

Villagra took part and concerning 
which she refers to a vision the In- 
dians had of "a valiant rider with grey 
beard, who on a brisk white steed and 
accompanied by a handsome queen, was 
helping the Spaniards" ("Historia de 
la Nueva Mexico," Canto 34, p. 178, 
cited in my "Illustrated History of 
Mew Mexico," p. 229). Villagra says 
that they (the Spaniards) did not see 
the "valiant rider" nor the "handsome 

2) I believe that the Sister, in good 
faith, and thoroughly convinced of the 
reality of her "ecstatic" trances, thought 
she had been actually selected by God 
as the instrument for the introduction 
of Christianity among the tribes she 

3) I also believe that Fr. Alonso de 
Benavides, guided by the statements 
of Fr. Bernardino de Siena and the 
report made to that Friar by Bishop 
Manzo, of Mexico, as well as by the 
relation by the Mother of events he 
(Fr. de Benavides) had seen, or per- 
formed, in New Mexico, explicitly be- 
lieved in the supernatural flights of the 
Mother ; also that he and his compan- 
ions in New Mexico, some day, during 
their stay there, expected to be allowed 
by God to see the Mother working 
among them in the Quivira and Ju- 
mano regions. 

4) I am also convinced that the 
Franciscan Friars Vetancurt, Junipero 
Serra, Francisco Palou, and the many 
other historians who have approvingly 
referred to Mother Maria de Jesus's 
aerial visits, basing their opinions on 
the good judgment and undisputed 
learning of Fr. de Benavides, and also 
on the very many striking and seem- 
ingly supernatural coincidences sur- 
rounding the statements of Fr. de 
Benavides, and the written "declara- 
tion" of the Mother, believed in the 
miraculous transportation of the nun. 

5) There is one circumstance, though, 
thai inclines me to the conclusion that 
It. Bernardino de Siena did not, prior 
to Fr. de Benavides's arrival in Spain 
(1630), lake seriously the revelations 
of Mother Maria de Jesus. It is this. 
I fe had, according to what Fr. de Bena- 




vides tells us, known from the nun's 
own lips, since 1622, of her alleged 
aerial transports, yet had never taken 
any steps, as far as we can learn, to 
verify her statements ; neither had he 
made the fact known to any one. This 
circumstance brings me to the conclu- 
sion that Fr. de Siena had his doubts 
on the subject. In my opinion the case 
lacks the authentication necessary to 
put it in the same category with the 
case of St. Rita of Cascia. 

In conclusion, I must say that I 
agree with Dean Harris that the entire 
case "appears to be an established case 
of clairvoyant trance." I am of the 
opinion, therefore, as a historian, that 
this case can not "be put on a historic 
basis" ; that until the Church decrees 
that there is "a proved miracle," the 
statements of Mother Maria de Jesus 
to Friars Bernardino de Siena and 
Alonso de Benavides should be taken 
as unintentionally apocryphal. 

Benjamin M. Read 

Santa Fe, X. Mex. 

— The late Joseph Frey, K.S.G., 
president of the Catholic Central So- 
ciety, was a man who did not parade 
his faith but practiced it conscientiously 
and joyously in everyday life. For the 
last six or eight years he may be said 
to have been the lay leader of the Ger- 
man speaking Catholics of the U. S., 
and no less an authority than His Ex- 
cellency the Apostolic Delegate has 
testified to the wisdom and unstinted 
devotion of his leadership. The Fort- 
nightly Review has known him as a 
devoted supporter of the apostolate of 
the press. He was one of the twenty 
odd friends who enrolled as "life sub- 
scribers" of this journal in its silver 
jubilee year (1918), and we are grieved 
that he had to be the first of the little 
band to pass away, — though we have 
every reason to hope that he is now in 
a better world. If the Catholic Federa- 
tion had a few dozen leaders of the 
stamp of Joseph Frey, it would not 
now be a practically extinct movement. 
We shall need several hundred Preys 
before the Church will come into her 
own in America. Hare pia anima! 

By-Products of the War Savings 

Under the heading, "By-Products of 
the War Savings Campaigns," Emma 
A. Winslow discusses in the Survey 
(Vol. 41, No. 25) some of the undesir- 
able methods used under pressure of 
the war emergency to compel people to 
buy Liberty bonds and thrift stamps. 
We give a brief summary. 

Persons in authority used the power 
of discharge or wage or personal dis- 
crimination as means of obtaining sub- 
scriptions. Employees were told they 
could consider themselves discharged 
if they did not buy bonds. In some 
places promised wage increases were 
deferred until just before a "loan 
drive," and the workingmen were told 
that the increase had to be used for the 
purchase of bonds, no matter how 
much the money might be needed for 
other purposes, and no matter what 
might be the final effect on living 

Mrs. Winslow has interviewed a large 
number of social and charity workers, 
and all agree that the compulsory 
methods employed in the various Lib- 
erty loan campaigns were unjust, ille- 
gal, un-American, and productive of 
hatred and discontent. The attitude 
of the victims of these practices, says 
one, "is often not one of being proud 
that the factories at which they work 
have 100 per cent records, but rather a 
sort of dogged, have-to attitude." — ■ 
"It seems to me quite wrong," says 
another, "that employers should be 
allowed to compel employees to take 
bonds or lose their jobs, or to put such 
pressure upon them that they take them 
when they really cannot afford to do 
so." Any reader can easily verify the 
statement of these social workers that 
thousands of people of the poorer class 
have been gradually falling in arrears 
because of the weekly deductions from 
their wages made to pay for forced 
Liberty loans. That the market price 
of these bonds has declined to an un- 
heard-of level is largely owing to the 
fact that so many laborers, and even 
people of the fast dwindling middle 
class, are constrained to dispose of 



April 15 

them at any price because they urgently 
need the money. The rich men who are 
buying them up far below par will be 
the gainers. 

The X. V. Consumers' League recent- 
ly made an investigation oi women's 
wages and living costs in New York 
arid Brooklyn. Over and over again 
the investigators were told of the diffi- 
culty of existing on an inadequate 
wage, enhanced almost to impossibility 
by compulsory subscription to govern- 
ment bonds. Several flagrant instances 
of this kind are quoted in Mrs. Wins- 
low's article. As a result of the infor- 
mation secured in this investigation 
and others, the governing board of the 
X. Y. City Consumers' League adopted 
a formal resolution expressing its be- 
lief that "no pressure to buy bonds 
should be brought on families or indi- 
viduals receiving less than a living 


It is pleasant to be assured that 
modifications have been made by the 
Treasury Department in some of the 
more objectionable practices in the sale 
of Liberty bonds and war savings 
stamps, such as the selling of stamps 
by children on the streets and the effort 
to secure large sales in the schools on 
a competitive basis. Let us hope that 
the voice of the social workers, too, 
will be heard in the matter, and that 
workingmen will be spared the humilia- 
tion and hardship of being compelled 
to buy government bonds and stamps 
when they really are not able to do so. 

Apart from educational and sociolo- 
gical considerations, it has always 
•d to us that political liberty is 
but a sham unless a citizen is free, even 
in wartime, to hold opinions contrary 
to those of the men in control of the 
government, and to refuse the latter his 
pecuniary support when he conscien- 
tiously believes their actions to be un- 
just or harmful to the country. The 
principal duty of every lo-al American 

i'i-f now, we make bold to Bay, IS to 
to it that liberty and democracy are 

: speedily as possible at 

home, and that a recurrence of the 
reign of terror through which we have 
just passed, In- made fonver impossible. 

Unobjectionable Photo Plays 

The Pennsylvania State Board of 
Censors recommend as clean and 
wholesome the following photo plays: 

D. — A Wild Goose Chase, 5 reels ; Triangle. 

D— The Eternal Light, 8 reels ; Cath. Art. 

1). — The Sheriff's Son, 5 reels; Paramount. 

1). — The Flip of a Coin, 2 reels; Universal. 

D.— The Better Way, 2 reels ; W. H. Prod. 

C. — Almost a Hero, 1 reel ; Strand. 

C. — Their Baby, 1 reel; Strand. 

C. — Welcome Home, 1 reel; Christie. 

C. — Don't Believe Everything, 1 reel; 

CD. — The Long Lane's Turning, 6 reels; 

CD. — Johnny on the Spot, 5 reels; Metro. 

CD. — Poor Booh, 5 reels ; Paramount. 

CD. — Are You a Mason? 5 reels; Param. 

CD. — Alias Mike Moran, 5 reels; Param. 

CD. — Johnny Get Your Gun, 5 reels ; Par. 

CD. — Carolyn of the Corners, 5 r. ; Pathe. 

CD.— Where the West Begins, 5 r; Pathe. 

CD. — The Wishing Ring Man, 5 reels; 

CD. — Satan Junior, 5 reels ; Metro. 

CD. — It's a Bear, 5 reels; Triangle. 

E. — Teddy Birds, 1 reel; Outing Chester. 

E. — An Indian Village in Mexico, 1 reel; 

E. — Santa Catalina Island, 1 reel; Prizma. 

E. — If Your Soldiers Hit, 2 reels; U. S. 

E. — Wings of Victory, 2 reels; U. S. Gov. 

E. — Everywhere with Prizma, 1 r. ; World. 

E. — Horses of War, 2 reels ; U. S. Gov. 

E. — Out Wyoming Way, 1 reel; Outdoors. 

E. — A Peek at Paradise, 1 reel ; Outdoors. 

E. — Good to Eat, 1 reel ; Goldwyn. 

E. — The Story of Steel, 1 reel ; Ford. 

E. — A Utile Hit of Heaven, 1 reel; Ford. 

E. — Columbia the Gem of the Highways, 
1 reel : ( >utdoors. 

E. — loom Scales to Antlers, 1 red, Chester 

E. — Ballahooing on the Anarka, 1 reel; 
Chester Outing. 

C— Comedy. I) — Drama. E — Educational. 

We publish tin's list by request, with 
the reservation indicated in previous 
articles on the subject of photo plays. 
Those of our readers who have an op- 
portunity to see any of the plays named 
above, besides "The Eternal Light," 
which we know to be in every way 
commendable, will confer a favor by 
reporting to us their opinion of its 

merits for the benefit of the Catholic 
public, which is, quite naturally, more 
fastidious in its choice of pictures than 
any State board of censorship. 




The Teaching of St. Thomas — How 
Far Is It Binding? 

An interesting controversy has re- 
cently been waged in France between 
Jesuits and Dominicans regarding the 
interpretation of the papal documents 
which prescribe the teaching of St. 
Thomas. Fr. Pegues, O.P., in a broch- 
ure entitled "Autour de Saint Thomas" 
(Paris: Tequi) enables us to get a 
glimpse of both sides of the issue. We 
make use of a synopsis of his pamphlet 
in the Irish Theological Quarterly 
(XIII, 51, 276 sqq.). 

Fr. Pegues begins by recalling the 
orders of the Holy See, now summa- 
rized in canon 1366, § 2 of the new 
Code : "Philosophiae rationalis ac the- 
ologiae stadia ct alumnorum in his 
disciplinis institutioncm professorcs 
omnino pertractcnt ad Angehci Doc- 
toris rationem, doctrinam ct principia, 
eaquc sanctc teneant." This law is the 
culmination of several declarations of 
Popes and Congregations. In his Motu 
proprio "Doctoris Angelici," 1914, 
Pius X warned tbe teachers of philos- 
ophy and theology that "if they wan- 
dered a single step from Thomas of 
Aquin, especially in the region of meta- 
physics, it would not be without grave 
injury." He added that those who 
twist or misunderstand the principles 
and great theses of St. Thomas cannot 
claim to be his followers. He did not 
specify those principles, but he showed 
their character : Through them we ob- 
tain a science of created things that 
accords admirably with faith ; through 
them all the errors of all the ages are 
refuted ; through them the distinction 
and the analogy between God and His 
handworks are illustrated, etc. 

Soon after this Motu proprio the S. 
C. of Studies decided that twenty-four 
theses culled from St. Thomas con- 
tained his principles and more import- 
ant pronouncements, especially in the 
region of metaphysics, and added: "Let 
them be proposed as safe standards for 
guidance" (tutac uormac dircctivac). 

A controvery forthwith arose with 
regard to the meaning of this phrase. 
Fr. Pegues admits that the Congrega- 
tion did not wish to convert those 

twenty-four theses into doctrinal deci- 
sions compelling interior assent by 
virtue of religious authority. But he 
overemphasizes them nevertheless by 
claiming that they are "rules of thought 
and must be followed." 

Some Jesuit teachers felt ill at ease 
in regard to the whole matter, especial- 
ly when the Cicncia Tomista (May- 
June, 1917) opposed to practically 
every one of the twenty-four theses a 
contradictory thesis from Suarez. There 
were the two great theologians at log- 
gerheads in parallel columns ! What 
were those to do who were the heirs of 
both Suarez and St. Thomas? Guid- 
ance was needed, and it was promptly 
given. In regard to one of the twenty- 
four theses, — that teaching the real dif- 
ference between essence and existence, 
— Pope Benedict XV, on March 9, 
1918, made his own and entirely ap- 
proved this reply of P. Martin, late 
General of the Jesuits : "It is permitted 
to each member of the Society of Jesus 
to follow and teach the opinion con- 
cerning the real distinction — - or the 
contrary — subject always to these two 
conditions : ( 1 ) that it is not made the 
foundation of all Christian philosophy 
and declared necessary for proving the 
existence of God and His attributes, 
etc. ; (2) that no censure is attached 
to the eminent and approved doctors 
of the Societv whose praise is in the 

A "Letter of Fr. W. Ledochowski, 
General of the Society of Jesus, Con- 
cerning the Fostering of the Doctrine 
of St. "Thomas in the Society" (1917), 
reproduces a conversation of Pope 
Benedict XV with the General, which 
tli rows considerable light on the present 
Pontiff's attitude towards the freedom 
of the schools. The Holv Father de- 
clared to Fr. Ledochowski (p. 29) that 
the Church did not mean to impair in 
any way the libcrlas opinandi, which 
remained full and entire on the ques- 
tion of the distinction between essence 
and existence, and on all other ques- 
tions of the same class, which are in 
no way contained in the deposit of faith 
— "aliaquc id gouts quae in deposito 
fidci nullo modo contincrcntur." 



April 15 

Apart from reproducing this con- 
a, ersation, the General's Letter makes 
suggestions guarding against excess in 
following St. Thomas. Others might 
follow St. Thomas in everything with 
scrupulous anxiety, says the General, 
but there is another way, as the Pope 
in a letter to the General had said that 
the latter was right in thinking that 
"those adhere sufficiently to the An- 
gelic Doctor who believe that all the 
theses of St. Thomas ought to be pro- 
posed as safe standards of direction in 
the sense that no obligation is imposed 
co embrace all those theses," adding 
that, "in following this rule the mem- 
bers of the Society can well cast aside 
the fear of not having due respect for 
the orders of the Popes, whose constant 
thought has been that St. Thomas must 
be the chief and master in theological 
and philosophical studies, whilst each 
cue is free to discuss in one or other 
sense those points in which discussion 
is possible or customary." 

In other words : We must hold to the 
doctrine of St. Thomas, but we must 
also respect the libcrtas opinandi rec- 
ommended by good sense and tradition. 
^Ye cannot, consistently with loyalty 
and safety, afford to reject the great 
principles of the Angelic Doctor; nor 
can we. without lapsing into heresy and 
mental suicide, bigotedly hold his every 
statement concerning physics, the con- 
ception of the Bl. Virgin, etc. The 
(juartcrly recalls the words of Pius X: 
"Masters of philosophy and theology 
should bear loyally in mind that they 
have not received the power of teach- 
ing in order to give the pupils follow- 
i:iL' their courses the opinions which 
•<• themselves, but to deliver to 
th< m the doctrines held by the Church 
to be in greatest conformity with her 
thought." Amongst the doctrines in 
conformity with the thought 
and spirit of the Church are, surely, 
r master theologian, St. 
Thomas. No wonder, then, that the 
' ode enjoins professors to 

rish these doctrine-, reverently" 
i raquc sanctc tencant ) . 

[Two nrti'lf- '.n this itlbject, from the 
co m pete n t pen ol a Prench theologian, the 

Rev. J. Riviere, appeared in the Revue du 
ClergS Francois of June 15 and July 1, 1918. 
The same topic, we may add, has also been 
ably treated in two other French organs, i.e., 
by M. Jules Lebreton, in two papers, entitled 
"Four suivre de plus pres Saint Thomas" 
and '"L'Enseignement de Saint Thomas dans 
ies ficoles Theologiques" (Etudes, October 5, 
1917, and May 20, 1918), and by M. Ferdi- 
nand Cavallera in the Bulletin de Litterature 
Hcclisiastique public par llnstitut Catholique 
de Toulouse. March-April, 1918. This last 
article contains the text of the letter Bene- 
dict XV sent to the Jesuit General, March 19, 




Danger to Our Schools 

The press bulletins of the Catholic 
Central Bureau (St. Louis) have been 
warning us against the danger threaten- 
ing our schools in the proposed plan of 
"federalization" and the creation of a 
national Department of Education, 
whose secretary shall have a seat in the 
president's cabinet. These measures 
look very harmless and apparently fore- 
bode no opposition to religious teach- 
ing in private schools, and hence many 
persons simply refuse to listen to the 
words of warning sounded by those 
who see a little more clearly than the 
rest. The Educational Rcviczv (Feb- 
ruary, 1919) contains an article on "Re- 
construction of Education upon a Social 
Basis," by Charles Ellwood, of the Uni- 
versity of Missouri. It is a plea for 
"establishing a system of education 
which shall deliberately set before itself 
as its task the conscious development 
of our civilization in the interest of the 
greatest social welfare of humanity." 
This sounds very plausible, though the 
plan of "moral education" suggested by 
the writer lacks every reference to a 
religious or supernatural sanction. He 
is strong for "federalizing" all schools 
and exhorts the teachers to work for 
the plan. He writes: 

"The unity and progress of the 
nation demand a national system of 
education. The war has revealed the 
lieed of a national system of education 
in a striking way, and the teaching pro- 
fession should lose no time in demand- 
ing the establishment of a federal de- 




partment of education, whose secretary 
shall have a seat in the President's 
cabinet. That we should have a Secre- 
tary of Commerce and not a Secretary 
of Education is a striking comment 
upon our national character. The prob- 
lems of our national life touching upon 
national unity and efficiency, such as 
the Americanization of the immigrant 
and his children, the training of the 
negro, the overcoming of illiteracy, and 
the training of all citizens in democracy, 
can not be dealt with effectively except 
through a national system of educa- 

The danger is real and serious. Vi'de- 
ant consulcs! 

Land Ownership and the Mosaic Law 

In the second March number of the 
F. R., p. 87, reference is made by Mr. 
C. Meurer to the law of Moses which 
prohibited the sale of land. But land 
ivas sold under the eyes and with the 
approval of the Apostles. In chapt. iv 
(towards the end) of the Acts of the 
Apostles we read : "For as many as 
were owners of lands or houses sold 
them and brought the price of the 
things they sold, and laid it down to 

the feet of the Apostles And 

Joseph, who by the Apostles was sur- 
named Barnabas, a levite, a Cyprian 
born, having land, sold it, and brought 
the price and laid it down at the feet 
of the Apostles." 

What follows from this? First, that 
the ownership of land cannot be against 
the natural law. If ownership would 
be unjust, the selling and buying of 
land would also be unjust, and the 
Apostles should have had to forbid 
such action, as the law of Moses did. 
But they did not, rather approved it 
by accepting the price of the land sold, 
which they plainly could not have done 
if it had been unlawful gain. The law 
of Christ has superseded the law of 
Moses, as St. Paul says in his Epistle 
to the Galatians, iv, 31 : "So then, 
brethren, we are not the children of the 
bondwoman, but of the free : by the 
freedom, wherewith Christ hath made 
us free." — (Rev.) W. Hackner, La 
Crosse, Wis. 

Catholic Workingmen s Societies 

The recent manifesto of the National 
Catholic War Council shows that the 
dangers of Socialism and Radicalism 
are coming to be more clearly perceived 
among American Catholics. In connec- 
tion therewith the St. Louis Amerika 
( March 22) recalls the important rec- 
ommendation made forty years ago by 
Leo XIII in favor of Catholic work- 
ingmen's societies. 

"More necessary than an increase of 
membership in the K. of C," says our 
contemporary, "is the establishment of 
Catholic societies for workingmen. For 
it is the workingmen who, more than 
any other class, are exposed to the 
assaults of Radicalism and who must 
therefore be fortified against the blan- 
dishments of the various agitators who 
are championing 'reforms' which are 
apt to subvert, or at least to endanger, 
the very foundations of society." 

Our contemporary points to the ex- 
ample of Switzerland, where a Chris- 
tian Workingmen's Union was recently 
founded "on the basis of the Christian 
religion and within the political and 
economic order prescribed by morality 
and justice," for the purpose of "advo- 
cating energetic social and economic 
reforms and cooperating powerfully in 
the intellectual and material uplift of 
the laboring classes." At its first na- 
tional convention, held in Zurich, Feb. 
22, this Union assured the government 
of its loyalty and requested it to perfect 
the social reform legislation already 
under way and to take the initiative in 
laying the foundations for an efficient 
international system of labor legislation. 

"Efficiency" Methods in Church 

We have received the following from 
a zealous Catholic layman whose name 
is known throughout the country : 

"Apropos of a Catholic layman's dis- 
cussion of 'free entrv to churches' 
(F. R.. Vol. XXVI, No. 6) will you 
let me say that in a certain diocese 
where the collection taken up in the 
churches at Easter and Christmas is 
for the pastors, the priests themselves 
have long been accustomed to act as the 
collectors, the understanding being, no 



April 15 

doubt, that on these two occasions peo- 
ple would be more generous, or less 
niggardly (you can put it either way), 
if the clergy were the direct agents of 
the collection. Many a good (or bail) 
Catholic, who might not hesitate to 
deposit a fifty cent piece in the box if 
said receptacle were presented by a fel- 
low parishioner, would be 'encouraged' 
to make a larger offering if the pastor 
himself or one of his assistants were 
on hand to note the amount given. I 
learn with gratification that the custom 
has now been frowned upon by the 
Bishop, though not altogether stopped, 
as it still persists in some out-of-town 
parishes. In one such place the pastor 
followed the new instructions to the 
letter, — but no farther than the letter. 
1 1 e had a lay collector to go around 
with the box, but he himself walked 
close behind — to give the collector 
moral support. I suppose. Now, money 
must be had for the upkeep of churches 
and the support of pastors, but it seems 
to many of us that such methods savor 
too much of "efficiency." We may be 
too "efficient" in this way for our own 
good and for the good of the people. 
And the clergy of the diocese mentioned 
are not altogether sorry that the custom 
of direct collections by the clergy bids 
tair to fall into disuse, since many of 
the more sensitive among them found 
the work an intolerable burden." 


— The Custodian of Alien Property 
has proposed a plan of dealing with the 
confiscated patents in the chemical in- 
dustry. These patents, according to the 
plan, shall be available to all producers 
nj-on payment of a stipulated fee. We 
do not know whether this can be done 
without violating the law of nations. 
But it might be a good idea to handle 
all domestic patents in the way sng- 

'!. Many inventions remain un- 
utilized for yf-ars because the inventor 
kicks sufficient capital. Millions are 
wasted in fighting infringements. Free 

of a patent in return for a fee or 
royalty could probably be made more 
profitable to the inventor and more 
beneficial to the public than the present 

m of monopoly. 


—Mr. S. A. Baldus, of the Catholic 
Extension Society, has expressed his 
opinion of the "League of Nations" 
project frankly in an address delivered 
before the Irish Fellowship Club, Chi- 
cago, and now printed in pamphlet 
form under the title, "The Fallacy of 
a League of Nations." Mr. Baldus 
views the plan "with American eyes" 
and for a variety of reasons concludes 
that "if we endorse the League, we 
ipso facto re-instate the old and dis- 
credited fallacy — with this difference, 
that formerly it read 'the divine right 
of kings,' but now it is 'the divine right 
of the five high contracting parties.' It's 
the same old spavined horse in a new 
harness." We recommend the thought- 
provoking pamphlet to our readers. 

— The Japanese must know that, 
rather than surrender our rights to 
determine what peoples may be permit- 
ted to establish themselves as perma- 
nent residents among us, we should 
refuse to join the League of Nations. 
Do the Japanese who protest so vehe- 
•mently against our immigration laws 
believe that the exclusion of Orientals 
is with us a purely economic, and not 
a social or racial question? "In our 
economic conflict between labor and 
capital," the New Republic (No. 229) 
says, "fair play required us to deny to 
capital the huge advantage that it would 
have derived from free access to the 
greatest source of cheap contract labor 
in the world." If this were true, the 
Japanese could remove our objections 
to the coolie by bringing their labor 
laws up to western standards. Were 
they to do this, however, they and the 
New Republic would soon find out 
that the problem is deeper. At the root 
lies I he conflict of two civilizations, the 
Christian ("such as it is) of the western 
world, and the pagan civilization of 
degenerate Japan. The two can never 

— The 1 larry Wilson Magazine 
Agency, which we recommended in our 
No. 7, has removed from 1824 S. 
Kingsley Drive to 330 S. Vendome St., 
Los Angeles, Cal. Those who place 




their subscriptions to current periodi- 
cals through this agency are not only 
assured of prompt service, but assist 
in the good work of employing clerical 
converts in the spread of Catholic 

— In Italy the censorship of the press 
seems more relentless now than in 
wartime. The Civilta Cattolica of 
March 1st comes to us with an entire 
article of seven pages completely ex- 
cised by the government censor. Long 
live liberty and democracy ! 

— The Franciscan Herald for April 
prints a brief biographical sketch of 
Fr. Albert Daeger, O.F.M., Arch- 
bishop-elect of Santa Fe, N. M., and 
adds the information, not yet published 
anywhere else, so far as we know, that 
Fr. Daeger was the choice of Arch- 
bishop Pitaval, resigned. YVe join with 
our esteemed contemporary in extend- 
ing to the new Archbishop our cordial 
felicitations and wishing him a blessed 
activity in his high and responsible 
office. It gives us particular joy to see 
the ancient and venerable order of the # 
Friars Minor once again represented 
in the hierarchy of the United States. 

— In reply to the query with which 
"J. A." wound up his contribution in 
No. 6 of the F. R., Mr. M. F. Schu- 
macher, a Catholic teacher and choir 
director of twenty years' experience, 
writes to us from San Antonio, Tex., 
that in his opinion one of the chief 
reasons why so many of our Catholic 
college and academy graduates fall 
away from their religion in later life 
is the fact that they are thrown to- 
gether too intimately with non-Catho- 
lics in the school-room and on the play- 
ground. He adds that the admission of 
non-Catholic pupils is said to be indis- 
pensable for the existence of many of 
these institutions, but that in his opin- 
ion, based on careful observation of 
actual conditions, "it is doubtful 
whether we Catholics have really held 
our end of the rope by this expedient." 
Mr. Schumacher's opinion was shared 
by the late Bishop Verdaguer, Vicar 
Apostolic of Brownsville, (now the 

diocese of Corpus Christi, Tex.), who 
repeatedly told us that "too many 
Protestant pupils" was the bane espe- 
cially of the Sisters' academies in the 
South. No doubt this is one of the 
causes of "our leakage." But there are 
many others. Together they have pro- 
duced a serious situation. A frank dis- 
cussion is clearly needed and, if con- 
ducted in the right spirit, will do good. 

— Fr. F. S. Betten, S.J., in the cur- 
rent Creigliton Chronicle disproves the 
fable that Christian Europe expected 
the world to come to an end about the 
year 1,000. He bases his statement on 
Lincoln Burr's article in Vol. VI 
(1901) of the American Historical Re- 
view and on a paper by Fr. S. Beissel, 
S.J., in the Stimmcn aus Maria-Laach, 
Vol. XLVIII (1895). One point he 
does not clear up, which we should 
like very much to see investigated, and 
that is how Cardinal Baronius came to 
credit the story and give currency to it 
in his famous Annals. 

— A well-deserved tribute to the 
Franciscan Order is paid by Dom 
Maternus Spitz, O.S.B., in the course 
of a paper on "Catholic Missions in 
the Holy Land" in the Catholic Mis- 
sions for April. "Of all the missions 
which the Order possesses," he says, 
"the Custody of the Holy Land is no 
doubt the noblest. Though the Friars 
cannot boast of having achieved great 
results in either re-uniting Oriental 
schismatics or in converting Jews or 
Mohammedans, yet they have done a 
great work in administering to the 
Oriental as well as to the Latin Cath- 
olics, in building and maintaining 
churches and schools, orphanages and 
hospitals, in sacrificing their lives and 
shedding their blood for the rights and 
privileges of the Catholic Church in 
the Holy Land." Dom Maternus adds 
that over 2,000 Friars have died as 
martyrs for their faith in Palestine, and 
that if Catholics from all parts of the 
world have been and still are allowed 
to offer their prayers at the sacred 
places, this is mainly owing to the 
efforts, the perseverance, and the sacri- 
fices of the humble sons of St. Francis. 



April 15 

Literary Briefs 

— A third series of apologetic lectures by 
Father William F. Robison. S..T., Professor 
of Theology at St. Louis University, has 
lately been published under the title "The 
Bedrock of Belief." It answers the question, 
Must a man profess any religion, and if so, 
why? It is, therefore, the last piece of evi- 
dence in an analytical investigation of reli- 
gion begun in the first of the three volumes 
published. The other two establish the 
claims upon our reason, respectively, of 
Christianity in general, and of the Catholic 
Church in particular. The three volume set 
thus comprises a searching, complete, even 
though not exhaustive, treatise of Catholic 
apologetics, which should be welcomed by 
cleric and layman alike, as it is sound, modern 
in treatment, and above the ordinary in clear- 
ness and forceful presentation. (B. Herder 
Book Co.; $1.25 net). 

—Vol. XV, Xo. 2 of the Bulletin of the 
Catholic Educational Association contains 
"A Partial Bibliography of Church History," 
by the Rev. F. S. Betten, S.J. The list covers 
twenty-two octavo pages and is intended for 
college students and seminarists as well as 
for others who wish to read up on Church 
history. The compiler has excluded the im- 
portant field of historical sources as well as 
individual biographies, and limited himself to 
a few important titles in the field of the 
special Church History of America, Ireland, 
and England. The explanatory notes are 
welcome, though unequally distributed (thus 
such an important work as Rauschen's "Eu- 
charist and Penance in the First Six Centu- 
ries" is left without a note, whereas Casey's 
"Xotes on the History of Auricular Confes- 
sion," a rather insignificant pamphlet, has 
fourteen lines. Some references, as "a cer- 
tain Henry Charles Lea," sound naive, the 
estimate of the writings of Reuben Parsons 
is decidedly too high, and here and there a 
description is not quite accurate, as, e. g., in 
the case of Kempf's "The Holiness of the 
Church." But on the whole the list marks a 
good beginning, and we hope it will be revised 
and completed for the benefit both of the 
Catholic reading public and of outsiders. In- 
directly it will benefit the Catholic cause also 
by showing how insignificant our literature 
on the subject of Church History is, as com- 
pared with that of France and Germany, and 
y encouraging further production. 

— A new edition (the fifth) has appeared 
of "Christian Worship, Its Origin and Evo- 
lution," by Ms«r. L. Duchesne, translated l>y 
.'•i f, fcfcClure It contains certain improve- 
ments suggested by the learned author, par- 
ticularly an appendix giving the results of 
Dom Hugh Connolly's work on the Egyptian 
Church Order;* but some further reservations 
made in consequence of Mr. 
Edmund Bishop's criticisms. 

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— No. 2 of the new St. Louis Catholic His- 
torical Rcviciv ($2 per annum; 209 Walnut 
Str., St. Louis, Mo.) contains a paper on 
"The Beginnings of St. Louis University," 
by the Rev. G. J. Garraghan, SJ. ; a bio- 
graphical sketch of '"Rev. John Francis Regis 
Loisel," (b. 1805; d. 1845), the first native 
St. Louisan to be ordained to the priesthood 
by the Rev. F. G. Holweck; a series of his- 
torical and bibliographical notes by the edi- 
tor, Rev. Dr. Charles L. Souvay, CM., and 
several letters of Bishop Du Bourg from the 
St. Louis diocesan archives. We renew our 
recommendation of this excellent quarterly 
and hope it will find the support which it 

— The twenty-seventh edition of Sabetti- 
Barrett's excellent "Compendium Theologiae 
Moralis," which has just appeared, has been 
thoroughly revised and brought into conform- 
ity with the new Code of Canon Law. All 
quotations from the Code are in bold-faced 
type, thus enabling the reader at once to 
recognize the exact wording of the canon. 
The indices, three in number, have been en- 
larged and perfected and together comprise 
no less than 140 pages. There is an analytical 
index, an index of canons quoted, and a gen- 
eral alphabetical index, which facilitate im- 
mediate reference to any page or section. 
The bulky volume of over 1200 pages, large 
octavo, is substantially bound in library 
buckram and sells for $4.50 net. (Fr. Pustet 
Co., Inc., New York and Cincinnati, O.) 

— Thos. B. Lawler's "Essentials of Ameri- 
can History" for Catholic schools has been 
completely overhauled by the author and 
illustrated in colors by N. C. Wyeth. The 
book has gained by the process, but it is 
susceptible of still greater improvement. 
When we look at such text-books as Hart's 
"New American History" and West's "His- 
tory of the American People," we cannot 
but regret the inferiority of the manuals with 
which our Catholic children have to content 
themselves. (Ginn & Co., Boston; $1.12). 

—As the fruit of long years of experi- 
ence in Sunday-school catechetical teaching. 
"To the Heart of the Child," by Josephine 
Van Dyke Brownson, is sure to be of prac- 
tical value to all to whom this exceedingly 
needful and meritorious apostolate is near 
and dear. The matter of the thirty-six chap- 
ters is, of course, altogether elementary in 
character, the purpose being to find ways and 
means of effecting an entrance into the un- 
tutored child-soul for the fundamental truths 
and practices of their holy faith. The au- 
thoress proves herself decidedly inventive in 
this, as even a cursory perusal of her diagram 
drawings and brief lessons shows. There is 
a useful list of reference books, as also of 
penny pictures illustrating the lessons, and 
there is no dearth of helpful suggestions for 
the practical conducting of Catechism classes. 
It were well if parents, too, would avail 
themselves of this eminently serviceable book 



April 15 

for the instructing of their children. (The 
Encyclopedia Press, Inc.; boards $1, cloth 
?; -5, postpaid). 

— The "Editio Leonina" of the works of 
St. Thomas Aquinas has progressed to the 
thirteenth volume, which contains the two 
nrst books of the "Suinina contra Gentiles." 
with the commentary of Francisco de Syl- 
vestris and a long and learned introduction. 
The text of the "Summa contra Gentiles" 
has this great advantage that it is based, at 
least in part, on a holographic manuscript 
preserved in the Vatican Libray. This mag- 
nificent edition of the "Opera Omnia" of 
Aquinas is published by the Fathers of the 
Collegio Angelico, Via S. Vitale, 15, Rome, 
and the present volume (,lx+602-f-07 pp. folio) ■ 
sells for sixty lire. 

— The Cizilta Cottolica (quad. 1649) an- 
nounces the publication, at an early date, of 
the "Epistulae et Opuscula hactenus Inedita 
aut Sparsim Edita" of Francis Suarez, S.J., 
who is known as the "Doctor Eximius." The 
collection will be edited by Fr. E. M. Riviere, 
S.J., who is more familiar perhaps than any 
other living scholar with the various editions 
and the manuscripts of Suarez's writings and 
who co-operated with Fr. de Scorailles, S.J., 
a few years ago in writing his biography, a 
standard work, of which we still await an 
English translation. 

—In the "Books Received" columns of the 
Ciiilta Cattolica (quad. 1649) we find, under 
the sub-title "Lettere," the following curious 
entry: "Psalmini F. sac. Ad Wilsonem eius- 
que Socios Templum Pacis Ingressuros, Cas- 
trimari Stab., De Luca, 1919, 8°, 10 p. L. 1.50." 


Books Received 

Christology. A Dogmatic Treatise on the Incarna- 
tion. U>- the Rt. Rev. Msgr. Joseph Pohle. 
Adapted and Edited by Arthur Preuss. Third, 
icion. iv & 311 pp. 12mo. B. Herder 
Rook Co. $1.50 net. 

The Fallacy of a League of Nations. An Address 
by S. A. Baldua. 32 pp. 8vo. Chicago, III. (Wrap- 

Gloriei Ghost. A Series of Studies, a 

tion of Tributes, an Account of Certain 

ments Bearing on the Third Person of the 

ity. With 100 Illustrations. By Rev. 

\\m. 1-. Stadelman, C.S.Sp. xxix & 389 pp. 8vo. 

Techny. III.: Society of the Divine Word, (loth, 

$3; with half leather hack, $3.50. 

Catholic Church Extension. By Rev. Geo. Daly, 

R. _''» pp. 8vo. Toronto, Canada: Extension 

I'rint. (,~ Bond Mr. (Wrapper). 

Arch-Liar FrOUdt" and Other Curiosities 

nned vn <■ t ontroversy of \<>\n 

By .Ernest R. [lull, S.J., Editor of The Examiner. 

ii & 170 pp. 12mo. Bombay: Examiner J'ress (Si 

Loins: Herder; New Vork: Kenedy). 
Mans (jreatest Concern: The Management of life 

By Ernest R. Hull, S.J. iv & 152 pp. I2mo. 

Same publishers. 
Le llrame ,lc Scnlis. Journal il'un Timoin, Avant 
Ao&t !>., ewh, r |'(| |. ' J'., , |,. 

Maricourt. XI .V 288 pp. i > m o 

-: I'.loud A Gay. ^ fr. 50. (Wrappm. 

le * "'' I' tit Francois. Organe Authen- 

tu|uc des Officiers It. ., Brande- 

bourcet Dalle (AUemagne). Par Hubert de L*r- 

rnandic. No pagination. Jllnstrat..l I'.,,. : Bloud 
4 Gay. 6 fr. (Wrapper;. 

Le Sentier Th&osophique. IV et V. LTnitiation 
dans les Societes Secretes. 70 pp. 8 vo. Paris: 
Charles Nicoullaud, 96, Boul. Malesherbes. 2 fr. 
50. (.Wrapper). 

The Barrier. By Rene Bazin. [Novel]. 218 pp. 12mo. 
Benziger Bros. $1.25 net. 


Jos. Berning Printing Co. 

128 East Eighth Street 


has produced repeat orders for printing in the 

Its facilities for quick delivery of printed 
books, booklets, pamphlets, folders, etc., 
in any language are not excelled. 
Prices very reasonable. 

required by the Act of Congress of August 24, 1912, 
of the Fortnightly Review, published semi-monthly 
at St. Louis, Mo., for April 1st, 1919. 
City of St. Louis, I ss> 
State of Missouri, I 

Before me, a notary public in and for the S'tate 
and City aforesaid, personally appeared Arthur 
Preuss, who, having been duly sworn according to 
law, deposes and says that he is the publisher and 
editor of the Fortnightly Review and that the 
following is, to the best of his knowledge and belief, 
a true statement of the ownership, mangement, etc., 
of the aforesaid publication for the date shown in 
the above caption, required by the Act of August 
24, 1912, embodied in section 443, Postal Laws and 
Regulations, to wit: 

1. That the names and addresses of the publisher, 
editor, managing editor, and business managers are: 
Publisher, Arthur Preuss, 

18 S'. 6th Str., St. Louis, Mo. 
Editor, same. 
Business Manager, none. 

2. Names and addresses of owner or stockholders 
holding 1 per cent or more of the total amount of 

Arthur Preuss, sole owner, 18 S'. 6Hi S't., St. 
Louis, Mo. 

3. That the known bondholders, mortagees, and 
other security holders owing or holding 1 per cent 
or more of total amount of bonds, mortages, or 
other securities are: 


4. That the two paragraphs next above, giving 
the names of the owners, stockholders, and security 
holders, if any, contain not only the list of stock- 
holders and security holders as they appear upon 
the books of the company but also, in cases where 
the stockholders or security holders appear upon 
the books of the company as trustee or in any 
other fiduciary relation, the name of the person or 
corporation for whom such trustee is acting, is 
given; also that the said two paragraphs contain 
Statements embracing affiant's full knowledge and 
belief as to the circumstances and conditions under 
which Stockholders and security holders who do not 
appear upon the hooks of the company trustees, hold 
stock and securities in a capacity other than that of 
a bona fide owner; and this affiant has no reason to 
believe that any other person, association, or cor- 
poration has any interest direct or indirect in the 
said Stock, bonds, or other securities than as so 
stated by him. 

Sworn lo and subscribed before me this 26th day 
of Man h, I VI •J. 


Notary Public. 
(My commission expires May 5th, 19120.) 

The Fortnightly Review 



May 1, 1919 

Neither Capitalism nor Socialism! 

Mr. F. P. Kenkel comments in the 
Amerika (daily ed., Vol. XLVII, No. 
144) on the note we published in our 
No. 7 under the caption, "Socialism and 
Capitalism." He says that the cham- 
pions of the so-called Christian Social 
movement, which he himself, as direc- 
tor of the Central Bureau of the Cath- 
olic Central Society, represents in this 
country, have for years not only com- 
batted Capitalism as the root-evil of 
modern society, but have drawn up a 
positive reform programme against both 
Capitalism and Socialism. He mentions 
particularly Fr. A. M. Weiss, O.P., 
Baron von Vogelsang, and G. Ratzin- 
ger. That the "Christlich-Sozialen" in 
Austria have not been able to put down 
Socialism he attributes to the fact that 
the public, including many Catholics, 
have taken an attitude of opposition. 
Mr. Kenkel thinks future generations 
will find it hard to understand this mis- 
take when they view the history of our 
day in the light of the revolutionary 
changes that are only just beginning. 
No doubt they will regard as prophetic 
Vogelsang's utterance that Socialism 
thrives largely on the mistakes of its 
opponents, including the Catholic social 
reform parties. In saying this the emi- 
nent Austrian sociologist referred prin- 
cipally to a certain French and Belgian 
school, which advocated an impossible 
return to the patriarchal conditions of 
the past. This school had its representa- 
tives in the U. S. at the time of the 
ascendancy of the late Archbishop Ire- 
land, when Mark Hanna said that the 
Catholic Church would prove the 
strongest bulwark against Socialism. 
Those Catholics who believe that the 
rich have a mission to improve the poor 
forget that wealth is largely the cause 

of poverty, and that the rich no less 
than the poor are subject to the moral 
law. In opposition to these one-sided 
reformers the champions of the Chris- 
tian Social movement condemn the ar- 
rogance of a Plutocracy that poses as 
"patroness" ; they perceive the injustice 
and uncharitableness of the capitalistic 
system and condemn both anarchy and 
exploitation. They openly admit that 
the well-founded fear of social revolu- 
tion and the laws which governments 
have adopted for the protection of the 
present order, will one day stand as the 
disgraceful relics of an iniquitous social 
system. They demand the reorganiza- 
tion of society according to vocations 
and classes because they know that dis- 
integration means corruption and that 
modern social vices, among rich and 
poor alike, are the specific defects of 
a disrupted society which cannot be 
cured except by complete reorganization 
on a sound Christian basis. 

This is merely a brief outline of the 
platform of the Christian Social 
reformers and explains their slogan : 
"Neither Capitalism nor Socialism." 
Both Capitalism and Socialism are 
symptoms of the same malignant dis- 
ease, — - a disease which is plainly 
threatening to destroy society. 


— Father James C. Beissel, of the 
Congr. of the SS. Hearts, appeals to 
American Catholics for help in liqui- 
dating the debt on his parish church in 
Hilo, Hawaii, on which, he says, de- 
spite the greatest efforts, he is barely 
able to pay the interest. The appeal is 
endorsed by Msgr. Boeynaems, Vicar- 
Apostolic of the Islands. Father Beis- 
sel's address is : St. Joseph's Church, 
Hilo, Hawaii. 



May 1 

The Cost of Pleasure 

Upon the Valley's lap 

The dewy morning throws 

A thousand pearly drops 
To wake a single rose. 

So, often in the course 

Of life's few fleeting years, 
\ Single pleasure costs 
A soul a thousand tears. 


Negro Catholics and the K. of C. 

From an authoritative source I learn 
that the Knights of Columbus will soon 
have to face the question of allowing 
colored Catholics to become members 
ol the organization. 

As the Knights of Columbus make 
Catholicity the basic (although not the 
only) test of membership, many negro 
Catholics have come to believe thev 
have a right to ask for some form o'f 
affiliation, on this ground if on no 
other. I understand that a group of 
colored Catholics in one of our chief 
cities have considered the matter in all 
its bearings, and while in no way wish- 
ing to push themselves into places 
u here they would not socially be desired 
I i( cognizing as they do the prejudice 
against their color), they feel that, as 
Catholics, they ought to'have the sup- 
port and prestige which, they believe, 
would be theirs were they in some way 
incorporated into or affiliated with the 
K. of ( . They ask no more than to be 
allowed to form councils exclusively of 
i.egroe>. thus avoiding any mingling of 
white and colored members, which 
might seem undesirable. There are 
colored Catholic parishes so organized; 
and thev ask: "Why not organize 

colored K. of < '. Councils in the same 

It i- pointed out by them that where- 
as the negro non-Catholic has the col- 
ored Masons and Odd Fellows— organ- 
izations which do not mingle with the 
white Organizations of similar name. 

but are recognized and aided by them 
the Catholic colored man has no lay 

organization of nation-wide extent j n 
which to develop the natural desire for 

fraternization and to which he may 
turn for help in family or business need. 

(I have heard, indeed, of the Knights 
of St. Peter Claver, but that is small, 
purely local in character, and lacking 
the strength and prestige of the K. of 
C.) The colored Catholic is forbidden 
by his faith to belong to the non-Cath- 
olic organizations mentioned, but he 
has nothing to take their place. Outside 
of the strictly religious organizations 
and sodalities of his local church, he 
has to "play a lone hand," and as negro 
Catholics are in the minority in every 
negro community, they feel very keenly 
at every turn this lack of the support 
of their fellows. 

They point out also that the recogni- 
tion of the colored man as a member 
by a great Catholic organization like the 
K. of C. the acceptance of him into its 
ranks, would do much to remove from 
the minds of the negro non-Catholic 
those prejudices against the Church 
which are so deeply ingrained ; it would 
express openly the essential democracy 
of the Church, and would without 
doubt make for conversions. 

While this desire for membership as 
Catholics in this greatest of American 
Catholic lay organizations has probably 
been in the hearts of Catholic negroes 
for a long time, the war may be said 
to have brought it to a head. The 
war has resulted in a great increase of 
negro Catholic consciousness. An aston- 
ishingly large number of negro Catho- 
lics were discovered in the military 
camps and cantonments, and the K. of 
C. huts for colored soldiers were well 
patronized. The ministrations of the 
K. of C. through special colored secre- 
taries were much appreciated by all the 
colored soldiers, but especially by the 
Catholics, who were proud to be able to 
say that this was a work of their 
( hurch ; and the colored Catholic sol- 
dier could not help feeling that he 
would like to he a member of an organ- 
ization of Catholic laymen which could 
"put across" such a beneficent and 
widely-recognized work as this. 

In the Y. M. C. A. there has long 
been a colored branch, which functions 
not only in war, hut also in peace, and 
the colored Catholic soldier has won- 
dered if the K. of ( '. in its after-war 




development will not provide for him 
something like this. 

It is too early yet to say what answer 
the Knights of Columbus will make to 
this demand of their colored co-religion- 
ists. There is, I understand, nothing in 
the K. of C. constitution against col- 
ored membership. There is on the other 
hand nothing specifically authorizing it, 
and I can imagine that the race feeling 
of the "white folks" will be instinctive- 
ly against it. The tendency will be to 
tell the negroes to go form an order of 
their own, and not be bothering the 
white orders by appeals for admission. 
The negroes lay stress upon the Cath- 
olicity which they possess in common 
with their white brethren; but the K. 
of C. is not so much a Catholic organ- 
ization as a social and fraternal organ- 
ization of Catholic men. As such they 
will (or many of them will, at any rate) 
contend that they have a right to choose, 
even from among white Catholics, the 
kind of men they desire to associate 

It may be held that the negro Cath- 
olics who are behind this movement 
are exaggerating the possible benefits 
of affiliation with the K. of C. Some 
observers may hold that it may be just 
as well for the negro Catholics if the 
Knights assume a hard and fast atti- 
tude of opposition to their project. But 
horrever that may be, the matter is of 
more than passing interest. It promises 
a lively clash of opinions, and we are 
interested to see how it will work out. 


The "Old Catholic" Church 
and Theosophy 

It appears that, in England, the 
Theosophists have commandeered the 
machinery of the moribund Old Cath- 
olic sect. Mr. Stanley Morrison, in a 
brochure (Harding and More. 119, 
High Holborne. London), entitled. 
"The Origins and Purpose of the So- 
Called Old Catholic Church," tells the 
story of "the diabolical appropriation 
of a body possessing the ancient Cath- 
olic ritual and holy orders by a pseudo- 

spiritual sect which has exhausted the 
resources of occultism in its most sinis- 
ter forms." 

Of Theosophy itself the author gives 
a short history, tracing it from its 
nebulous beginning through the period 
of the Blavatsky-Olcott development, 
with the Mahatma experiment, to the 
1894 scandal which rent the society in 

The invading of the Old Catholic 
Church, which was dragging out an 
uneasy existence, by the unrestful spirit 
of Theosophy, was the next phase in 
the career of the Society. "The times 
called for a new excitement," says Fa- 
ther Thurston in his preface; "some- 
thing was wanted to stimulate a jaded 
sense of curiosity and mystery, and this 
was found in the suggestion of a further 
revelation to come. . . . Madame Bla- 
vatsky had drained dry all the springs 
that seemed available in Persia, India, 
and ancient Egypt. Something more 
genuine and vital was needed. The one 
living organization which still was able 
to invoke the unseen as a power con- 
trolling the lives of men was the Cath- 
olic Church, and so Mr. C. W. Lead- 
beater, Mrs. Besant's lieutenant, set to 
work to capture for the service of his 
pagan cult all the influences to be de- 
rived from the sacrifice and sacraments 
of Catholic Christianity. He called it 
all undisguisedly 'magic' " 

So the effete Old Catholic Church 
became possessed by the spirit of The- 
osophy. The unsavory story of its 
priestly personnel need not be repeated. 
Its association with the Star in the East 
Society, which looks for a new teacher, 
to be produced at the psychological 
moment by Mrs. Besant, who is train- 
ing a Hindu youth for the role, its 
sacrilegious profanation of all that the 
Church holds sacred — all this is made 
clear in the pages of Mr. Morrison's 
brochure, and the important point is 
brought out that the Church which in 
England calls itself "Old Catholic," is 
no longer either Catholic or even Chris- 
tian, but, having become possessed of a 
"control" by which it is inhabited and 
directed, its work is that of the enemy 
of the Catholic faith. 



May 1 

Signs of the Coming "Kulturkampf" 
Under the title "The Storm is Brew- 
ing," Father F. M. Lynk. S.Y.D., in the 
April number of the Christian Family 
(Techny, 111.: $2 a year), reviews the 
signs pointing - to a persecution of the 
Catholic Church in this country. These 
signs, he rightly says, "are multiplying, 
although most of our co-religionists still 
prefer to ignore them," and "continue 
to talk complacently about the wonder- 
ful growth of the Church in America, 
instead of considering and counteract- 
ing the appalling annual defections 
from our ranks through mixed mar- 
riages, irreligious reading, the corrupt- 
ing example of associates, and the 
universal moral laxity that exists all 
around them." 

The signs of the coming persecution, 
according to Father Lynk, are : ( 1 ) the 
campaign against the Mass by fanatical 
prohibitionists: (2) the growing ten- 
dency to tax all church property, there- 
by adding enormously to the burden 
of those who have to maintain our 
churches, schools, hospitals, orphanages, 
etc. : (3) the growth of Socialism 
among the laboring classes and the 
spread of anti-Catholic publications 
which propagate the foulest calumnies 
against the Church and her ministers ; 
( 4 1 the constantly multiplying encroach- 
ments of the State upon personal, reli- 
gious and educational liberty. 

On the last-mentioned point our 
esteemed confrere says: "The war in an 
unprecedented manner has paved the 
way for unwholesome centralization 
and an unheard-of degree of inter- 
f< rence with personal, religious, and 
educational liberty. The encroachments 
of the State upon the Church have been 
steady. The infamous though harmless- 
looking Smith bill would place all edu- 
cation under the control of the federal 
g o ve r nment. The convention of edu- 
r,-itors recently held in Chicago advo- 
cated the creation of a central bureau 
in Washington. Mr! Schultz. former 
superintendent of public school! 
in Minnesota, who for years worked 
for the destruction of the parochial 
schools in his State, has already bees 
called to Washington, and his 'Ameri- 

canization' plans are said to have the 
endorsement of the President. The 
efforts of the enemies of the parochial 
schools in Michigan and Florida are well 
known. The legislatures of Nebraska, 
Minnesota, Missouri, and Texas are, 
at the present writing, discussing bills 
which would greatly restrict the free- 
dom of Catholic education. Under the 
guise of trying to eliminate the teaching 
of a foreign language, they all in the 
last analysis aim at State control and 
eventually at State monopoly of educa- 

What makes these and other anti- 
Catholic tendencies doubly ominous is 
the fact that over sixty percent of our 
people have no church affiliation of any 
kind. "Their present indifference to 
religion," says Fr. Lynk, "will gradual- 
ly broaden into hostility, and hostility 
will inevitably lead to an era of open 
persecution. This clearly is the prospect 
of American Catholics for the next 
twenty-five or fifty years. We are a 
minority, largely because we have not 
held our own since the early days of 
Catholic immigration, we are not liked, 
we are threatened not only by fanatic 
but powerful minorities, but sooner or 
later by a majority; we need closer 
organization, a clearer realization of 
our dangers, and perpetual watchful- 
ness as the price of our liberty." 

We have nothing to add to Father 
Lynk's survey of the religious situation 
in America, except that the dangers 
now so apparent have been long fore- 
seen by clear-visioned bishops, priests, 
and laymen, and that while the Church 
will no doubt in the end come forth 
triumphantly, the loss of souls will be 
appalling, because the faith of most of 
our people, even of those who still prac- 
tice their religion, is merely an outward 
veneer and not a matter of conviction 
based upon a truly Catholic world-view. 


— In the Chinese language the Catholic reli- 
:i'ni is called "Ticntchou-Kiao," which means, 
"the religion of the Master of Heaven." 

— After reading the Review, hand it to a 
friend; perhaps he will subscribe, and you 
will have done him a service and helped 
along the apostolate of the good press. 




The Church and Economic Recon- 

A competent reviewer of Father 
Husslein's book, "The World Prob- 
lem," in the Irish quarterly Studies 
(VIII, 29, 163 sqq.) says that while it 
is well to be reminded that there is a 
moral law behind even ouY present non- 
moral system of economics, and that 
practical religion can still influence our 
social life, the book is disappointing be- 
cause it raises numerous and widely 
diverse problems, but never pursues 
them beyond the point at which they 
begin to call for more careful examina- 
tion and "after which we might expect 
to see them shading into one another 
and pointing the way to principles that 
might help to illuminate and solve the 
general problem. It does not even ven- 
ture on a genuine investigation of the 
Church's teaching on the questions 
raised, such as interest, prices, wages, 

"It is quite true," he says, "that if 
the Church's voice were supreme in the 
world, there would be no necessity to 
trouble much about the precise form of 
economic organization. Whatever that 
form might be, the Church's moral 
teaching would secure that advantage 
would not be taken of it to oppress any 
section of the people or to impose on 
them conditions inconsistent with their 
human nature and destiny. Greed and 
oppression would be restrained as moral 
vices ; a universal spirit of Christian 
brotherhood would prevail. But never, 
even in the most Christian age or land, 
has such a consummation been known. 
Christian teaching and Christian influ- 
ences help to curb the vicious tendencies 
of our nature, but these tendencies re- 
main, and it will never be safe to reckon 
without them as long as man retains the 
taint of his original fall. All this mere- 
ly means that we cannot acquiesce in an 
illogical, ill-balanced, economic organ- 
ization, and then trust to moral and 
religious influences to save us from the 
natural consequences in the form of 
social hardships, instability and unrest. 
•We cannot, for instance, favor condi- 
tions which look like a direct invitation 
to the sweater and profiteer, and then 

expect to prevent sweating and profit- 
eering by moral instruction on just 
wages and equitable interest. We are 
witnessing these consequences to-day. 
The Church can and does do much to 
mitigate them. But the remedy, to be 
really effective must be radical in the 
sense that it must get back and readjust 
economic conditions. In other words, 
Ave must have reconstruction, not mere- 
ly as a vague promise but as a definite 
tangible reality. What reconstruction 
requires is a large problem, which calls 
for the fullest and most sincere think- 
ing possible amongst us. I do not pre- 
tend that reconstruction, no matter how 
radical or complete, can ever prove a 
panacea for social ills. Moral and reli- 
gious influences will ever continue to 
count for more. But moral and reli- 
gious influences are not sufficient of 
themselves, and they cannot be expected 
to produce their best results without a 
fairly reasonable and equitable eco- 
nomic framework. It is unnecessary to 
remark that I am speaking here alto- 
gether of the temporal — social — influ- 
ence of religion and morality. . 

"It is scarcely to the interest of reli- 
gion to be perpetually referring to the 
Catholic solution when, in fact, there is 
properly no Catholic solution at all. 
The Catholic Church has never put for- 
ward any complete economic system, 
for the obvious reason that such would 
be altogether without the sphere of her 
supernatural mission. That is the proper 
function of men themselves organized 
for the purpose of social intercourse. 
She accepts the various social and eco- 
nomic conditions which she finds pre- 
vailing in the different parts of the 
world through which she is sent to 
preach and uphold the Gospel, only at 
ali times insisting on the moral law as 
applicable to the existing conditions, 
and prbtesting whenever the conditions 
themselves are in opposition to the gen- 
eral fundamental principles of morality. 
It would indeed be possible to construct 
a complete, self-consistent economic 
system under the guidance of such 
manifold pronouncements, taken in con- 
junction with her teaching about the 
nature and essential rights of man. 



May 1 

Such a work by a capable Catholic 
scholar would be one of the most valu- 
able boons which could be ottered to 
humanity at the present moment." 

The Study of German 
The Bishop of Salford, England, Dr. 
Casartelli, in an address before the 
Manchester Statistical Society, on "The 
Study of Foreign Languages," the 
other day. discussed the question : Shall 
We Learn German? 

Remarking on the odium which the 
war had drawn down in England upon 
everything German, and which had ex- 
tended itself to the German language 
and the literature of the German people, 
the Bishop protested against this mis- 
taken policy as "not only narrow- 
minded, but exceedingly short-sighted." 
His Lordship said, according to the 
London Universe ( No. 3037) : 

"I will not dwell upon the philological 
value of the German language, or upon 
the foolishness of cutting ourselves off 
from one of the richest literatures in the 
world, surely a piece of intellectual 
folly. What is more, so vast an amount 
of the best scientific work in every 
branch of human research is embedded 
in German books and periodicals that 
wilfully to deprive ourselves of the ad- 
vantages to be derived from these 
sources would be no less than an edu- 
cational and cultural suicide. Surely 
the first step to conquer a rival nation, 
whether in its territory or its trade, is 
to conquer its language. For the past 
forty years our German rivals have 
proved abundantly by their own experi- 
ence the truth of this contention, and 
their 'peaceful penetration' long before 
the war of every country in the world by 
their commercial and political influence 
has always been preceded and assisted 
by the conquest of the language of the 
country. The surrender of Germany's 
fleet will surely have lost much of its 
future effect if we fail to obtain the 
-urrend'-r of the Becretfl and treasures 
ot her language and literature; the 
holding of the key of her intellectual 
arsenal will in its way be worth the 

holding of many bridge-heads • on the 

Rhine r 

Where Common Sense Does Not Reach 

The Great War has developed a 
rather abnormal interest in the things 
of the spirit-world. Many volumes — 
most of them rubbish — have been pub- 
lished on "psychic phenomena" said to 
be connected in some way with the ap- 
palling number of the killed. 

Mr. J. Godfrey Raupert has shown 
that the attempt to penetrate into the 
"realms of spirits" has become a craze 
among certain classes, and he augurs 
little good from these uncanny excur- 
sions for the spiritual welfare of those 
who are anxious to "establish relations" 
with the dead. 

Other writers, who take an entirely 
different viewpoint than Mr. Raupert, 
have also perceived the folly of these 
inane speculations concerning the lot of 
the departed. Thus a contributor to 
the Dial (October 19, 1918), reviewing 
Mr. Hereward Carrington's "Psychical 
Phenomena and the War," speaks as 
follows of the work : 

"A more baneful book, spreading 
darkness where even a feeble light 
w r ould throw a glimmer of guidance, 
it is difficult to imagine. . . . The 'super- 
notmal' part is a top-heavy assemblage 
of the occult applied to war. It in- 
cludes everything uncritically — prophe- 
cies, premonitions, spirit-communica- 
tions, apparitions, coincidences, and all 
the rest of the telepathic artillery, 
which is as shell-proof as it is reason- 
proof and can be riddled to a frazzle 
and yet stay whole. . . . Mr. Carrington 
has taken part in exposing mediums 
and warns his readers against fraud ; 
yet there are always black swans, and 
these carry him floating to the regions 
where common sense does not reach. 
Mr. Carrington devoted a book to 
Busapia Palladino as the 'blackest' of 
the swans. When she proved to be of 
the same color as the rest of her tribe, 
Mr. Carrington (apparently) retained 
his faith, indeed enlarged it, so that 
now his appetite for marvels knows no 
bounds. To set forth this mixture of- 
credulity and obscurantism as science 
i<- an insult and an injury." 




A Serious Educational Crisis 

The Bishop of Harrisburg, Pa., says 
in a letter to the editor of the Ecclesi- 
astical Review (LX, 4, 422 sqq.) that, 
because of the tendency to centralize 
education in Washington, and the agi- 
tation on foot to have the several States 
assume supervision of the educational 
agencies, public and private, within 
their confines, and because non-Catho- 
lics generally believe that the State has 
a right to know whether or not the chil- 
dren of the commonwealth are being 
trained, he is "convinced that our pres- 
ent freedom in educational matters 
from all State supervision will soon be 
a privilege of the past," and that "it 
would be unwise and useless to assume 
a'i uncompromising attitude to the pro- 
posed legislation for supervision." 

The policy that seems best to Msgr. 
AkDevitt under the present circumstan- 
ces is "for our Catholic educators, em- 
powered by the hierarchy, to approach 
the Federal and State educational 
authorities and discuss frankly the 
standing of Catholic education before 
the law ; to acquaint the civil authorities 
with the principles, the purposes, and 
the achievements of Catholic education ; 
to assure those in power that Catholics 
are as anxious as they are to safeguard 
the child and provide him with the edu- 
cation that makes for good citizenship, 
and that Catholics, while believing in 
liberty of education, are willing to con- 
form to all reasonable demands which 
the State may make upon Catholic 
schools to insure the right education of 
children. Catholic educators should 
say furthermore that, knowing their 
rights as citizens, they will resist, with 
all the proper means at their disposal, 
the attempts to destroy freedom of 
education or to cripple their educational 
svstem by laws that discriminate against 
Catholic schools which do not conform 
to an arbitrary and unnecessary stand- 
ard of academic efficiency." 

The Bishop thinks that the civil 
authorities would be disposed to meet 
such an approach »to solve a delicate 
problem in an amicable way, especially 
if Catholics "are not only prepared to 
recognize a reasonable supervision by 

the State of Catholic schools, but are 
determined to resist publicly, boldly, 
and defiantly every invasion of their 
inalienable right to liberty and freedom 
of education. 

This is, of course, the opinion of but 
one bishop, but it deserves special 
attention because of the undisputed 
competency of that bishop in matters 

We share Msgr. McDevitt's hope, 
expressed towards the end of his letter, 
that the Committee of Bishops which 
Cardinal Gibbons is to appoint "will 
outline a policy to guide the Catholic 
body in the present serious educational 
crisis." It is to the hierarchy that we 
must look for guidance in matters so 
closelv touching: faith and morals. 

Proportional Representation 

One of the political reforms this 
Review has never ceased to advocate 
is proportional representation. The 
newer democracies of Europe are 
hastening to adopt it. In Poland, at 
the recent election, there were twenty- 
one nomination lists, and the returns 
from Warsaw (a fair sample) show a 
majority of about 50 per cent of the 
votes cast for the Paderewski-Dmowski 
party, 15 per cent for the Socialists, 
and 35 per cent for the Jewish can- 

Sinn Fein, in the recent municipal 
elections in Ireland, could, it is said, 
have easily swept aside all other par- 
ties. But, in one city at least, Sligo, 
the leading party showed its common 
sense by permitting the minjority to 
take part in the government by means 
of proportional representation. Of the 
new city council of twenty-four, only 
six members were returned on the Sinn 
Fein platform ; six represent organized 
labor, eight a non-party taxpayers' as- 
sociation, and four other independent 

We gather from the Survey (Vol. 
41, No. 25) that it is the intention of 
the British government to make pro- 
portional representation part of the 
law for all local elections in England. 

The Philadelphia Public Ledger the 



May 1 

other day published a leading editorial 
drawing attention to the fact that the 
impending charter revision for that 
city, with its substitution of a smaller 
body for the present councils, will pro- 
vide a unique opportunity of testing 
out proportional representation on a 
scale that will ensure an object lesson 
for the rest of the country. 

The rapidity with which proportion- 
al representation is winning favor may 
be gleaned from the fact that., since the 
armistice was signed, .this reform has 
been adopted for the constituent assem- 
blv of Germany as well as for that of 
Poland, and the lower house of New 
South \\ ales. 

The fiction that the system is too 
difficult to apply here cannot be main- 
tained : in audition to the countries 
named. Denmark. Switzerland and 
Holland apply the principle, and the 
Czechoslovaks have even put it into 
their declaration of independence. Vis- 
count Bryce apparently thinks it ap- 
plicable in the United States, for he 
lias consented to become a vice-presi- 
dent of the American Proportional 
Representation League. Not only 
political experts, however, but also 
numbers of American labor organiza- 
tions endorse it. 

L Fischer Williams, in "The Reform 
of Political Representation" (London: 
John Murray), gives a clear exposition, 
for American readers, of the system 
of proportional representation as a 
means of securing really representative 
government. He points out that in the 
phrase, "The world safe for democ- 
racy." democracy really means repre- 
sentative government. He argues that 
in truth neither British nor American 
governments have been representative, 
because of their failing to represent 
very large minorities. As a result of 
this failure the legislative bodies of 
these countries are not mirrors of the 
popular mind and lack stability. 

— A re massacred by the millions 

to make print paper, I must go on asking my- 

• If as long as I live, whether I shall ever be 

• . f'H truth enough in print to justify 

cutting down a single living tree. — Horace 

Flack in Rccdy's Mirror, XXVIII, 13.' 

Church Music Reform 
It is now fifteen years since the 
famous Motu Proprio of Pius X, of 
glorious memory, made its appearance. 
On that memorable St. Cecilia's Day, 
1903, a new era in Catholic Church 
music was begun. The supreme author- 
ity of the Church had spoken on a mat- 
ter of vital importance in church dis- 
cipline. From that day forward, a great 
reform was to be instituted in that 
which goes to make up the solemnity 
of Catholic worship. No more were 
we to hear salaried artists metamor- 
phose religious music into dramatic 
performance at the most solemn serv- 
ices. Those so-called sacred musical 
compositions embellished by cavatinas, 
duets, and airs which had been the de- 
light of many congregations Sunday 
after Sunday, were to be placed on the 
Index of forbidden music. Operatic and 
worldly music were to be banished from 
the sacred precincts of God's Church. 
The sacred chant and polyphonic music 
were to come into their own once more, 
and find their place side by side with 
the sacred liturgy. People were to be 
edified and assisted in their devotions, 
instead of being entertained and dis- 
tracted from them. 

The reform which Pius X pro- 
claimed, was in his mind long before 
his accession to the papacy. As early 
as 1893, when Leo XIII ordered an in- 
vestigation of the subject of Church 
Music, Pius X, then an Archbishop, 
presented to him a comprehensive 
"votum," in which were developed all 
the ideas to which he gave the sanction 
of his pontifical authority later on. 
During the few short years of his pon- 
tificate he labored incessantly to bring 
about the reform which was so dear to 
his heart. He ever kept in mind the 
spirit with which he entered his pon- 
tificate, "All for Christ," and recognized 
in the glorious chant of the Church the 
most powerful means of bringing the 
faithful nearer to Him, who is the Life 
and Light of the world. 

This is the bright side of the picture. 
But has the reform of Church Music 
really become a fact? Have all who 
are in a position to bring about this 




reform, humbly bowed in a spirit of 
obedience to the wish of the supreme 
authority of the Church? In the cathe- 
drals and large churches of our great 
cities, do we hear the strains of the 
sublime chant of Holy Church, and 
the majestic polyphonic compositions 
of Palestrina and others? Do we meet 
with that ancient institution of Holy 
Church, the boy choir, which Pius X 
so ardently desired revived? Are v/e 
edified and assisted in our devotions by 
the devotional character of the singing? 
Alas no, for it is sad to say that to-day 
many people go to church as they would 
go to the theatre, namely, to be enter- 
tained rather than edified. Most organ- 
ists and choir-masters are loth to give 
up the theatrical and operatic music, 
the mixed choirs, which have been 
the delight of their audiences Sunday 
after Sunday. Pastors deaden their 
consciences to the reform, for they 
argue that the crowds that throng the 
church to hear artistic profane musical 
programmes at the High Mass on Sun- 
day, will cease to come. What chance 
has the Motu Proprio with these odds 
against it? 

Pius X was right in undertaking this 
great work of reform, and it is going 
to become an accomplished fact despite 
all opposition. The people want it, for 
they realize the impropriety of the 
music now heard in our churches. They 
are scandalized and wonder why it is 
that the authorities do not take steps to 
remedy conditions. Our people, deep 
down in their hearts, do not attend 
church to be entertained. They go to 
church to pay supreme homage to their 
God, and they rightly expect that every- 
thing in the church will conduce to that 
end and help them in their devotions. 
What is more distracting than to hear 
worldly, lascivious music? May God 
speed the day when pastors, organists, 
and choir-masters will realize their 
sense of duty to our Catholic people in 
assisting them in their devotions by 
music that is worthv of the house of 
God ! F. J. Kelly 

Catholic University of America 

Thoughts on Mysticism 

Numberles attempts have been made 
to define the terms "Mysticism" and 
"Mystical." Inge gives a varied selec- 
tion in his "Christian Mysticism," Ap- 
pendix A. They range from mere ex- 
pressions of vague pietism to Ribet's 
ultra-narrow "supernatural drawing of 
the soul towards God, resulting in an 
inward illumination and caress, which 
surpass all human effort and are able 
to have over the body an influence 
marvellous and irresistible." Joly's 
phrase, "Mysticism is the love of God," 
is, of course, too wide. We need some 
limitation, some test by which we can 
discriminate between experiences that 
are mystical and such as are not. 

When can a religious experience 
rightly be called mystical? 

Broadly speaking, prayer falls into 
three categories, vocal prayer, medita- 
tion, and contemplation. By common 
consent, vocal prayer and meditation 
are, per se, non-mystical, and the con- 
troversy among Catholic writers is lim- 
ited to this point : To what extent is 
contemplation mystical? Is all prayer 
in which there is no mental discourse 
mystical, or can we have a non-discur- 
sive prayer which is non-mystical, and 
if so, when can we say that a certain 
type of contemplation is mystical? 
That is the question in dispute, and a 
very vexed one. 

To one school, of which Fr. Poulain 
is the chief, there is a form of con- 
templation, called the "prayer of 
simplicity," which is non-mystical but 
a sort of half-way house between 
meditation and mystical contemplation. 
It is an active and acquired contempla- 
tion, to be distinguished from the pas- 
sive and infused kind properly termed 
mystical. The other school, led by the 
Abbe Saudreau and the late Fr. de 
Besse, maintain that this distinction 
was unknown in earlier times, and that 
the so-called active contemplation, if 
it is a true prayer, is rightly termed 

Behind this seemingly trivial frontier 
dispute lie questions of great moment : 
the continuity of the spiritual life ; 
whether the contemplative mystic is the 



May 1 

product of a miracle or a normal 
growth in grace ; the spiritual dangers 
of quietism, etc. 

The absence of discursive move- 
ments of the mind is the key-note of 
all mystical experience. (Of course, 
the term "absence" is here used in a 
relative sense). In meditation, as in 
vocal prayer, the mind works in ordi- 
nary human fashion : we have "dis- 
course of reason." and there is a suc- 
cession of sentiments and affections. 
There is mental movement. It is the 
absence of this movement which gave 
its name to the "prayer of quiet." The 
very name suggests the absence of the 
normal mental work of reasoning and 
successive feelings. We have thus a 
negative psychic characteristic of mys- 
tical prayer. 

We have a positive element in that 
common feature of all prayer, atten- 
tion. But it is attention with a differ- 
ence. In meditation, attention costs an 
effort ; we must force our minds to 
follow the points and not to wander 
off. In the "prayer of quiet" attention 
is effortless, like that of a child engaged 
in the contemplation of some new and 
wonderful thing. In other words, it is 
passive attention. But attention to 
what ? Here we are in full controversy. 
Are we to take the declarations of 
mystics literally or analogically? Pou- 
lain and his school favor literalism ; 
Meynard, Saudreau, and others would 
interpret widely. The question cannot 
be decided on psychological grounds, 
for it is strictly a question of experi- 
ence, and that experience of the most 
subtle character. 

The incapacity of the great mystics 
to expre^ themselves, — an incapacity 
inherent in the character of their ex- 
; erience, which is essentially individual 
and incommunicable, — is the source 
of most of the controversies as to the 
nature of the mystical state. The the- 
ologian, with his clear-CUl definitions, is 
helpless when he comes to deal with 
mystical writings. Unless he has had 
similar experience, his attitude to the 
mystic is apt to be hostile, or, at best, 
apprehensive. If mystical prayer is the 
appanage of sanctity, the corruption of 

mysticism is the mother of all disorder. 

The psychologist, too, is apprehen- 
sive. As Arcelin shows in his mono- 
graph, "La Dissociation Psychologique" 
(Paris 1901), the artificial production 
of states of psychic passivity by hyp- 
nosis or so-called mystical exercises, 
(such as the various species of Yoga), 
tends to a certain break-up of the phe- 
nomenal "personality" with resultant 
psychic accidents, hallucinations, etc. 
The soul is free-wheeling without a 
brake on an unknown slope, so to speak. 

The distinction between the veritable 
"prayer of quiet" and "quietism" is not 
to be found in what we have defined to 
be the negative psychic characteristic 
of mystical prayer. But we may pos- 
sibly find it in the positive psychic ele- 
ment, i. c, passive attention. When 
present in prayer, passive attention 
shows rather clearly the marks by 
which the mind can recognize the 
"given" and distinguish it from the 
"acquired." Now, quietism would seem 
to have passivity without attention, to 
be a rest in self rather than in God. 

It is this consciousness of the "given" 
in religious experience, both mystical 
and general, which has brought about 
the recent attempt in apologetics to 
find in spiritual experience the justifica- 
tion and interpretation of the Christian 
creeds. Miss Evelyn Underhill, in her 
book, "The Mystic Way," has attempt- 
ed a reconstructive interpretation of 
the first beginnings of Christianity by 
a species of retrojection of what we 
find in modern mystics into the person- 
alities of the New Testament. The re- 
sult is fantastic from the point of view 
of science, and offensive to the ordi- 
nary Christian, despite that reverential 
rhetoric which is the Judas-kiss of the 
Modernist. No doubt religions experi- 
ence has a mighty cogency for its re- 
cipient. But its power is limited to the 
recipient. We cannot build an argu- 
ment from our "moods." "God leads 
every soul by a separate path, and you 
will scarcely meet one spirit which 
agrees with another in one-half of the 
way by which it advances," savs St. 
John of the Cross ("The Living 

Flames," p. 98 in Baker's edition, 




1912), who was not alone a great mys- 
tic himself, but the director of one of 
the most remarkable group of mystics 
in the history of Christendom, the early 
Carmelites of the Teresian reform, 
headed bv St. Teresa herself. 

■• »®« • 


The New Archbishop of Santa Fe 

In No. 8 of the F. R. we expressed 
our gratification at seeing a son of St. 
Francis raised to the archiepiscopal see 
of Santa Fe and the Seraphic Order 
thus once more represented in the 
American hierarchy. The Scudbotc 
(XL VI, 4) recalls that there have been 
only two Franciscan bishops of Ameri- 
can dioceses who had their place of 
residence in this country. They were 
Bishop Michael Egan, of Philadelphia 
(f 1814) and Francis Garcia Diego y 
Moreno, the first bishop of California, 
who resided in Santa Barbara and died 
there in 1846. The Capuchin branch of 
the great Order had one representative 
in the American hierarchy in the person 
of Ignatius Persico, who was bishop of 
Savannah from July 1870 to December 
1872, when he resigned and returned 
to Rome. He died after a somewhat 
stormy career, as a cardinal, in 1895. 
There was a romantic, and also a tragic 
element in the careers of all three of 
these prelates. There is still enough 
of romance left in New Mexico to 
make the administration of the new 
Archbishop of Santa Fe, Fr. Albert 
Daeger, O.F.M., romantic; but we hope 
he will be spared the hardships and dis- 
appointments that shortened the life of 
Bishop Garcia Diego y Moreno. We 
are pleased to see from the Scndbote's 
undoubtedly reliable sketch of the new 
Archbishop, who was born of German 
parents at St. Ann's, Ind., in 1872, that 
he has a perfect command of German 
and Spanish as well as of his native 
English. Ad multos annos! 

Mexico and the Mexicans 

Reviewing E. D. Trowbridge's new 
book, "Mexico To-Day and To-Mor- 
row" (Macmillan, $2), the N. Y. Even- 

ing Post in its Book Section (March 
22), makes some remarks about our 
attitude towards the neighboring re- 
public which deserve to be quoted and 

Mexico, says the writer, "is not 
thought in every way a desirable neigh- 
bor. Her people to not speak our lan- 
guage. It is altogether bothersome for 
us to have to learn theirs. Besides, 
they are set in their ways. For this the 
reason is not far to seek. Nationally 
they are much older than we. European 
colonization there was a century ahead 
of the Pilgrims. A hundred years be- 
fore Harvard was founded there was 
a university in Mexico. And printing 
presses were turning out book in 
Mexico City while the red Indian still 
chased deer over the sites of Boston 
and New York. Mexico, indeed, goes 
back even farther. The European colo- 
nizers there did not, as did our fore- 
fathers, settle a wilderness. They con- 
quered and, in a measure, were absorbed 
by a civilization. Agriculture, indus- 
try, social order, military discipline 
had struck deep roots into Mexican 
soil before the Spaniard came. The 
modes of thought, the habits of life, 
the temperament of that far-off clay 
persist yet. Compared with this neigh- 
bor of ours in the mere matter of time, 
our civilization is young and new, a 
bumptious upstart who should mind his 
manners. This, for the most part, we 
refuse to do. It is our youngest and 
'freshest' journalists who 'write up' 
Mexico. They have no consciousness 
of her past, no sense of her traditions, 
no insight into her psychology, usually 
no grasp even of her speech. The re- 
sults of their work recall the remark 
of a reticent Yankee botanist who in 
the eighties and nineties used to roam 
the mountains of Mexico enriching his 
herbarium. Once a year he would 
retire to his home in Vermont to check 
up and classify. In Mexico his contact 
was altogether with the rural peasant 
class. Comparing them with home folk, 
he said one day : 'When I go back home 
and mix with my own people. I am 
positively ashamed of them ; they are 
so impolite !' " 



May 1 

A New Hierarchy 

In an editorial entitled "A New 
Hierarchy." the Missionary, published 
by the Paulist Fathers at Washington, 
D. C, calls attention to the many and 
important changes that have recently 
taken place in the American episcopate. 
"A new hierarchy." says our contem- 
porary, "will face the new problems 
which everyone seems to expect will 
press for solution in the near future." 
The article contains the subjoined, 
rather cryptic paragraph : "The multi- 
tudes are sickening at hypocrisy in high 
places. Whether they be right or wrong, 
thev have, to a larger extent than most 
men know, lost faith in our public offi- 
cials and even in our judges. They feel 
that they have no rights so secure that 
opportunism will not sweep them away. 
They demand that those who shall lead 
them shall ring true whatever be the 
metal of which they may be made. 
Gold is better than silver and silver is 
more valuable than iron, and the hier- 
archy in the nature of things cannot be 
ignored, but the cheapest is better than 
the slag of the furnace even though it 
gets to the top. Whatever the future 
may have in store for us, let us pray 
that leadership in the Church be not 
identified with the slag which men 
everywhere are determined to skim off." 

The Carnegie Foundation 

In the School and Society maga- 
zine of January 4th, the policies 
of the Carnegie Foundation, espe- 
cially its scheme of pensioned pro- 
fessors, meets with severe criticism by 
a number of educators who have writ- 
ten letters in reply to a questionnaire. 
Says one: "The great calamity befalling 
professors in recent years was the giv- 
ing of the Carnegie millions. Would 
that he had kept them." Another: "The 
original Carnegie Pension Foundation 
;i- worked out by the board, is scandal- 
ous and the new scheme appears to me 
ai even worse." Still another: "The 
conduct of the Carnegie Foundation 
has been an insult to the intelligence 
and an affront to the integrity of the 
teaching profession." 


— "The paths of glory lead but to 
the grave," sang the poet. The poet 
was wrong. The paths of glory lead 
also to the breadline and the work- 
house. In St. Louis the police have 
been instructed to arrest all returned 
soldiers found begging on the streets. 

— The cathedral parish of Salt Lake 
City, Utah, has decided to erect a paro- 
chial school. According to the Cincin- 
nati Scndbote (XL VI, 4), this will be 
the first strictly parochial school in 
what is territorially the largest diocese 
of the country, though Salt Lake City 
has several "high schools" and "acad- 
emies," in which, besides Catholics, we 
are told, a number of Mormon children 
are educated. 

— According to La Croix (quoted by 
the London Tablet, No. 4114), the 
Holy Father, at a recent audience, 
placed in the hands of the Cardinal 
Archbishop of Rouen a holographic 
letter containing "an earnest recom- 
mendation to the French clergy to 
adopt the Roman pronunciation of 
Latin." We are not told which system 
of pronunciation His Holiness favors, 
— whether the Old Roman, based on 
strictly scientific principles, or the 
modern Italian, which has the advant- 
age of euphony. In this country the 
Old Roman pronunciation of Latin has 
been adopted almost universally out- 
side of Catholic institutions. 

— The new Bishop of Galveston. 
Msgr. C. E. Byrne, says in a paper con- 
tributed to the Missionary (XXXII, 4) 
that "the supreme need of Texas" is a 
native clergy. "There are no native 
Texan priests, and they are our great- 
est need. . . . The Church must have 
native men and women to do her work, 
or she will .... lose her hold upon the 
people." The Bishop adds that, after 
prayer and study, he has set himself to 
the task of developing vocations to the 
priesthood and the religious life among 
the youth of his diocese and that, if he 
fails to accomplish this object, then, no 
matter what other successes may be at- 
tributed to his administration, he will 
count himself to have failed. 




— The Department of Labor has 
drafted a plan for the establishment of 
a system of Federal Home Loan Banks 
for the purpose of assisting working- 
men to buy their own homes. The next 
Congress will be asked to enact the 
necessary legislation. 

— It is silly to try to banish "Bol- 
shevism" from the country by laws 
forbidding the display of red flags or 
the use of foreign languages. What we 
need to banish is the spirit of discon- 
tent — to a large extent only too well 
founded — with the untoward social and 
political conditions from which the 
poor and the dwindling middle class 
are suffering, and this cannot be done 
without radically improving those con- 
ditions by means of a thorough policy 
of Christian social reform. 

— In their Lenten pastorals for 1919 
several members of the Irish hierarchy 
warned their people against joining 
secret societies. The Archbishop of 
Tuam emphasized the warning in a ser- 
mon at his cathedral. If men wish to 
enter societies, he said, let them attach 
themselves only to such as they can 
join openly and as do their business 
openly and above board. Too many of 
the young men of Ireland (adds the 
Irish Catholic) have had bitter experi- 
ence in the past of what it means to 
get into the grip of oath-bound secret 
societies, and have cause to rue the 
hour when they allowed themselves to 
be made the catpaws of designing 

— Now the Boers are asking for self- 
determination and a restoration of the 
independence which they formerly en- 
joyed. "With Egvpt in open rebellion," 
writes the N. Y.' Nation (No. 2806), 
"India in ferment, Ireland held down 
only by force, Canada ruled by orders 
in council rather than by its parliament, 
and South Africa divided, and with a 
government at Westminster unable to 
do anything save to drift from dav to 
day, the outlook for the [British] 
Empire is certainly disturbing. If Mr. 
Wilson were to follow his recent assur- 
ances to the Filipinos by a positive and 
insistent demand for the independence 

of the Philippines, it might be hard for 
Great Britain to resist much longer the 
demands for self-determination in its 
own dominions." 

— The Catholic press publishes a 
communication from Msgr. Freri, 
American director of the Society for 
the Propagation of the Faith, in which 
he says that Catholics are systematical- 
ly discriminated against in the distribu- 
tion of alms in Syria. The money 
reaching Syria is portioned out to those 
of other religions. "Under one pretext 
or another, it is diverted from the Cath- 
olics and they remain destitute." The 
Society for the Propagation of the 
Faith, 343 Lexington Ave., New York, 
is ready to forward alms intended for 
the suffering Syrians, Armenians, 
Greeks, etc., to the proper authorities, 
and no money for this purpose should 
by Catholics be paid to other agencies. 

— The Indian Sentinel, which is pub- 
lished quarterly by the Bureau of Cath- 
olic Indian Missions, at Washington, 
devoted a recent number to the memory 
of the Ven. Antonio Margil, "Apostle 
of Texas," who is not so well known as 
he deserves to be. Fr. Margil was born 
in Spain, in 1657, and joined the Fran- 
ciscan Order at the age of sixteen. Hear- 
ing of the scarcity of priests in distant 
America, he went first to Guatemala, 
and, in 1716, came to Texas, where 
great trials awaited him. He labored 
valiantly and was greatly beloved by the 
natives. His cause was introduced at 
Rome, and the examinations resulted in 
the declaration, by Gregory XVI ( 1836) 
that Fr. Margil had practised the the- 
ological and cardinal as well as the other 
virtues in a heroic degree. On the 
proof of two miracles he can be beati- 

— In an address on the nature of art 
and the significance of beauty, deliv- 
ered in the Museum of Santa Fe, X. M., 
and printed in Vol. VI, No. 8, of El 
Palacio, Mr. Edgar L. Street rightly 
traces the degradation of modern art 
to "the loss of religious inspiration." 
"Just as this materialistic civilization 
of ours has culminated in a ghastly 
tragedy and stands exposed before us 



May 1 

to-day as founded on a lie," he says, so 
art has become degraded because of 
"the loss of religious inspiration." 
There is danger that our museums 
"may become the repositories of the 
works of the devil." There is but one 
hope of betterment. Our modern art 
must re-appraise the source of its inspi- 
ration and return to the ideals of the 
masters of the past, who wrought reli- 
giously in "the Light which illumines 
the great beyond." 

— Not long ago (Vol. XXVI, No. 5, 
p. 76). in a note on the important social 
services rendered by religious orders, 
we called attention to the fact that the 
sons of St. Francis have brought the 
light of faith and material prosperity 
to the Xavajos of Arizona and New 
Mexico. How true this statement is, 
the reader may see from a paper con- 
tributed by a veteran missionary, Fr. 
Anselm Weber, O.F.M., to the Cincin- 
nati Scndbotc for April. Had it not 
been for the indefatigable labors and 
heroic efforts cf their missionaries, the 
Xavajos would have been robbed of 
most of their land by unscrupulous 
politicians and speculators. Fr. Anselm 
a member of the first band of 
Franciscan missionaries that went 
among the Xavajos from Cincinnati in 
1897 (see Zeph. Engelhardt, O.F.M., 
"Th<- Franciscans in Arizona." p. 209), 
and bis contributions to the Scndbotc 
for years formed one of the most 
valuable features of that excellent 
1 ranciscan magazine. 

-The Mi. Rev. Austin Howling, 
D.D., hitherto bishop of Des Moines. 
la., was installed as Archbishop of St. 
Paul. March 25. We are loll thai he 
has already won the hearts of his priests 
and people by his zeal, charity, and 
gentleness. Archbishop Dowling is a 

bom leafier of men. and ever since he 

our colleague as editor of the Prov- 
idence Visitor lour older readers may 
remember how frequently we quoted 

from that paper during his editorship) 

ave followed hi- career with sym- 
pathy and pride. Lately some papers 
published a li-t of bishops who at one 

time or other were editors. Archbishop 
Howling, we venture to say. i 1 - the only 

one among them who made his mark in 
the editorial chair, and a first-class edi- 
tor, as Father Phelan used to say, is 
apt to make his mark in any other pro- 
fession. Our older bishops are nearly 
all dead, and the younger generation of 
Catholic Americans need a great leader 
in the critical era upon which we are 
entering. We look with confidence to 
St. Paul. 

— Fr. Zephyrin Engelhardt, O.F.M., 
in the Franciscan Herald (VII, 4), re- 
counts the story of Fray Juan de Pa- 
dilla. "the proto-martyr of the Ameri- 
can missions," and also tells of a little 
known investigation made some twenty 
years ago at Isleta, N. Mex. The In- 
dians as well as the Mexicans of that 
neighborhood firmly believed that Fr. 
Padilla's body was buried in the sanc- 
tuary of their church, where every 
seven years it rose to the surface. The 
late Archbishop Chapelle appointed a 
commission of priests and physicians 
to investigate the truth of this story. 
In taking up the floor, which had been 
laid in the sixties, they found that some 
of the spikes used by the carpenters 
had penetrated the lid of a coffin and 
held it securely against the floor. The 
report of this commission has never 
been published, but Fr. Zephyrin says 
there can be no doubt that the Fr. Pa- 
clilla interred in the sanctuary at Isleta 
was not the proto-martyr, but a later 
missionary of the same name. 

— A periodical exclusively for nuns 
is /:/ J ard in Scrafico, of Vich, Spain, 
published under Franciscan auspices. 



Life is an art. the learning lasts lifelong. 
Listen, dear heart, there's music in each song, 
Though it may throb in minor notes that stay 
When life's tomorrows follow its today. 

C'asl thou the dice, not everything pertains 
To this one throw, the rest of life remains, 
New chances wait for failure to atone, 
Man never yet has lived hy bread alone. 

We missed the floodtide? Other tides succeed, 

Life is s (l patient with her children's need, 
have courage, then, to face life manfully 
I'or life itself is opportunity. 

Nellie Hart Woodwor-tb 




Literary Briefs 

— The sumptuous volume just published 
under the title "Glories of the Holy Ghost" 
does honor alike to the author, Father Wm. 
F. Stadelman, of the Congregation of the 
Holy Ghost, and the publisher, the Society 
of the Divine Word, whose members have 
a special devotion to the Third Person of 
the Blessed Trinity. It is difficult to sum- 
marize the varied contents in a brief notice. 
The author begins by a concise statement 
of the dogmatic teaching of the Church on 
the Holy Ghost, explains the doctrine of 
the Gifts and Fruits and of the Beatitudes, 
describes the first Christian Pentecost, re- 
views religious and secular Whitsun cus- 
toms, and gives an account of the history 
of the Holy Cenacle. Chapters X to XVIII 
treat of the various orders, congregations, 
sisterhoods, associations, and confraternities 
that have flourished, and in part still flourish, 
under the patronage of the Holy Ghost. 
There follow chapters on the Holy Ghost 
in Art. the Holy Ghost in Poetry and Music, 
the hymns "Veni Creator" and "Veni Sancte 
Spiritus," a list of churches and institutions 
named in honor of the Third Person (54 of 
them in the U. S. ), a description of the 
peristcria data, a variety of orchid which 
flourishes in Mexico, Central America, and 
the West Indies, and which, as many readers 
will be surprised to learn, is "the Flower of 
the Holy Ghost." In conclusion there are 
some "Miscellaneous and Devotional Para- 
cletana" and a chapter on the Emblems of 
the Holy Ghost, i. c, the dove, water, oil, 
fire, and air. The book is printed in beauti- 
ful large black type and illustrated by 99 
figures, among them a number of full-page 
reproductions of famous master-pieces. It 
is in every way the finest piece of book- 
work the Mission Press of the S. V. D. at 
Techny, 111., has thus far produced. The 
price, $3 net, is moderate, — lower almost 
than the present condition of the book- 
making trade warrants. We hope the sale 
will be correspondingly large. 

— Mr. Jean Frangois Poul'iot has done a 
great service to the clergy of Quebec by pub- 
lishing "Le Droit Paroissial de la Province 
do Quebec." But the canonist, too, rejoices 
over this work because it is a splendid con- 
tribution to the history of parish administra- 
tion in that Catholic province. Mr. Pouliot's 
work is preceded by eighty legal formula- 
ries, compiled by Wilfrid Camirand, C.R., 
for the use of pastors and parishes in their 
dealings with the civil and the ecclesiastical 
authorities. After these 120 pages of for- 
mularies follows Title IX, On Religious 
Worship, containing the Statutes of Quebec 
as recast in 1909. From page 219 on follows 
the subject proper: the law governing 
parishes. Mr. Pouliot's bibliography is ex- 
tensive, and refers mostly to Canadian 
authorities, which is quite natural. Yet when 

speaking of the "Parishes in France" it 
would not have been superfluous to mention 
Thomassin's "Nouvelle et Ancienne Dis- 
cipline," or when touching the "Appellatio 
ab abusu," to refer to Charlas' classical 
"Tractatus de Libertatibus Ecclesiae Galli- 
canae," 1725. Brief but interesting is the 
twelfth chapter on "The Parish in Canada." 
The whole parish administration is patterned 
after French models, and few pastors in the 
U. S. realize the beaurocratic ins and outs 
of a parish in our neighboring country. The 
second part treats of "Persons and Things," 
— the bishop and the cures, the administra- 
tion of the Sacraments, and church prop- 
erty. The latter is extensively cared for by 
trustees, who play a more important role 
in Quebec than in the U. S. It is interesting 
to note the strong beneficiary character at- 
taching to these Canadian parishes. Pew- 
rent is in vogue in Canada and the renting 
is public (p. 527). Appendix A contains a 
section on ecclesiastical immunity and the 
privilegium fori. Reference is made to Pius 
X's "Quantavis" ; in connection therewith 
canons 120 and 2341 of the Xew Code might 
have been quoted, as the Code is quoted in 
other places. The author adheres to the 
view of Msgr. Paquet that the privilegium 
fori is binding in Canada, and the contention 
may easily be admitted in view of the French 
origin of the parishes. What is said con- 
cerning ''witnesses" (p. 589), namely that 
they are free from penalties, I cannot ac- 
cept. For the rest the book is greatly to be 
recommended to canonists and historians. — Augustine, O.S.B., Conception, Mo. 

— We do not hesitate to say that the many 
excellent brochures and pamphlets that have 
been published during the last few years by 
the Catholic Truth Society of London, form 
a complete armory for the defense of Cath- 
olic truth, teaching, practice, and discipline. 
Take whatever subject you will — apologetic, 
historical, liturgical, dogmatic, or moral — 
you will find always a handy booklet in the 
list of publications of this Society to provide 
you with the needed material. Even the war 
did not interfere much with the output. A 
batch of C. T. S. publications has lately 
come to hand which have all been put forth 
during the strenuous days of war. The first 
is "A Christmas Vigil," a story by Mother 
St. Jerome, reprinted from the Catholic Fire- 
side. It is the tale of the "forgiving and for- 
getting" of a grievous wrong, brought about 
by the inspiring message of the holy day. 
"Christ and the Christian" contains an out- 
line of Catholic belief. The work of getting 
school children interested in the Catholic 
missions has been much encouraged of late. 
and it is, indeed, time that we turn our at- 
tention to this held. In "A Talk with Chil- 
dren about Foreign Missions," Miss Maisie 
Ward tells the youngsters what they may do 
to help the good cause, and also describes 
for them the hardships as well as the beau- 
ties of missionary life. Tt is a booklet which 



May 1 

teaching sisters will find useful to arouse the 
missionary spirit. In "Why Catholics Go to 
Confession." Mr. G. Elliot Anstruther ex- 
plains the practice, and considers some of 
the objections to the Sacrament of Penance, 
concluding with the assertion that "going to 
Confession makes for holiness, happiness, 
and healthiness of life." It is just the pam- 
phlet for those who are repelled by the large 
controversial tomes. We wish we could scat- 
ter broadcast thousands of copies of Father 
Joseph Keating's twelve-page leaflet on "The 
True Church." Some readers still "outside" 
might then he led to examine the claims of 
the Catholic Church. The pamphlet con- 
cludes with a pointed paragraph on "The 
Hostility of the "World.' " "Our Common 
Christianity" by the Rev. J. B. McLaughlin, 
O.S.B., is quite in place in these days of 
talk about "reunion." It is a mild reproof 
for those who "understanding," do not join 
the Church of Christ. In "The Faith of To- 
Morrow : Catholic or Pagan," Mr. Leo Ward 
refers to the new opportunity afforded the 
Church in these days of reconstruction to 
unfold anew her marvellous message, and to 
extend her spiritual healing to suffering men. 
The keynote is found in the last sentence : 
"We have yet to prove to the modern world 
that the Catholic Church has a future as well 
as a past; and that, in spite of our sins, we 
do indeed possess the secret of Eternal Life." 

— Father Fredegand Callacey, O. M. Cap., 
well known among scholars by his historical 
publications, one of which was crowned by 
the Academie des Inscriptions, has issued a 
new work, "fitude sur le Pere Charles d'Aren- 
berg, Frere-Mineur Capucin (1593-1669)," 
Paris (Librairie St. Francois, Rue Cassette 4) 
and Rome (Capucino, Via Boncompagni, 71). 
This volume gives a well documented history 
of a Capuchin Friar, Charles of Arenberg, a 
scion of the noble family of the Arenbergs 
which has been, so to say, the personification 
of the Belgian people during the past centu- 
ries.. The humble friar who died 250 years 
ago is still well remembered by the Belgians. 
He suffered for the cause of his country's 
independence. In this regard, Father Frede- 
gand's book proves very timely, presenting 
Belgium suffering under Spanish rule. The 
elder brother of Father Charles, Prince 
Philippe, was imprisoned by the Spaniards in 
1634. and died six years later in prison at 
Madrid. Father Charles was banished from 
Belgium in [637 and nol re admitted until 
fire y Cot!, brothers were accused 

unjustly of having taken pari in a plol agaisnt 

the Spanish government They knew about 

the affair and openly criticized the iron ride 

of the Spaniards, but they were not impli 

in any revolutionary movement, as the 

Junta solemnly declared later on. "If the 

of the country," remark- Mr. rleuvel 

(Preface, \>. x», "were treated so unjustly. 

an well imagine bow little justice the 

rommon people enjoyed." The author, fol 

lowing a rigidly historical method, faithfully 
describes the milieu of his hero, thereby 
broadening his work into a study of the reli- 
gious and domestic life of the Belgians in 
the seventeenth century. ($2 net). 

— The issue of a "Handbook of Manu- 
scripts in the Library of Congress" (Gov- 
ernment Printing Office) is a revelation. The 
contents of this compact volume of more 
than 700 pages are arranged under the names 
of writers, countries, localities, and certain 
selected headings such as "Transcripts," 
"Orientalia," "Miscellany," in alphabetical 
order, and consist of brief running descrip- 
tions, sometimes itemized, sometimes gen- 
eral. Many of the collections have been 
acquired by purchase, others by gift, and a 
few have been received on deposit, the legal 
title remaining with the owner. Occasional- 
ly, as with the Benjamin Harrison and Simon 
Newcomb papers, the collections are not 
open to investigators until their use for pro- 
jected biographies has been terminated. It 
is interesting to notice how large a propor- 
tion of this material has been secured within 
the last few years, and how much more 
varied is the material recently acquired than 
that obtained during the earlier years. The 
older idea that such documents should be 
mainly political, diplomatic, or military, has 
given way before the notion prevailing to- 
day that anything relating to the past is 
grist for the historian. The largest single 
item, and probably the most important, is 
that of "Transcripts from Foreign Archives," 
under which are listed transcribed documents 
from England, France, Spain, Russia, Cuba, 
and Mexico, which in the aggregate cover 
more than two hundred thousand folios, a 
number steadily increasing. 



go to 


408 Washington Avenue 


The Fortnightly Review 

VOL. XXVI, NO. 10 


May 15, 1919 

Lutheran Parochial Schools 

Our readers are probably aware, 
from references in this journal, that 
the only religious denomination besides 
the Catholic Church that makes sys- 
tematic efforts to keep up parochial 
schools in this country is the "Evan- 
gelical-Lutheran Synod of Missouri, 
Ohio, and Other States." The official 
organ of this synod, Der Lnthcraner, 
in its current number (LXXV, 8), 
prints an interesting paper, by Prof. L. 
Fiirbringer, on "Our Schools." 

The author begins by noting an 
alarming decrease in the number of 
these schools in the course of the year 
1918. The decrease amounts to no less 
than 322. Quite naturally he is wor- 
ried over the fact and inquires into 
its probable causes. From the replies 
to a questionnaire recently sent out to 
the ministers of the Synod he gathers 
that about 150 parochial schools were 
closed for reasons having to do with 
the war. This leaves 162 schools closed 
for other reasons. These causes cannot 
accurately be ascertained from available 
statistics. In Prof. Fiirbringer's opinion 
they are presumably the following: 
Untoward local conditions ; lack of 
competent teachers ; a decrease in the 
number of children ; growing indiffer- 
ence of pastors and people ; resignation 
of some teachers and unwillingness of 
the younger clergy to assume the bur- 
den of teaching school themselves, as 
was done by so many of their older 

Referring to the difficulties arising to 
private and parochial schools from the 
tendency to centralize all educational 
agencies in the hands of the State, 
Prof. Fiirbringer says: "But the great- 
est dangers are not from without ; they 
are from within. They lie with and 
in ourselves." Many parishioners are 
growing indifferent to the blessines of 

the parochial school, and the younger 
generation is beginning to shirk the 
sacrifices required, especially since the 
times are hard. 

The Professor concludes his paper 
with an appeal to the pastors and 
parishes of the Synod to work for a 
revival of interest in the parochial 
school system, to raise the schools to 
the highest possible level of efficiency, 
so that they may be able to stand the 
inevitable State inspection, and to pro- 
vide for an increase in the number of 

A special difficulty has arisen to the 
schools of this Synod from the fact 
that it is, or was, a German-speaking 
body and its schools, at least before the 
war, employed the German language as 
medium of instruction. On this point 
Prof. Fiirbringer gives some good ad- 
vice. "In regard to the ever recurring 
language question," he says, "it will be 
well to govern ourselves according to 
local conditions, which differ in differ- 
ent districts and congregations. Where 
English is spoken exclusively or pre- 
dominantly at home, it will naturally 
predominate also in school. For the 
school does not exist for the sake of 
language. But it would be a mistake, 
sure to avenge itself in future, if in- 
struction in the German tongue were 
entirely abolished where local conditions 
or State laws do not compel such a 
course. For if it is certain that the 
school does not exist for the sake of 
language, it is equally certain that our 
parochial schools are dear to many for 
this reason, among others, that they in- 
struct the pupils not only in English, 
which is the language of the country, 
but likewise in German, which is the 
mother tongue of the parents." 

There is a good deal worth ponder- 
ing, even for Catholics, in this paper of 
the Lutheran Professor. 



May 15 


Serene. I fold my hands and wait. 
Nor eare for wind, or tide, or sea; 

i rave no more 'gainst time or fate. 
For to ! my own shall come to me. 

Asleep, awake, by night or day. 

The friends I seek are seeking me ; 
Mo wind can drive my bark astray. 

Nor change the tide of destiny. 

What matter if I stand alone? 

I wait with joy the coming years : 
My heart shall reap where it has sown, 

And garner up its fruits of tears. 

The stars come nightly to the sky ; 

The tidal wave unto the sea ; 
Nor time, nor space, nor deep, nor high, 

Can ke<.p my own away from me. 

John Burroughs 

Apropos of "John Ayscough"? 
We find in the Catholic Columbian 
( Vol. XLIV, Xo. 17) an editorial prais- 
ing the wit and wisdom of Monsignor 
I'.ickerstafre-Drew. the well-known En- 
glish ecclesiastical dignitary who writes 
tinder the pen-name "John Ayscough." 
"One of the charms of this brilliant 
writer." almost warbles the Columbian, 
"is that the reader finds on almost every 
page some pregnant saying or shrewd 
observation that gives food for thought 
for many days." And the Columbian 
rejoices, in the following words, at the 
lecture tour recently begun, in this 
country, of the distinguished English 
novelist and essayist: — 

"The arrival of John Ayscough in this 
country fin a lecture tour would seem to be 
a good time in which to make us all wisli 
to learn something more of his rare and 
enduring work. He is our greatest boast 
since Newman; and no community ot any 
size in the country should miss an oppor- 
tunity of making his acquaintance and of 
ing to his golden words of wit and wis- 

"< >ur greatest boast since Newman." 
i- certainly putting it rather strongly. 
Why be so superlative? Only the other 
day, a Jesuit reviewer said pretty much 
the tame thing about the late Joyce 

Kilmer. Lei US not lose onr sense of 
proportion in onr praise of Catholic 


On tb<- Other band h-t US not lose OUT 

tempers in dispraise of them. This 
same lobn Ayscough, whom the'Colutn- 

bian find- to be onr hesl writer since 

Newman, is no good at all in the eyes 
of another Catholic paper, just as ortho- 
dox as the Columbian. We mean the 
Boston Pilot. The Pilot (Vol. 90, No. 
16), which seems to have lost the gift 
of literary appreciation that distin- 
guished it in its former days, together 
with the knack of saying things in good 
temper, reviews "Jacqueline," John 
Ayscough's recent novel, and finds that 
the mentality of the English gentry (if 
said mentality is correctly drawn by the 
writer), is "the quintessence of insipid- 
ity." "The whole book," continues the 
Pilot, "is made up of conversations so 
completely silly and brainless that we 
will not consent to accept John Ays- 
cough's conception of his own people, 
and this mainly for the reason that we 
are supposed to be Catholics. In the 
whole range of our reading we fail to 
recall any book so crammed from cover 
to cover with nauseating snobbery," — 
and so on. 

And as to the Columbian's desire that 
Americans should seize an opportunity 
to meet the English writer now in the 
midst of us, there will be very little of 
that done by American Catholics if they 
heed an editorial published in the same 
issue of the Pilot, dealing in similarly 
severe language with the foreign clerics 
who for the last few vears have been 
sent here as propagandists in the serv- 
ice of their several governments. The 
Pilot warns its readers against these 
"foreign ecclesiastics with high-sound- 
ing titles." 

"Generally they are or have been Chap- 
lains to the Forces of their own government 
and under government pay. They arc glib 
talkers and know how to ingratiate them- 
selves among those whose opinion they have 
been sent to influence or whose political 
views they obtain for the purpose of report- 
ing to their governmental chief." 

And again : — 

"Is it by the merest chance that the En- 
glish clerics engaged in this very question- 
able business are converts from Anglican- 
i i,i accustomed all their lives to considering 
l lie British government as their ecclesiastical 
authority, and is it purely by chance that the 
audiences they delight chiefly to address are 
Iiish Catholics?" 

All this seems to cover Monsignor 
Bickerstaffe-Drew's case very well; al- 




though the appearance in the same issue 
of the Pilot of the severe review of 
"Jacqueline" and the editorial warning 
against titled convert ecclesiastics en- 
gaged in foreign propaganda here may 
be only a coincidence. The Monsignor 
is a convert ; he has a title, he was a 
chaplain of His Majesty's Forces, and 
there is no doubt as to his being a good, 
though perhaps not a glib .talker. 

Meanwhile John Ayscough's proper 
place among Catholic writers will re- 
main just what it was, regardless of 
the "greatest since Newman" exaggera- 
tion of the Columbian and the pugilistic 
battering of the Pilot. 

Instinct vs. Intelligence in Insects 

From the late J. H. Fabre's "Sou- 
venirs Entomologiques" Messrs. Alex- 
ander Teixeira de Mattos and Bernard 
Miall have translated a volume bearing 
on the problem of instinct vs. intelli- 
gence in insects. The volume is entitled, 
"The Wonders of Instinct : Chapters in 
the Psychology of Insects" (London: 
Fisher Unwin). The main question dis- 
cussed therein is the long debated one : 
Do insects (which we may take as rep- 
resenting the lower animals generally) 
in their actions display intelligence, or 
is all to be ascribed to blind instinct? 
If the latter, then how can it be main- 
tained, as so many modern scientists 
do, that man's reason has been evolved 
from the workings of the nervous 
system in the lower animals? 

Fabre takes the most striking habits 
of insects and observes them with 
minute care ; or he quotes alleged 
proofs of reasoning power and subjects 
the same actions to ingenious experi- 
ment. In all cases he shows that the 
apparent intelligence is nothing but 
instinct, wondrously adapted to the 
normal life of the animal, but blind and 
unreasoning when abnormal conditions 
are introduced. As a simple instance, 
take the case of the Processionary 
Moth. Its little caterpillars, which 
nest on the pine-tops, sally forth at 
night to browse on the pine needles. 
In single file they march, and each as 

he goes spins a silky thread. Arrived 
at their food they disperse to eat it, 
and when satiated each easily recovers 
his own or one of the neighboring 
threads ; thus one by one they line up 
on the common ribbon and return to 
their nest as safely as Theseus guided 
by Ariadne's clue. On these wanderers, 
thus bound to home by a silken tie, 
Fabre played a sad trick. He succeeded 
in getting them to go round the edge 
of a large palm-pot, and brushed away 
all clues leading to the nest. Round 
and round the pot went the procession, 
and it was not till eight days had passed 
that, faint and weary, some at last 
dropped to the ground, leaving threads 
which guided the others down the pot. 
They had marched 453 metres. 

The Burying Beetles have acquired 
a reputation for logic. It does not sur- 
vive the logic of Fabre. One story tells 
how a beetle, finding a dead mouse on 
hard ground, dug a grave in looser soil 
some way off and then fetched four 
other beetles to help him in moving and 
burying the body. Fabre, on the other 
hand, found that it took three beetles 
no less than six hours to shift a mouse 
off a brick on to practicable soil, and 
that, though help was close at hand, 
they summoned no others to their aid. 
Another naturalist relates how some 
beetles, observing a frog impaled out 
of reach on a stick, undermined the 
stick so that it fell, and then buried it 
as well as the body. By a series of 
experiments Fabre proved that if the 
stick did fall it must have been with 
no conscious intention on the part of 
the beetles. These insects are able to 
shake their dead prey down from 
bushes, to cut the creeping stems of 
couch grass, to bite through limbs by 
which the game is suspended, and to 
perform other complicated operations. 
But should the conditions of the prob- 
lem deviate ever so slightly from those 
which the beetles may meet with in 
nature, then thev are beaten — beaten 
from lack not of bodily ability, but of 
reasoning power. 

And so, Fabre concludes over and 
over again, reason cannot have arisen 
from such dullness. 



May 15 

Notes on Secret Societies 

Sons of Veterans, U. S. A. 

Organized by Major A. P. Davis, at 
Pittsburgh, Pa., from cadet corps at- 
tached to posts of the Grand Army of 
the Republic. Essentially military in 
character and ceremonial work. Eligi- 
ble : male descendants, not less than 
eighteen years of age, of deceased or 
honorably discharged soldiers, sailors, 
or marines who served in the Union 
army or navy during the Civil War. Its 
objects {Cycl. Frat, p. 375) have been 
formally endorsed by the G. A. R. 

The Order of Sons of Veterans, U. 
S. A., according to the Cycl. Frat., p. 
375, "is clearly of Grand Army and 
Masonic origin." 

The Sons of Veterans have a supple- 
mentary degree known as Ancient Or- 
der of Gophers (A. O. G.). 

Cycl. of Frat.. 2nd ed.. pp. 374 sq. ; Chris- 
fan Cynosure. Vol. XLVI, No. 1 (May 1913, 

Sublime Order of Goats 

Said to be an organization of mem- 
bers of the National Association of 
Real Estate Exchanges. Information 

Christian Cynosure, Vol. XLVI, No. 7. 

Order of Reindeer 

A society incorporated and chartered 
under the laws of Kentucky "to protect 
our brothers, their widows and or- 
pbans." Information wanted. 

Christian Cynosure, Vol. XLVI, Xo. 7. 

Improved Order IIeptasophs 

An offshoot of the Order of Ilepta- 
SOphs, incorporated under the laws of 
Maryland in Vug. 1878, for the pur- 
of "uniting fraternally all white 
men of sound bodily health, good moral 
character, socially acceptable, engaged 
in an honorable profession, business 
employment or occupation (not hazard- 
ous ). between 18 and 50 years of age." 
The Order claims in a propaganda 
pamphlet, entitled "Facts About the Im- 
proved f >rd'-r rleptasophs," p. 11, that 
ret work" is "simple, plain and 

from objection" and "commends 

to persons of all religious faiths." 

/■'acts About the Improved Order IIepta- 
sophs (propaganda pamphlet), published l)y 
<;• r, a( Baltimore, un«latcl. 

Soxs of Norway 

This order has a threefold purpose: 
(a) to gather Norwegians around their 
ancestral heritage of history and lan- 
guage; (b) to enable them to help one 
another in sickness and need, and (c) 
to furnish opportunities for sociability. 
The organization has no religious fea- 
tures and its last remnant of a ritual 
was struck out some years ago at the 
request of the Rev. H. G. Stub, presi- 
dent of the Norwegian Lutheran Synod. 
There is so little secrecy connected with 
the Sons of Norway that it can hardly 
be said to be a secret society at all. 
There is a female pendant, called 
Daughters of Norway. 

Article by the Rev. B. E. Bergeson, of 
Seattle, Wash., in the Christian Cynosure, 
Vol. XLVII, (1914), No. 2, p. 37- 
Exalted Order of Big Dogs 

An organization of Musicians seem- 
ingly affiliated with the American Fed- 
eration of Musicians. The annual con- 
clave is called "Royal Kennel." The 
members take an "oath of fealty." 

International Musician, official journal of 
the American Federation of Musicians, St. 
Louis, April, 1914, Vol. XIII, No. 10, p. 1. 

Royal Highlanders 

A secret mutual benefit and insurance 
society, of which F. J. Sharpe, Aurora, 
Neb., is chief secretary. Their secret 
work is based on Scottish history and 
is calculated to teach "Prudence, Fidel- 
ity, and Valor." Every person insured 
in this society, whether initiated or not, 
is considered a fraternal member. The 
pledge of "obligation" which every can- 
didate must sign and attach to his ap- 
plication for membership, contains the 
following: "Upon my most sacred honor 
I do solemnly and unreservedly promise 
that I will forever hold a perfect silence 
upon the secrets of the Royal High- 
landers when in the presence of those 
who do not belong to this fraternity, 
and should my membership from any 
cause ever cease, I shall still regard this 
vow binding, as long as life shall last." 

Christian Cynosure, Vol. LI, No. 1 (1918), 
p. 2. 

Order of Ancient and Modern 
This is a secret fraternity devoted to 
promoting amicable relations among the 




republics of the two Americas, foster- 
ing commercial intercourse among them, 
and to the study of ancient cultures of 
the continent. The headquarters of the 
Order are at New Orleans, La. The 
ritual of the five degrees is based upon 
the mysteries of the Maya ceremonies. 

El Palacio, Santa Fe, N. Mex., Vol. V, 
No. 14, p. 237- 


The Oil Question in Mexico 
E. D. Trowbridge ("Mexico To-Day 
and To-Morrow" ; Macmillan) is per- 
haps the first writer, after "Dean" 
Harris, who exhibits some understand- 
ing of Mexican affairs and Mexican 
psychology. Mr. Trowbridge has heard 
the outcry of those of our fellow-citi- 
zens, oil men and mining men, landown- 
ers and stockholders, who for months 
and years have been clamoring for 
intervention in Mexico. He is not im- 
pressed. He sees no need of attempt- 
ing a protectorate, past or present. He 
concedes a measure of right to the 
Mexicans in nearly all the matters of 
controversy. He even dares to take up 
such a question as the "looting of the 
banks" and to give a fair and rational 
statement of the Mexican side. He 
avers, quite correctly, that during the 
disturbances foreigners have suffered 
relatively much less than Mexicans. 

One might wish for a clearer word 
of explanation of the heated oil ques- 
tion. The author seems to overlook the 
really crucial issue in that controversy. 
That is that ever since viceregal days 
in Mexico the principle has been 
enounced and accepted that "treasures 
of the subsoil" belong not to the owner 
of surface rights but to the nation. 
Originally it was to the crown ; now it 
is to the Federal Government. The 
Mexicans view this principle as funda- 
mental, a part of the original constitu- 
tion of the nation. All mines are de- 
veloped not as properties paying taxes 
but as concessions paying royalties. 
Now, in the original enumeration of 
these subsoil treasures, gold, silver, 
mercury, antimony, etc., appeared, but 
petroleum and its products did not — 
for the sufficient reason that that was 
long before the day of coal oil. When 

the oil development began, therefore, it 
was assumed by all that since petroleum 
did not appear in the list of the sub- 
stances especially exempted when sur- 
face rights were purchased, it went 
with the surface, as did deposits of 
stone, clay, and other "subsoil" elements 
not so listed. Certain legislation of the 
Diaz regime adopted this view. Upon 
the framing of the revised Constitution, 
however, the delegates decided that 
under a strict construction of the old 
principle petroleum, being clearly a 
"subsoil treasure," should be classified 
with the others as belonging to the 
nation, and they so enacted. 

The oil men promptly and indignant- 
ly protested. They had gone to great 
expense to build up properties which 
such legislation swept away at a stroke. 
The Mexicans, with true Latin tenacity 
of logic, insist that the old Spanish 
principle is valid, and that the oil men 
should no more make objection to it 
than the miners of gold and silver. The 
oil people — Mexicans as well as for- 
eigners — retort that that would all be 
very well if they had begun on that 
theory, and may work well enough in 
the case of future developments, but 
that it is flat confiscation as applied to 
properties bought in good faith prior 
to the adoption of this Constitution. To 
this there are varied replies. One is 
that, of course, properties cannot even 
nominally be taken without due com- 
pensation, and that the courts may be 
counted on to assess proper damages. 
Others waver a bit, seeming to doubt 
whether or not the ex post facto prin- 
ciple does not make it impossible to ap- 
ply this legislation to properties already 
acquired by purchase and in good faith. 
Up to date no official reply has been 
made to the notes of the American and 
British governments, and the Mexican 
Congress has adjourned without enact- 
ing statutes covering the constitutional 
principle laid down. Meantime the oil 
men have seen fit to pay over to certain 
bandit leaders a good deal of money, 
which has irritated the Mexican gov- 
ernment, and local military representa- 
tives of that government have been 
arbitrary and offensive, which has 



May IB 

irritated the oil men. The Mexican 
Congress has met in special session to 
deal, among other specified matters, 
with the oil question. 

"The Moral Devastation of War" 
A timely article is that printed under 
the above heading in the Dial, New 
York. Vol. XLYI. No. 787. 

The author, who has had experience 
in three different branches of the serv- 
ice comments first on the monotony of 
camp life, which "makes the one great 
aim, the one great ambition of the sol- 
dier in camp to escape the weight of 
an uncontrollable self-subordination 
that destroys all difference and all 

Coming to the moral aspect of his 
subject, the writer says that "there is 
for the soldier only a limited field 
capable of providing sufficient excite- 
ment and interest and opportunity for 
self-forget fulness, and that field is 
chiefly represented by two things — 
gambling and women." 

With regard to gambling he writes: 
"'It is no exaggeration to say that 
practically every soldier gambles. There 
is no other activity that is so popular 
or that seems so satisfactory. Gambling 
has many forms, but the shooting of 
dice ('craps') is the most popular. Of 
all games it is the greatest game of 
chance and luck, and is therefore the 
most universal. ' Crap shooting' for 
money is prohibited in the army, and 
in my camp there has just been issued 
an order increasing the penalty. But 
that is the one rule that no one obeys. 
I? is played everywhere and on all occa- 
sions. I have seen men on the drill field 
given a few minutes rest take the dice 
from their pockets and start a game. 
At night when the lights are out they 
will crouch around a candle shielded 

from observation, and Streched on the 
fWjr. or Straight on their stomachs, 
with bated breath and flushed faces, 
< ither as participants or observers, 

>;»< nd hours in the game. After payday 

it is usual a stay up all night, and many 
a man is broke before morning dawns 

again, to spend the rest of the' month 

in borro w ing 'smokes.' While 'crap* 

playing is the most general of all games 
of chance, it is not the only one. Cards 
in varying forms, with poker holding its 
own as the chief, is certainly next in 
line of favor. After payday many will 
stay up nights and play for high stakes, 
until] practically all of the money is 
held by a few of the card experts in 
the company. To this must be added the 
capacity to turn every situation into a 
game of chance. Men will gamble as to 
who will buy a drink when in the can- 
teen, or as to whether there will be 
chicken for dinner." 

The soldier's other main occupation 
is woman. "Just as gambling is one of 
the serious occupations of the soldier, 
so is the search after woman one of the 
great games he plays. It is the game of 
a huntsman, and like a good hunter he 
displays persistence, energy, avidity, 
and resourcefulness in the chase. And 
generally speaking, this activity in the 
pursuit of woman is not in vain, for by 
and large practically every soldier who 
participates in this activity — and a very 
large majority do — finds his efforts 
rewarded. And in this process he 
reduces all social institutions within his 
reach, from the church to the gambling 
house, to an instrument for his end, 
and does so deliberately. 

"The talk in some quarters to the 
effect that military discipline has made 
a moral saint of the American soldier 
emanates from sources that would 
place a wish above a fact. And the fact 
is that the soldier is very much more 
unmoral than when he entered the army 
— a fact that has few, if any, excep- 
tions. The truth that infectious dis- 
eases are less common in the army than 
they were, or than they are known to 
be in some large cities, is due not so 
much to greater voluntary abstinence, to 
higher morality, or even to the lack of 
opportunity for its spreading, but rather 
to the fact that military efficiency is not 
consistent with prudery, and that the 
army has faced the problem and made 
provisions for its discovery and treat- 
ment on a scale more adequate for the 
situation than in civil life — but most of 
all to the fact that educational pre- 
v< ntive measures are a part of the army 




scheme and method in dealing with this 
problem. In fact the army has done a 
remarkable piece of educational work 
in sex hygiene. An interesting illustra- 
tion of the method of approach is the 
fact that a man is court-martialed for 
not reporting exposure to contagion 
rather than for exposure as such. But 
the interesting thing in the present con- 
nection is the soldier's attitude towards 
woman as that attitude is affected by 
his life in camp and the narrow outlets 
which it forces upon him. ... It is an 
attitude shorn of modesty, morals, 
sentiment, and subjectivity. It is im- 
modest, unmoral, objective, evaluating, 
and experimental. Men will sit till late 
at night in a darkened tent, or lie on 
their cots, their faces covered with the 
pale glow of a tent stove that burns red 
on cold nights, and talk about women — 
but this talk is of the physical rather 
than the emotional, and the types, the 
reaction, the temperaments, the differ- 
ences and the peculiarities of moral 
concepts, the degrees of perversity, the 
physical reactions, the methods of ap- 
proach — in fact, as if it were a problem 
in physics rather than morals. 

"The lack of personal interest, the 
freedom from care, the absence of the 
restraint of family and association, the 
close intimacy with men to the exclu- 
sion of women, accentuates the interest 
of and the craving for woman. This 
craving for the escape from an unnatu- 
ral and dissatisfying condition lacks 
however most of those sentimental and 
affectional aspects which we consider a 
normal consequence to the intimacy 
between man and woman. It is an ex- 
pression of physical hunger desiring 
physical satiation. It is very much akin 
to the craving for food by a hungry 
man, and is talked about and discussed 
in terms applicable to food hunger, food 
acquisition, and food satisfying qual- 

''This predominating unemotional at- 
titude is so characteristic that it per- 
vades the atmosphere. ... In the town 
near my camp the public woman has 
been driven from the street. Some hun- 
dred of them are now in jail. But pros- 
titution has prevailed. The soliciting 

previously carried on openly by the 
women is now in the hands of young 
boys — boys from twelve to sixteen 
years of age." 

The writer's general conclusion, based 
upon personal experience, is that "the 
widely heralded virtues bred by mili- 
tary discipline — and beyond a certain 
readiness of give and take and greater 
sociability I do not know what they 
are — are achieved at a very heavy cost 
in terms of human personality." We 
may add, on the strength of what we 
have heard and read in letters from sol- 
diers and chaplains, that those prob- 
lematic "virtues" are achieved at a very 
heavy cost to morality and danger to 
the soul. 

Freemasonry and the World War 

The Catholic Tribune (triweekly ed., 
No. 372) reprints from the Chicago 
Daily News a dispatch sent to that 
paper from Berlin by Mr. Gordon 
Stiles. Mr. Stiles states, on the author- 
ity of Prof. Theodore Schiemann, of 
the University of Berlin, an intimate 
friend of ex-Emperor William, that the 
latter firmly believes, and has stated 
this belief in writing, that the Free- 
masons of the world brought about the 
war for the purpose of destroying 
the houses of Hapsburg and Hohen- 
zollern. We quote one or two of the 
most remarkable passages from this re- 
markable letter : "The whole affair, he 
[the ex-Emperor] writes, was engi- 
neered by the Grand Lodge of the 
Orient, to which President Wilson be- 
longs Through the machinations 

of the Grand Lodge a pact had been 
made by which America, England and 
France were bound together, and there 
never had been any question about 
America's participation when its serv- 
ices were needed." 

The ex-Emperor's opinion confirms a 
theory that has previously been broach- 
ed in France. There is one thing in it, 
though, that lacks confirmation. Presi- 
dent Wilson is not a Mason. — that is, 
so far as the American public knows. 

We fear the present generation will 
not live to see the causes of the Great 
war definitively cleared up. 



May 15 

Why Does Catholic Training Fail? 

Criticisms, coming both from our 
own ranks and from non-Catholics, 
are with increasing frequency directed 
against the efficacy of character train- 
ing as practiced in Catholic schools. 
It is sad that children brought up in a 
Catholic atmosphere fall as readily into 
vicious habits after they have left 
school, as those who have had no reli- 
gious training. The accusation merits 

It would seem invidious to examine 
the antecedents of young culprits with 
a view of apportioning blame between 
the school and the home. But juvenile 
court officers, as a matter of fact, make 
much of "environment," and generally 
look up home conditions of the delin- 
quent boy and girl and their record at 
school. Dr. William Healy, of Boston, 
who has undertaken one of the most 
exhaustive studies of juvenile wrong- 
doing in bis work. "The Individual 
Delinquent," refers in a large number 
of cases to "bad home conditions" as 
a contributing factor, and often the 
main cause, of the first false step and 
the beginning of a criminal career. 
May it not be worth while to enquire 
into our problem from this point of 
view ? 

There is no intention in this paper 
of shifting the failure of our efforts at 
character training from the school to 
the home. It goes without saying that 
in many cases where a Catholic youth 
goes wrong, that i^. enter- deliberately 
upon a criminal eareer, neither the 
home nor the school is to be blamed. 
The cause may exist entirely in the 
weak will and vicious habits of the 

h dividual. But the unreligious home, 

< atholic only in name, as a factor in 
making for juvenile delinquency . is 
often overlooked by those who are loo 
ready to take a thug at the "poor meth- 
od- of character training prevalent m 
« atholic schools." 

In many Catholic home- the inspir- 
ing and helpful teaching given to the 
children at tchool i- not only not en- 
forced, but ridiculed and held in con- 

; Principles and mode, of action 

are encouraged which are directly op- 
posed to what the child has learnt while 
under the care of Catholic teachers. 
What is the result of this twofold 
standard, presented almost daily to the 
impressionable character of young per- 
sons? They will be apt to follow the 
example, and to adopt the views of 
their elders at home. After all, the 
youth understands quite well that it is 
not the school but the home, where 
father and mother and friends and 
neighbors meet, which really counts. 
In the minds of the young it is the 
home, and not the school, that presents 
a sample of what goes on in the great 
world all around. The child looks upon 
the school merely as an episode, some- 
thing to get through with as soon as 
possible, in order to start "real life." 
The school is sometimes regarded as a 
necessary evil which must be encoun- 
tered before achieving the great privi- 
lege of living at large in the world, 
free from lessons and odious teachers. 

Some examples will show how often 
home teaching and home example run 
counter to the ideals of the Catholic 
school. In the latter the youth learns, 
in the very first grade, the end and pur- 
pose of his existence. His first lesson 
in Catechism informs him that he is 
not created for this world, but "to 
praise, love, and serve God, and to save 
his immortal soul." At home he hears 
an entirely different philosophy of life. 
The gospel of success is the most fre- 
quent theme of conversation. The 
neighbor's son, though he may be a 
scamp, is lauded because "he has made 
good" and earns huge wages. Such 
things the boy must listen to at table, 
in the evening, and at night. Money- 
making seems to be the big thing in the 
mind of his father. The acquaintance 
o f persons with the longest purses is 
sedulously cultivated by the mother. 
The poor are quite often spoken of 
contemptuously. What becomes now of 
"the first lesson in the Catechism"? 

The virtue of self-restraint, or Chris- 
tian mortification, is often mentioned 
in the school-room. The chikl at an 
early age realizes the need of practices 
implied by this virtue. But at home 




everybody takes the line of least resist- 
ance. No one ever makes any effort 
to get up a bit earlier to be present at 
Mass on weekdays. "Get the most out 
of life" seems to be stamped all over 
the home. Material well-being is its 
watchword. The special services dur- 
ing Lent or Advent, presence at which 
might occasion a little discomfort, are 
carefully avoided. "Let the people next 
door go ; they are pious." 

But what becomes in the meantime 
of the child's thoughts on penance and 
his ideals as regards imitation of the 
lives of the saints, who were distin- 
guished for the spirit of mortification? 
These things are scarcely ever men- 
tioned. Of course in such a family 
there will never be question or talk of 
the child's vocation to the service of 
God in the priesthood or the religious 
life. The writer knows of a case where 
a young man, who had a strong desire 
for the religious life, was urged by a 
worldly-minded father to keep up cor- 
respondence with a girl during a tem- 
porary absence from home. Money, 
the world, pleasure, "having a good 
time," society, "taking it easy," — these 
are some of the chief themes that ab- 
sorb attention. 

In the school the pupil beholds ob- 
jects of piety — the crucifix, pictures of 
the saints, statues , etc. Many a so- 
called Catholic home is without any 
exterior mark of its "Catholicity." In 
vain you will look for a pious picture 
or an image of the Cross. Worldliness 
is written all over the walls. You see 
perhaps representations which are more 
becoming in a pagan temple than in a 
dwelling of Christians. There are all 
kinds of ornaments and decorations, 
but there is no room for a picture of 
Christ or His Saints. The child, if he 
thinks at all, must be puzzled by the 
contrast, and may ask himself whether, 
after all. the way of his parents is not 
the best. For they ought to know; 
they have been through life. The 
school, with its reminders of Christ, 
the Blessed Virgin, etc., is soon looked 
• 'own upon as "out of date" by the 
child brought up in this worldly atmo- 

In school the child is warned against 
injuring the reputation of others by 
lying and calumny, exaggerating faults 
or making them known without neces- 
sity. At home the shortcomings of 
the neighbors are rehearsed, and per- 
haps even the pastor, or others in au- 
thority, come in for their share of bit- 
ing criticism. How can we expect the 
young to grow up in reverence for au- 
thority when they see the fine ideals 
set up during school hours ruthlessly 
smashed by their elders at home? 

The importance of exterior worship, 
of giving due honor to God, our Crea- 
tor, by prayer, is emphasized at school. 
But at home the grown-ups neglect 
morning and evening prayers. There 
is no grace said at the beginning of 
meals. Will the young not find it hard 
to reconcile the twofold practice and 
begin to look upon "praying" as use- 

During the attendance at school the 
child usually began his day's work 
with presence at Mass. At home, from 
one end of the year to the other, no one 
thinks of hearing Mass on weekdays. 
There is never any time for being pres- 
ent at the Benediction of the Blessed 
Sacrament on Sunday evenings or at 
Vespers. These hours must be devoted 
to idle talk and to visiting friends. 
Here again, there is a marked contrast 
between what a child learns at school 
and what is practiced at home. 

Membership in the Sodality of the 
Blessed Virgin, interest in Catholic 
missions and charities, are generally 
encouraged at school. These things are 
often studiously avoided at home by 
the elders, who hardly know of the 
existence of Catholic missions in for- 
eign lands, or are not at all interested 
in them. A Yhereas the young are 
taught that it is proper and wholesome 
to make little sacrifices for the benefit 
of the missions, the parents never men- 
tion the subject in the home circle. 

A taste for good reading is fostered 
in the Catholic school, and the pupils 
are told to beware of bad books and 
papers and shun them as poison. Many 
a Catholic family possesses no devo- 
tional work whatever. But the colored 



May IB 

"Sunday Supplement" is spread over 
the table and carefully perused. While 
Catholic magazines are excluded, you 
may occasionally rind pernicious litera- 
ture — even such vile trash as "Snappy 
Stories," etc. Under such circum- 
stances the young mind will find it 
difficult to develop a taste for sound 
reading. At an early age the child will 
be led to be curious about things which, 
according to Saint Paul, should not 
even be mentioned among Christians. 
And this curiosity prematurely and 
viciously aroused, and not legitimately 
satisfied, may prove the first step on 
the path to ruin. 

At school the pupil generally associ- 
ates with those of his own kind. He is 
taught to beware of evil company be- 
cause it "corrupts good manners." But 
the home- folk welcome those not of 
the faith and make most of those Cath- 
olics who are least distinguished for 
their religious spirit. In fact, the grown- 
up sons and daughters frankly prefer 
the society of non-Catholics. Not to 
speak of one extremely evil result of 
this practice — mixed marriages — the 
child is at once lifted out of the Cath- 
olic atmosphere, in which he spends a 
few hours daily at school, to move and 
live and have his being for the greater 
part of the time in a practically non- 
Catholic atmosphere, a place where 
religious indifference holds sway and 
where the Catholic life is at an ex- 
tremely low ebb, if not entirely dead. 

Now in all these ways many Catholic 
homes, instead of co-operating with the 
teachings and principles of the school. 
directly oppose them. The very exist- 
ence of this inconsistency between the 
work of the school and the practice of 
the home is of itself sufficient to cause 

untold harm to the impressionable 

mind of the child — and that precisely 
in the years when he is preparing for 
the j^rim battle of life after the com- 
pletion ol school. 

Lei those, then, who are BO ready to 
criticise our schools, first give the svs- 
tiin of character training therein in 
VOgtSC a fair trial. Let tii.-ni give the 
principle-, taught in the class room an 
opportunity to thrive in the family cir- 

cle, instead of stifling them, ridiculing 
them, and opposing to them the shallow 
maxims of a selfish world, which 
regards everything from the standpoint 
of ''success." There are, of course, 
thousands of homes where the parents 
enforce the teachings imparted to their 
children in the Catholic school. It is 
from these homes that comes the great 
army of youths who are the pride of 
the Church and the hope of the coun- 
try. But their number would be great- 
ly increased were all parents equally 
careful in emphasizing these teachings 
at the fireside. 


The Artistic Sense and Its Religious 

About a year ago (F. R., XXV, 8, 
114) we showed, quoting Dr. James J. 
Walsh's "Catholic Churchmen in Sci- 
ence," Third Series, how moderns may 
learn a lesson from the primitive cave 
men, who tried to make everything they 
handled, even the simplest utensils of 
workadav life, beautiful as well as use- 

Like the cave man, the Pueblo Indian 
of the Southwest, too, had and still has, 
the true spirit of art, which is a precious 
gift of the Creator, who, it has been 
truly said, "never made anything mere- 
ly useful, but always added an element 
of beauty." 

Dr. Edgar L. Hewett, director of the 
Museum of New Mexico, in a recent 
lecture on the primitive crafts of the 
Pueblo Indian, points out how the 
Pueblo impressed even the household 
objects in ordinary use with his racial 
artistry and religious symbolism, and 
expressed his innate sense of beauty 
and his philosophy in them. For con- 
trast, says El Palacio (Vol. V, No. 22), 
to which we are indebted for a brief 
synopsis of the lecture, Dr. Hewlett 
placed before his hearers a row of 
utensils in ordinary use in American 
households. An ugly tin bucket was 
put in juxtaposition with a tinaja from 
San [ldefonso. The tinaja was beauti- 
ful in form, color, and design. The 
religious concepts of the Pueblo were 
symbolized in the graceful decorations 
and combined with an originality that 




proclaimed that the Pueblo intuitively 
and instinctively observed the highest 
law of design — appropriateness and 
beauty wedded to utility and simplicity. 
Over against an ugly-shaped glass bottle 
was placed a fine olla, such as are to be 
found in every Pueblo home. The con- 
trast was striking. A drab-colored agate 
dish was contrasted with a superbly 
decorated meal bowl, such as can be 
picked up anywhere in Indian pueblos. 
"It was," comments our contemporary, 
"a pitiful and illumining comment on 
the lack of art sense, or, rather, on the 
toleration of the ugly, in the average 
American household." 

Perhaps we moderns are losing the 
artistic sense because we have lost its 
indispensable prerequisite — the spiritual 
or religious sense. 



A Mistaken Policy 

A contributor to the Month (No. 658) 
recalls a visit, made presumably before 
the war, to Treves, where he witnessed 
an exhibition of the famous "Holy 
Coat." He says that he afterwards 
called on the late Msgr. Schneider, the 
distinguished antiquary and publicist of 
Mayence. There, he says, "I learned 
that since the previous exhibition of the 
relic, a number of seamless garments 
of this description had been unearthed 
from the early Christian Coptic tombs 
of Upper Egypt. In view of this fact, 
it had been his [the Monsignor's] wish 
— and no doubt that of other archaeo- 
logists — that a special expert examina- 
tion should be held on the present occa- 
sion, in the corroborative evidence of 
which he felt every confidence. The 
proposal, however, was not adopted, 
the examination being held in the usual 
form and the customary declaration 

Similar complaints have been made, 
at different times, with regard to the 
cures reported to be wrought at Lour- 
des, the alleged liquefaction of the blood 
of St. Januarius at Naples, and other 
extraordinary phenomena : it has been 
the contention of Rev. Dr. Funk, Prof. 

Isenkrahe, Msgr. Schneider, and many 
others, ecclesiastics as well as laymen, 
that the authorities, ecclesiastical and 
civil, at the various places have shown 
themselves unwilling to permit thorough 
scientific investigations to be made. As 
long as this excessive reserve continues, 
there will be many critically minded 
persons, including a number of per- 
fectly loyal Catholics, who will refuse 
to believe in the supernatural and mi- 
raculous character of the phenomena in 

The Doughboy's Ditty 

According to Reedy's Mirror (Vol. 
XXVIII, No. 15) the favorite song of 
the American army of occupation in 
Germany is the following ditty, "com- 
posed by a soldier and sung by all of 
them" : 
Air — "Silver Threads Among the Gold" 
Darling, I am coming back, — 
Silver threads among the black, — 
Now that Peace in Europe nears, 
I'll be home in seven years. 
I'll drop in on you some night, 
With my whiskers long and white — 
Yes, the war is over, dear. 
And we're going home, 1 hear ! 
Home again with you once more, 
Say — by Xineteen-Twenty-four. 
Once I thought by now I'd be 
Sailing back across the sea; 
Back to where you sit and pine, 
But we're stuck here on the Rhine. 
You can hear the gang all curse — 
"War is hell, but peace is worse!" 

When the next war comes around, 
In the front ranks we'll be found, 
We'll rush in again, pell-mell — 
Yes we will !— like hell !— like hell ! 

Land and the Right to Work 

Mr. C. Meurer sends us a reply to 
Dean Hackner's criticism ( No. 8, p. 
123). YYe extract the following pas- 
sages : 

"It does not follow that I can sell a 
thing because it is mine. My children 
are mine, even more so than the land 
I owe, yet I am not allowed to sell 
them. God created the earth as a 
school for men, wherein they are to be 
trained for eternal life. The school 
and all that belongs to it are His prop- 
erty. The scholars merely have the 
right of use. The schooling is in the 
form of labor. Labor, bv the natural 



May 15 

law. is attached to the soil. Its require- 
ments are the land itself or the raw 
materials which it furnishes. Every 
man born into the world has the right 
to labor, to make a living and the duty 
to work in order to reach his eternal 
goal. If a scholar would take possession 
of school property which he did not 
need, he would hinder his fellow stu- 
dents and. besides, usurp the place of 
the owner. A man who buys a piece of 
land which he does not need for his 
labor, buys with it the right to work 
of a fellow-man. as all labor is bound 
to the soil. Because this can be legally 
done to-day, we have a proletariat and 
even some Catholic philosophers deny 
the self-evident proposition that every 
nian has the right to work. Among the 
ancient pagans this led to slavery, which 
was in some respects preferable to the 
condition of the modern proletariat. If 
it is a natural right to sell and buy land 
with the right to work attached to it, 
then it is also a natural rirdit to buy 
and sell human beings, because with 
the land and the right to work attached 
to tin- same, the existence of our fellow- 
man is inextricably bound up. The land 
sales chronicled in the .Acts merely 
show that at the time of Christ the 
Mosaic law regarding land had been 
replaced by pagan laws. The Apostles 
neither approved nor condemned these 
laws, but combatted their causes: the 
pride and avarice of men. These vices 
are flourishing once more to-day and 
have brought us the 'social question,' 
which is impossible of solution unless 
\ » return to the fundamental verities." 

In Memory of Father John T. Durward 
We devoted a brief obituary notice 
in our Vol. XXV, No. 20, to 'the late 
Father John T. Durward, poet and lit- 
terateur, from whose pen it had been 
cur privilege to publish a number of 
valuable article-. From the .S'tilcsiainim 
' Vol. XIV, Xo. 1 ) we have since ^ath- 
Pied a few additional data concerning 
the deceased priest's life and work. 

fohn T. Durward was horn in Mil- 
waukee. March 7. 1847. His father, the 
gifted painter and pod Bernard!. Dur- 
■ ard ' -<r "A Forgotten Catholic Poet," 

Vol. XXIV, No. 17 of this Review) 
and his mother, Teresa, were both con- 
verts. The former was among the first 
professors of St. Francis Seminary near 
Milwaukee. John T. entered this insti- 
tution in 1868 and was ordained to the 
priesthood in December, 1871. He said 
his first Mass at Alloa, near Portage, 
AYis., where the family lived at a ro- 
mantic place called Durward's Glen. 
Here amid the pine-clad rocks, the 
father found leisure and inspiration for 
his poetic nature. He had built a small 
stone chapel on a rocky eminence above 
a deep ravine, where his son celebrated 
his first Mass on Christmas Day, 1871. 

Father Durward's first charge was as 
pastor of Tomah. After fifteen years 
he was transferred to Seneca. In 1887 
he was sent to Baraboo, where he re- 
mained in charge until he retired in 

During his busy life Father Durward 
managed to write a number of books, 
among them "A Primer for Converts," 
"Sonnets of the Holy Land," "Build- 
ing of a Church," "Casket of Joys," 
"Holy Writ and Floly Land," and "The 
Life and Poems of B. I. Durward" 
( which we reviewed at some length in 
our Vol. XXIV, No. 17). ' 

"Father Durward," says the writer 
in the Salesianum, "loved the hills and 
woods, often journeying to Durward's 
Glen, the old home. This property, long 
the residence of the family [see his in- 
troduction to "The Life and Poems of 
P>. I. Durward"] came into his posses- 
sion a number of years ago, and he has 
guarded the place with tender care. In 
the little cemetery in the woods sleep 
his father and mother as well as his 
brother Charles. In the cottage and 
adjoining building may be seen a num- 
ber of pictures painted by his father 
and other members of the family. For 
those who seek a quiet day of rest, the 
glen is a favorite retreat." 

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was that it was safe from horrowers. — 





— The latest edition of the Encyclo- 
paedia Britannic a has an admirable ar- 
ticle on the life and work of Galileo, by 
that accomplished scientist and author, 
the late Miss Agnes Gierke. It tells the 
whole story of Galileo's career clearly 
and impartially, and gives a careful 
estimate of the exact value of his con- 
tributions to human knowledge. The 
article is most valuable to the cause of 
truth and the Church. 

— We see from the Franciscan Her- 
ald (VII, 5) that a Capuchin friar, Fr. 
Linus Bianchi, has invented an inge- 
nious apparatus for preventing railroad 
disasters. It is so constructed as to 
indicate automatically whether there is 
an obstruction on the track, by signal- 
ing in due time to the nearest station 
and to the train crew. After many ex- 
periments the invention received the 
unanimous approval of expert mechan- 
ics and was adopted by the Italian gov- 

— From an advertisement in the 
Catholic Citizen we notice that "Pastor 
Koenig has become "Father Koenig" 
for the purpose of introducing "Nerv- 
ine" to the Catholic public. This meta- 
morphosis doesn't bother those of us 
who are not directly concerned, but it 
is a sort of unfair competition, which 
cannot but be resented by the makers 
of a medicine invented (as is supposed) 
by a real Catholic priest ; — we mean 
"Father John's Medicine." There's the 
true orthodox stuff for you ! But 
Koenig, if we are not mistaken, was a 
Protestant minister, and this attempt 
to turn him into a Catholic priest should 
be called to the attention of the Father 
John people. 

— "Although the war was not waged 
for the benefit of the capitalist class," 
says the London Month (No. 658, p. 
305), "it has de facto hugely enriched 
that class, and the soldier damaged in 
health or fortune because of it, finds 
himself on his return taxed directly or 
indirectly to provide service for the 
loans which his valor has enabled the 
Stay-at-homes to entrust to the State. 
How the State is to prevent this unfair 

incidence of a common burden, let 
statesmen decide, and incidentally re- 
move one of the causes of war. But 
there will be no peace at home till this 
wrong is righted, and if it is not done 
by legal and constitutional means, 
there is grave danger lest it be done, or 
attempted, by violence." 

— The Savings Bank Section of the 
American Bankers' Association, in a 
circular letter, reports that more than 
1,300,000 foreign-born residents of this 
country have either gone, or are pre- 
paring to go, back home, presumably in 
answer to the call of the Bolsheviki. 
The Savings Bank Section considers 
the situation "alarming." Why? Because 
these people are drawing their money 
from the banks, selling their Liberty 
bonds and their houses, and preparing 
to take with them four-fifths (?) of 
the total currency in circulation and in 
reserve in the U. S. before the war. 
"This is certainly serious," says the 
statement of the Savings Bank Section. 
But what ought a good patriot to do 
about it? 

— The question, "To dance or not to 
dance?" which was discussed by a 
"puzzled" layman in No. 7 of the F. R., 
will probably be asked many times more 
before it is definitively settled. But 
there is one class of Catholics for whom 
it was settled long ago. We refer to 
the members of the Third Order of St. 
Francis. "A Franciscan Friar" writes 
in the course of a series of instructive 
"Letters to a Tertiary" in the Francis- 
can Herald (VII, 5, 180) : "To dance 
or not to dance, that is the question. 
Happily, the Rule answers it negatively 
for Tertiaries. For, though dancing 
may sometimes be an innocent pastime, 
it is certainly not the very best kind of 
pastime from any sane point of view ; 
and if abstaining from dancing would 
but add a few more evenings to the all 
too few hours spent at home 'in the 
bosom of the family,' that alone were 
reason enough for giving it up alto- 

— The Little Missionary in its May 
issue prints a letter of which it may well 
be proud. It is from Pope Benedict 



May 15 

XV. and in it the Holy Father assures 
the editor, Fr. Bruno Hagspiel, S.V.D., 
that he "has noted with great pleasure 
his admirable fervor and zeal in inspir- 
ing Catholic boys and girls of tender 
age with love for the missions and the 
propagation of the name of Jesus," and 
expresses the "wish that the Little Mis- 
sionary may readily rind entrance into 
every Catholic home of the United 
States" and that it "may become the 
daily companion of the children." The 
letter concludes with the Apostolic 
benediction for Fr. Bruno and all the 
promoters, subscribers, benefactors, and 
friends of his magazine, which, as our 
readers have no doubt noticed, has been 
advertised in this Review for some 
time past. We should like to see every 
subscriber of the F. R. join the promo- 
ters of the Little Missionary, and 
through its agency aid the cause of the 
foreign missions. 

— Prof. Irving Fisher, of Yale, in a 
plea for the limitation of inheritances, 
says that of the 150 or more fortunes 
yielding incomes of one million a year, 
over four-fifths have been accumulat- 
ing for two generations or more. Those 
interested in the Catholic aspect of the 
question of limiting the undue accumu- 
lation of wealth will find it illuminat- 
ingly discussed by Dr. John A. Ryan in 
his book, "Distributive Justice." 

— One very effective way of stopping 
the leakage in the Church is to provide 
thorough religious instruction for young 
and old. The Fathers of the Pittsburgh 
Apostolate have founded a lay Confra- 
ternity of Christian Doctrine which is 
devoting all it > energies to this task. We 
see from the Missionary (XXXII, 4) 
that this Confraternity works mainly in 
small towns and rural districts, where 
Catholics are few and live far away 
from church and priest. Eleven centres 
have thttS far been organized ill various 
p.'irt> of the diocese. Lay teachers and 
"fishers" give catechetical instruction 

i'l the besl places available, often in the 
'.pen air. They not only instruct chil- 
dren, but try to bring back grown per- 
-on- who have fallen away. In 1 f > 1 H. 
4X7 teachers and "fishers" taught 13,062 
persons at a total expense of less than 

70 cts. a pupil per annum. There is 
hardly a section of the country that 
would not afford a rich and plentiful 
harvest to a lay apostolate like this. 

— Consistency, to judge from an arti- 
cle on "Defects in American Education 
Revealed by the War" (School and 
Society, January 4) does not seem to 
be be a virtue of ex-president Eliot. 
He has heretofore given much time to 
the question of international peace, but 
in this article he emphasizes the need 
of remodeling and strengthening our 
educational system to protect the coun- 
try "if war came again." He wants the 
curriculum immensely enriched. Here 
are some of the subjects that must be 
introduced : instruction in the sciences 
of observation, in the arts and crafts, 
and in the elements of music, drawing, 
modeling and architecture ; hygiene, 
physical culture, scientific gardening, 
dramatics, government, economics, soci- 
ology, the elements of history, biog- 
raphy, geography, travel, etc. All these 
are to be taught by extra liberal allow- 
ances from Federal and State funds. 
The "religion which ought to be taught 
hereafter in all American schools" is 
"to love truth, freedom, and righteous- 
ness." Dogma and creed are out of 
piace, and very likely, in Mr. Eliot's 
mind, government support ought to be 
given to do away with these impedi- 
menta from a dusty past. 

— Mr. Walter F. McEntire is contrib- 
uting to the Christian Family a series 
of papers on the California Missions. 
In the fourth chapter (April number, 
p. Ill) we are glad to find the follow- 
ing paragraph referring to an old and 
valued friend of ours: "Fr. Zephyrin 
luigelhardt, O.F.M., the historian of 
the Franciscan Order in the West, just- 
ly esteemed and honored among men of 
learning, whose great books on 'The 
Missions and Missionaries of Califor- 
nia' are the standard authority on the 
subject, resides at Old Mission, Santa 
Barbara. Even at this day, in the twi- 
light of life, with impaired eye-sight 
and poor health, the result of years of 
hard work in uncovering the truths of 
history, the venerable Franciscan pur- 
sues his chosen work, still bringing to 




light things hidden for years in the 
recesses of the ages." We are pleased 
to learn from a private source that 
Father Zephyrin has heen given an as- 
sistant in the person of Father Francis 
Borgia, a young con f rater, who has 
earned his spurs on the Franciscan 
Herald, and that the two intend to issue 
a compendium in one volume of "1 he 
Missions and Missionaries of Califor- 
nia." May he be spared for many years 
to continue his self-sacrificing and in- 
valuable labors. 

— A sensational paragraph has gone 
the round of the press to the effect 
that at a meeting of Catholic priests 
recently held in Naples a resolution in 
favor of the abolition of clerical celi- 
bacy was passed. From the Giomalc 
d' It alia we learn that the meeting in 
question was convened for the purpose 
of considering the economic condition 
of the clergy in Italy. The question of 
celibacy was not even mentioned. 
"When we consider the slender stipends 
on which the priests of Italy manage 
to live," facetiously comments the Tab- 
let (No. 4117), "it was at least ante- 
cedently improbable that anyone should 
propose to add to their difficulties • in 
the way suggested." 

Literary Briefs 

— We are indebted to the reverend editor 
of the Western Watchman (Sunday ed., Vol. 
XXXI, No. 23) for the subjoined kindly no- 
tice of the Pohle-Preuss Series of Dogmatic 
Text-Books, published by the B. Herder Book 
Co., of this city: "In the hope of promoting 
a deeper appreciation of Catholic doctrine 
and a taste for solid reading, we have no 
reluctance in urging intelligent Catholics to 
get acquainted with the splendid volumes of 
the [Rt.l Rev. Dr. Pohle on the doctrinal 
side of Catholicity. The work, skilfully ren- 
dered into English by Mr. Arthur Preuss, 
covers the entire ground of Dogmatic The- 
°'Ogy, is sound in doctrine, scientific in 
presentation, and in touch with the needs of 
today. It was our intention long since to 
bring these excellent books to the notice of 
our readers, but the mention of them now 
will perhaps accomplish a greater good. If 
the spare time of our people were partially 

devoted to reading such as this real, 

tangible profit would result, and the tone of 
Catholicity would be noticeably improved." 

—Father F. S. Betten, S.J.. writes to us 
in reply to the notice of his "Partial Bibli- 
ography of Church History" in No. H of the 
F. R., p. 126: "The reviewer says: 'The com- 
piler excluded the important held of historical 
sources as well as individual biographies,' 
etc. Although this is almost literally taken 
from my Preface, it here implies that I made 
a serious mistake, and that consequently the 
catalogue should not have been published in 
this shape. The next sentence of the Preface 
gives an entirely different aspect to this state- 
ment: 'These branches are wide enough to 
receive a separate treatment.' The reviewer 
complains that there is a long note to Fr. 
Casey's 'Notes on the History of Auricular 
Confession', — he calls this an insignificant 
pamphlet — while the important work of 
Rauschen is without a note. Now the reviewer 
knows as well as I that many a pamphlet, 
any number of the Fortnightly Review, for 
instance, is as important as a bulky book, and 
in my opinion Casey's reply to H. C. Lea be- 
longs in this class. As far as I have been able 
to ascertain, it is the only weapon we have 
against that formidable foe |.Fr. Betten for- 
gets Baumgarten's book. — Ed.] and an effect- 
ive weapon it is. To bring out this character 
more was necessary than simply to give title 
and price. I dare say that my note will put 
many a young student on his guard against 
this and similar adversaries. Rauschen's book 
is sufficiently characterized by its expressive 
title. An additional note, of course, would 
not have been amiss, but in a compilation like 
this many things must be omitted which in 
themselves seem desirable. It might have 
been well to declare in the Preface, that the 
absence of a note must not be taken as a 
verdict of inferiority concerning the book in 
question. But reviewers one should think 
ought to be able to see that without any such 
hint. The reviewer's concluding sentence, that 
the list marks a good beginning, 'and we hope 
it will be revised and completed for the ben- 
efit both of the Catholic reading public and 
of outsiders,' is scant praise indeed, because 
it implies that unless revised and completed 
it will not benefit either. In the opinion of 
competent judges, who have gone over the 
manuscript carefully and critically, this is 
not the case. I wish to call attention to an- 
other sentence of my Preface, to which the 
reviewer has evidently attached little import- 
ance: 'It is hoped that otliers, too, will put 
their shoulder to the wheel and contribute 
their share, so that in the course, of time we 
may possess a somewhat complete catalogue 
of our English Catholic publications on 
Church History.' I doubt very much whether 
anyone who has read the notice in the 
REVIEW will feel strongly inclined to 'put his 
shoulder to the wheel' and help along. Work- 
like this requires much tedious labor, much 
examining of publishers' catalogues and 
periodical files, much copying, arranging, and 
rearranging, much extracting and summariz- 
ing, boiling down and writing up. reviewing, 



May 15 

corresponding, revising, verifying, recopying, 
etc.. etc And it at the end of all there looms 
Dp the view of an "appreciation" like tins — 
good night ! The few tangible items which 
are mentioned in the notice will he gratefully 
utilized, provided the whole enterprise is not 
killed by this and similar public utterances 
hi lore it is beyond the stage of a 'good be- 
ginning.' " 

— The Social Reconstruction Programme 
of the Administrative Committee of the Na- 
tional Catholic War Council (Archbishop 
Eiayes and Bishops Muldoon, Schrembs, and 
Russell ) has been issued in pamphlet form 
by the Council, at 930 Fourteenth Str., N.W., 
Washington. I). C. As the cover is inscribed, 
"Reconstruction Pamphlets. No. 1," we pre- 
sume there is more of this kind of matter 
coming. — which is encouraging, for this pro- 
nouncement of the bishops is a solid and 
helpful document deserving of the widest 
possible circulation. Our Catholic societies 
ought to study it and make its topics the sub- 
ject of frequent debate in their meetings. 

— The Catholic Historical Review for April 
1 Catholic University of America, $3.50 per 
annum) contains some exceptionally valuable 
documents, to wit, first, "Father Escobar's 
Relation of the Onate Expedition," translated 
and edited with notes by Prof. H. E. Bolton ; 
secondly, a portion of the Pedro Fages MS. 
01, California, translated, with an introduc- 
tion, by H. I. Priestley, Ph.D.; third, the 
"Interrogatorio y Respuestas of Fr. Jose 
Sefian," a summary of the best ethnographic 
information available about the Indians of 
Upper California about the year 1815. edited 
by Fr. Zephyrin Engelhardt. O.F.M. The 
editor, Rev. Peter Guilday, Ph.D., contributes, 
besides the usual number of interesting 
Notes, the first instalment of what promises 
to be a valuable "Guide to the Biographical 
Sources of the American Hierarchy," digest- 
ed in alphabetical order. The first instalment 
runs to the end of the letter B and contains 
references for the lives of deceased bishops 
only. Every new issue of the Catholic Hu- 
ll Review is a delight to the scholar, and 
we renew our oft repeated recommendation 
of this excellent and promising magazine. 

— Thwaitts, in his "France in America," 
1. 47. briefly notes a Canadian expedition 
under Chevalier de Troyes, which went to 
Hudson Bay from Quebec, in rfjfls, at a time 
when there was serious rivalry between the 
French and English, and captured Moose 
ry and Foil .Albany. Troyes' diary lias 

• been published by the Abbe* Ivanhoe 
Caron ("Journal de. rExpedition du Chevalii 1 
de Troyes 1 la Ban d*Hudson en 16x0"). In 
the light of this record Thwaites* account 

and that of most other writers will have to 
•Miewhat modified. The English, in thai 
d of armed contests, had taken po 

Mon of the French post* on Hudson Bay, 

which belonged u , t|„. CompagntC du .Void, 

rporation with headquarters at 

Quebec. The company decided to retake them 
and equipped an expedition of thirty regular 
soldiers and seventy bush-rangers, who start- 
ed in canoes from Montreal, towards the end 
of March, 1686, and descended to Hudson 
Bay by way of the Ottawa River and James 
Bay. It was a dangerous enterprise, and 
therefore the expedition was accompanied by 
a chaplain, Father Silvy, of the Society of 
Jesus. The posts were recaptured with the 
sole exception of Fort Nelson. De Troyes' 
"Journal," which Fr. Caron has edited with 
numerous explanatory notes and an account 
of the hitherto obscure Compagnie du Nord, 
contains the daily record of the dangerous 
if romantic journey and constitutes an im- 
portant contribution to the sources of Cana- 
dian history. 


Beoks Received 

Spiritism and Religion. Including a Study of the 
Most Remarkable Cases of Spirit Control. By 
Baron Johan Liljencrants. With Foreword by 
Maurice Francis Egan. 296 pp. large 8vo. New 
York: The Devin- Adair Co. $3 net. 

L'Avenir Francois. Taclicx NouvcUcs. Par Henry 
Joly de l'Acadcmie des Sciences Morales et Poli- 
tiques. 239 pp. 16mo. Paris: Bloud & Gay. 1917. 
3 fr. 50. (Wrapper). 

Les Catholiques Francois ct VAprcs-Gucrrc. Far 
1'Abbe Beaupin. 159 pp. 16mo. Paris: Bloud & 
Gay. 1918. (Wrapper). 

De Censuris iuxta Codiccm Iuris Canonici. Auctore 
Felice M. Cappello, S..T. 207 pp. 8vo. Turin: Pj 
Marietti. 5 fr. 50. (Wrapper). 

Compendium Thcologiae Moralis iuxta Novum 
Codiccm Iuris Canonici. Auctore Jos. M. ex 
F.reto, Cap. xii & 231 pp. 8vo. Turin: P. Mari- 
etti. 5 fr. 50. (Wrapper). 

Conslitulioncs Seminariorum Clcrica'.ium ex Codice 
I'iano-Bencdictino Omnium Gentium Sacris J n- 
stitutis Accommodatac. Auctore A. M. Michel etti, 
Sac. xii & 245 pp. small 4to. Turin: P. Marietti. 
12 fr. (Wrapper). 



go to 


408 Washington Avenue 


< ! 

The Fortnightly Review 

VOL. XXVI, NO. 11 


June 1, 1919 

Prussianism in Our Army 

On Jan. 3rd the American Bar As- 
sociation adopted a resolution strongly 
condemning the entire judiciary process 
of the army as "unworthy of law and 

A bill known as Senate Bill No. S. 
5320 was introduced by Senator Cham- 
berlain on Jan. 13th, asking for the re- 
vision of the war acts relating to the 
administration of military justice. 

As the result of disclosures and in- 
sistent demands by friends of the con- 
scientious objectors confined in the 
Camp Funston Guard House, two offi- 
cers were dismissed from the service 
for brutal treatment of prisoners. 

The N. Y. World, on Jan. 19th, re- 
lated the story of several men ordered 
to be shot in France, the sentence being 
mainly based on induced confessions of 
the men themselves. The charge was 
sleeping while on sentinel post, and the 
record disclosed such irregularities that 
the sentences were rescinded by the 
Secretary of War and the men liber- 

"Both in the army and navy," says a 
miltary contributor of the Dial (No. 
789), "men were entrusted with the 
administration of military justice and 
penalization, with little regard for their 
mental equipment or qualifications for 
these important positions. Officious- 
ness, stupidity, brutality, prevailed side 
by side with the apparent humaneness 
and fairness of the Secretary of War 
and his immediate associates. Outside 
the army, men who were loudest in their 
denunciation of the Prussian theorv of 
'military necessity' excused these irreg- 
ularities because — maxim of benighted 
medieval pirates — inter anna lex silct. 
Of specific instances of injustice there 

is hardly an end. No account seems to 
have been taken by the officers of the 
fact that the drafted men were sons of 
freemen unaccustomd to the iron-clad 
arbitrary discipline of the life into 
which they were suddenly cast. The 
conscripts, taken from their families, 
were expected to imbibe the spirit of 
unquestioning obedience over night. 
The offenses for which severe punish- 
ments were administered were entirely 
out of proportion t6 the penalties. It 
cannot be said that the system was 'for 
the good of the service.' The experi- 
ence of France and England proves 
the contrary. The punishment hi the 
American cantonments was administerr 
ed with Puritan solemnity, and the 
severity disclosed the inexperience of 
the amateur penologists. The officers 
were evidently impressed with the fact 
that they were a principio soldiers arid 
incidentally human beings. ... A plau- 
sible explanation may well be that there 
is a Freudian reason for the severity 
which officers of court-martials exer- 
cised on men claiming to be conscien- 
tious objectors. Men who voted for 
and elected a President because he had 
'kept them out of war' were required 
to become staunchest martinets almost 
within a fortnight. But most of the 
severity was due to inexperience. ' Art 
artist doing police kitchen work 'bossed' 
by a non-commissioned bootblack and' 
court-martialed by a furniture sales- 
man, drug clerk, small-town newspaper 
man, and the like. Such was this 
strange world of topsy-turvy. . . . Men 
are still being court-martialed. The' 
entire penal svstem is a disgrace to the 1 

It is plain that our military laws need 
a thorough-going revision: and the 
sooner it takes place, the better. 



June 1 

The Wise Forget 

The wise forget, dear heart, 

They leave the past. 
And play the hero's part, 

Firm to the last. 
They weep not, nor regret, 

Dry are their eyes. 
Dear heart, the wise forget, 

/ am not WCSff. 

On the Verge of a Dark Age 
Mr. Robert Dell, the distinguished 
English author and journalist, who 
as correspondent of the Manchester 
Guardian was expelled from France in 
the latter half of 1917, because of his 
habit of telling unpleasant truths, 
writes under date of April 10th from 
London to the Dial (No. 789) that 
Lord Lansdowne's initiative in favor 
of peace is now approved by many 
more people, both in England and 
France, than when it was taken, and 
will probably have still more regretful 
admirers in the near future, as the 
situation in both countries is extremely 
grave. "People who six months ago 
were for victory at any cost, are now 
beginning to think that the cost is 
perhaps greater than the victory is 
worth. And M. Clemenceau has de- 
clared that the victory is a Pyrrhic one 
so far as France is concerned." 

Mr. Dell says that the rejection of 
the Austrian peace proposals, in March, 
1917, and of the German peace pro- 
posals made in August of the same 
year, was "a crime against Europe," 
for which M. Ribot and Baron Sonnino 
were chiefly responsible. 

The scheme for a League of Nations, 
he adds, is generally regarded as a 
fiasco in Europe. The daily Herald, 
the organ of the British Labor Party, 
refers to it as "the Clique of Nations." 
The general view of the common peo- 
ple- in England is "that it is worse than 
nothing for, instead of being a genuine 
international organization, it is more 
like a modern version of the Holy Al- 
liance — a hegemony of the five great 
Allied powers. \*o section of opinion 
shows any enthusiasm for it. . . . Presi- 
dent Wilson's proposal for a League 
of N'ations was enthusiastically re- 

ceived here because it was believed that 
it would be a genuine international 
organization limiting the power of the 
stronger nations and strengthening the 
weaker. It was hoped that it would 
lead to general disarmament, without 
which it is impossible to prevent wars. 
Public opinion, which had formed such 
high hopes, is proportionately disap- 
pointed at the miserable substitute 
offered to it. And I am bound to say 
that it is also profoundly disappointed 
that President Wilson has not been able 
to achieve more. It is to be feared that 
he came to Europe without any definite 
scheme of his own. In any case he 
seems to have yielded to pressure not 
only in regard to the League of Na- 
tions, but also on other points. For, if 
report be true, some of the peace con- 
ditions contemplated by the Conference 
are in flagrant contradiction with the 
Fourteen Points." 

Mr. Dell wrote early in April. Un- 
fortunately, the report of which he 
speaks proved only too true. The 
proposed peace treaty is in flagrant con- 
tradiction with the Fourteen Points. 
"History must record," says the N. Y. 
Nation (No. 2810), "that a more des- 
potic undemocratic treaty was never 
written and that the Conference ends 
with the delegates, more than ever piti- 
ful puppets, meekly assenting while the 
Big Three throw all principles and 
'peace points' to the winds in a mad 
scramble to end up the business some- 
how and get the thing over with. A 
treaty has been achieved, but the gods 
must none the less weep when they 
consider how the opportunity really to 
reorganize the world on a sound, 
humane, generous, democratic, and 
Christian basis has been flung away." 

"On a cold calculation of probabili- 
ties," says the Nezv Republic (Vol. 
XIX, No. 237), "we do not see how 
this treaty is anything but the prelude 
to quarrels in a deeply divided and a 
hideously embittered Europe." 

One of President Wilson's utterances 
which, before the entry of our own 
country into the war, attracted atten- 
ion beyond any other, was his address 
to the Senate on January 22, 1917, in 




which he declared that the first condi- 
tion for an enduring peace is "that it 
must be a peace without victory." And, 
proceeding to put his "own interpreta- 
tion" upon this dictum, he said: 

"Victory would mean peace forced 
upon the loser, a victor's terms imposed 
upon the vanquished. It would be ac- 
cepted in humiliation, under duress, at 
an intolerable sacrifice, and would leave 
a sting, a resentment, a bitter memory 
upon which terms of peace would rest 
not permanently but only as upon 

Recalling this utterance, the new 
Review just founded by Harold de 
Wolf Fuller and others in New York, 
says (Vol. I, No. 1): "Surely if ever 
there was a 'peace forced upon the 
loser, at victor's terms imposed upon 
the vanquished,' we are witnessing such 
a peace now." 

We must therefore assent to Mr. Dell 
when he says, towards the conclusion 
of his letter to the Dial, that "unless 
the Peace Conference mends its ways, 
the outlook in Europe is a dark one." 

There is only too much reason to 
fear, that, in the words of a recent 
writer in the Literary Supplement of 
the London Times (No. 893), what will 
succeed to the most devastating war 
civilization has yet seen, may be "an 
age of almost unendurable oppression," 
especially for the great middle class. 
"We may be condemned to a period of 
government by unstable groups of 
political adventurers compelled by their 
situation to stave off the collapse of the 
last vestiges of social order by the 
systematic payment of blackmail to the 
proletariat at the expense of a steadily 
dying middle class. It is not beyond 
the bounds of possibility that the world 
may be even now on the verge of a 
'Dark Age,' even darker than that 
which lasted from the days of Justinian 
to those of Charlemagne." 

If this should be the future in store 
for us, it is plain that the main service 
that spiritually-minded men will have 
to render to their kind will not lie in 
the direction of immediate influence on 
political affairs. The great task in a 
societv which threatens to resolve itself 

into an illiterate and oppressed proleta- 
rian mass and a handful of millionaires, 
ethically on the same level of barbar- 
ism, will be to set the example of culti- 
vating the spiritual life and to preserve 
Christian civilization from utter de- 
struction by the general deluge. 


Bolshevism at Home 

The Western Watchman (Sunday 
ed., Vol. XXXI, No. 29), commenting 
on recent economic and political devel- 
opments in North Dakota, makes the 
following sane and timely remarks : 

"The Non-Partisan League was born 
out of real grievances. The farmers, 
victimized for years by what they call 
'Big Biz,' sought to have their wrongs 
righted through the ordinary instru- 
mentalities. They sought in vain. They 
were told to 'go home and slop their 
hogs and let legislators attend to legis- 
lation.' They did. But before they left 
the State Capitol they formed the nu- 
cleus of what has since become the 
powerful, we had almost said the men- 
acing, Non-Partisan League, which now 
controls the whole of the machinery of 
government in the State — legislative, 
judiciary, and executive. 

"The moral is obvious — trite. Had 
the legislators at Bismarck met the 
farmers half way ; had they manifested 
some sympathy with their grievances ; 
had they shown some disposition to 
apply remedies where remedies were 
truly needed, it is safe to say that the 
agitators would have agitated in vain. 
Now, like causes produce like results. 
The grievances of the farmers of North 
Dakota are paralleled by the grievances 
of the working classes the country over. 
What has been done by State legisla- 
tures or by the Congress to remedy 
them ? W r hat is going to be done in the 
immediate future? The answer to th's 
question will determine whether Bol- 
shevism is going to spread or not. 

"If the suggestions contained in the 
report of the Catholic War Council are 
taken and enacted into law the danger 
will be averted. If they are not, then, 
the hypothesis of John D. Rockefeller, 
Jr., not being fulfilled, the consequence 
is patent. Bolshevism will spread." 



June 1 

The Centre Party and the Socialists 
An apparently well-informed corre- 
spondent of the Liverpool ' Catholic 
Times explains in a letter to that paper 
bow the German Centre Party came to 
co-operate with the Socialists in the 
work of the government, after having 
staunchly opposed Socialism for years. 
After the fall of the monarchy the 
leaders of the Centre realized that any 
serious attempt to restore the old order 
would cause civil war, and that the only 
way to save the nation and provide for 
its security was to acknowledge the right 
of the National Assembly to lay down 
a new constitution. Only by co-opera- 
tion with the Socialists could a working 
majority be assured for the govern- 
ment. Of special weight was a con- 
sideration regarding peace conditions. 
The confiderice of the Entente powers 
in Germany's stability would be 
stiengthened if the Centre Party en- 
tered the government. Other advant- 
ages were to be gained by joining hands 
with the ministry. Had the Centre re- 
fused its support, the Catholics of 
Germany would have been excluded 
from all offices of State and, at the 
beginning of a new epoch in public 
life, would have been doomed to a 
backward position. All things consid- 
ered, the leaders of the Centre Party 
formed the opinion that their co-opera- 
tion with the Socialist government was 
doirable, but they have insisted on 
their right to act on every essential 
question in accordance with their own' 
programme. Naturally, there have been 
many conflicts, but they have, as a 
rule, ended amicably. The principle 
has been generally adopted that, in 
regard to questions affecting religion 
and education, the Socialists should 
restrain themselves in the exercise of 
power, whereas for their economic pro- 
posals they should have a fairly free 
hand So far, we arc assured, the ar- 
rangement has worked to the benefit 
of DOd) parties and of the nation at 
large. Dissensions on religion have 
been avoided. That is a blessing, not 
alone for Catholics, but for the whole 
population without distinction of <r< •■•■■]. 
In the pa-t quarrels of that kind had 

many evil effects in Germany, and after 
the overthrow of the Kaiser's regime it 
seemed as if they were about to be re- 
vived in aggravated form. The Social- 
ists threatened to separate Church and 
State at once and to banish religion 
from the schools. The Centre Party put 
on their armor and were getting ready 
to engage vigorously in defensive op- 
erations. Owing to their acceptance of 
the invitation to join the government, 
the situation has in this respect become 
less menacing. The Socialists, on the 
other hand, owe much of their success 
in suppressing the Spartacist risings to 
the assistance they have received from 
the Catholics, who, though their social 
policy is progressive, are hostile to rev- 
olutionary tactics. 

^Whether the alliance will last long it 
would be difficult to prophesy in these 
critical times, when a Soviet republic 
has been proclaimed in Bavaria, but it 
has already proved that between the 
Catholics and the Socialists there is no 
insuperable bar to common effort in the 
public interest. 

A New Social Order 

The Jesuit Month (London, No. 658) 
in a remarkable article says : "All 
schemes of settlement which contem- 
plate the continuance of the old social 
order with its 'governing class,' its bour- 
geoisie, its proletariat, and only aim at 
improving the material conditions of 
the- worker, are bound to prove wholly 
inadequate. They do not satisfy the new 
Sense of personality, and the new pas- 
sion for liberty that is abroad in the 
world. The primal ban still rests on 
mankind ; man must labor for his liveli- 
hood ; but the work must be universal, 
the curse must not be shifted by the few 
on to the shoulders of the many, so that 
they are crushed under a burden God 
never meant them to endure. 

"We have often said and we now re- 
peat that any economic system that 
necessitates, or even tolerates as in- 
evitable, the exploitation of human 
beings for the profit of the exploiter is 
Essentially rotten, and should be de- 
• roved, in God's interests as well as in 




man's. Unless, therefore, those who 
uphold the present arrangement can 
show how to readjust it so as to allow 
the worker security of livelihood, decent 
accommodation, leisure for self -develop- 
ment, a voice in the conditions of labor, - 
and a fair share in the amenities of 
life, and how to administer it so as to 
prevent the systematic oppression of 
the poor, they must not be surprised 
if the sufferers seek to overthrow it. 

"On March 3rd, the Holy Father, 
addressing the great 'Unione Popolare,' 
the Catholic Federation of Italy, en- 
dorsed in emphatic language the teach- 
ing of the famous Encyclical, 'Rent in 
Novarum' which has been called 'the 
Charter of the Worker,' and which 
condemns so explicitly the close-spun 
web of social injustice which has for 
so long enmeshed the laboring class. 
It would seem that this web is at last 
to be broken. The revelations of legal- 
ized extortion made at the [British] 
Coal Commission have shocked the pub- 
lic conscience, the more so that the 
public pocket has suffered thereby no 
less than the miner. And in a land 
which is pre-eminently the region of 
colossal trusts, cut-throat competition 
and 'smart deals,' the rights of labor 
have been recently pleaded bv no less 
a personage than John D. Rockefeller, 
Jr. At the Atlantic City Convention of 
the National Chamber of Commerce, 
held on Dec. 6th, this super-capitalist 
urged a radical alteration in the rela- 
tions between employers and emploved 
for the attainment of permanent peace. 
"Co-operation instead of antagonism, 
trust instead of suspicion, union instead 
of a balance of power, open discussion 
of differences, all the elements that 
make for international harmony are 
needed here as well. Reorganization is 
necessary, for the old capitalist system, 
with its exclusive devotion to profit- 
making, is doomed, but even more 
necessary is a change of spirit. If only 
the one element that prevents peace 
everywhere, the desire for unfair or 
excessive gain, could be shut out, how 
speedily would our troubles cease !" 

Boethius in English 
One of the latest volumes of the Loeb 
Classical Library contains the theolog- 
ical tractates of Boethius, with an En- 
glish translation by H. F. Stewart and 
E. K. Rand, and the "Consolation of 
Philosophy" with the seventeenth cen- 
tury translation of "I. T." revised by 
Prof. Stewart. 

Professor Rand, who provides the 
Latin text, has collated many manu- 
scripts, both of the "Consolation" and 
of the theological works, and has used 
rhe Teubner edition of 1871 with dis- 
crimination. A complete critical edition 
of the "Consolation" is still to seek, and : 
we look for that to Dr. August Engel- 
brecht, who has already proved his fit- 
ness for the task in the Proceedings of 
the Vienna Academy. 

The tracts on the Trinity, on the 
Catholic faith, and the rest are now 
translated into English for the first 
time, and, so far as we can see, ade- 

The introduction of the two editors 
is a highly interesting dissertation. The 
vexed question of the philosopher's reli- 
gious belief is dealt with thus : 

"Boethius was without doubt a Chris- 
tian, a doctor, and perhaps a martyr. 
Nor is il necessary to think that, when 
in prison, he put away his faith. If it 
is asked why the 'Consolation of Phi- 
losophy' contains no conscious or direct 
reference to the doctrines which are 
traced to the 'Tractates' with so sure a 
hand, and is, at most, not out of har- 
mony with Christianity, the answer is 
simple. In the 'Consolation' he is writ- 
ing philosophy ; in the 'Tractates' he is 
writing theology. He observes what 
Pascal calls the order of things. Philos- 
ophy belongs to one order, theology to 
another. They have different objects. 
The object of philosophy is to under- 
stand and to explain the nature of the 
world around us ; the object of theology 
is to understand and explain doctrines 
delivered by divine revelation." 

This distinction, it may be added, in- 
volves no disparagement of reason ; and 
the Schoolmen seven centuries later set 
themselves to the task of co-ordination. 



June 1 

An Anglican Delegation to the Holy 

On March 6th a delegation of three 
bishops of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church in the U. S. (Weller of Fond 
du Lac. Anderson of Chicago, and Vin- 
cent of Southern Ohio) sailed from 
New York with the object of visiting 
leading representatives of the Scandi- 
navian churches, the schismatic Greeks 
in the near East, and finally to call upon 
the Pope, socking to secure representa- 
tion of the Catholic Church at the pro- 
posed "World Conference of Faith and 

This mission, as well as the projected 
conference itself, have given rise to 
much discussion in the Catholic as well 
as the Protestant press. The Lamp, a 
Catholic magazine edited by converts, 
thinks it is a mistake to dismiss the 
whole proposition of a world confer- 
ence on faith and order as useless. "We 
do not,'' it says, "find Pope Benedict 
XV, any more than his predecessors of 
happy memory, Pope Pius X and Pope 
Leo XIII, manifesting any such scep- 
ticism towards that evident longing for 
unity which is a characteristic of Prot- 
estantism to-day as division and sub- 
division was its hall-mark in the six- 
teenth century.'' The Lamp feels "con- 
fident that God the Holy Spirit is now 
working in the hearts of men to fulfill 
rair Lord's prayer, 'Ut o nines it mini 
ant' and that this Anglican delegation 
to Rome, the first since the Reforma- 
tion, in the interest of a united Christ- 
endom, is part of the divine plan to 
repair the ancient breach between Eng- 
land and the Holy See." 

An Associated Press despatch says 
that the three Protestant bishops were 
received by the Holy Father on May 
15th. His Holiness treated them most 
kindly and thanked them for their call, 
but told them that it was not possible 
for the Catholic Church to take part in 
the proposed conference, though "the 
Mxces'.or of St. Peter has no greater 
di -ire than that there should be but 
one fold and one shepherd/' 

With die Holy Father we can and 
Should all pray "for the peace of Jeru- 
salem." but any well-informed Catholic 

could have told Messrs. Weller, Ander- 
son, and Vincent, that Catholics will 
not participate in another "Parliament 
of Religions." 

In Memory of A Valiant Catholic 

April 24th was the fourteenth anni- 
versary of the death of Jules P. Tar- 
divel, founder and editor of La Vcrite. 
The paper, which is still being pub- 
lished under the direction of his son 
Paul, devoted the customary annual 
memorial article to its deceased founder 
(No. 24). It applied to him a eulogy 
pronounced upon Louis Veuillot by 
Msgr. Baunard, — that he was a true 
knight of the pen, who refused all 
favors and honors in order that he 
might serve the truth in his own way. 
Men of Tardivel's stamp are unfortun- 
ately getting rare. Our older readers 
may remember that, despite our admi- 
ration for his ability and honesty, we 
occasionally combatted his opinions. 
The memory of the duels we fought 
(especially on the Leo Taxil and Diana 
Vaughan issue) has paled away, and 
Tardivel lives in our mind and heart 
cis the great and good man he really 
was. Among our most treasured keep- 
sakes is a cabinet photo of "the Veuil- 
lot of Canada," with the inscription : 
"Optimo strcnuoque scriptori A. Prcuss. 
Gratus pro bcncvolcntiae iudicio hoc 
pignus amicitiae ut amice accipiaj pcr- 
amanter te prccor. Apud Civ. Qucbec- 
ensem, die mensis Nov. undcvicesinia, 
A. D. 1902, /. P. Tardivel" 


— Apropos of the school weighing case in 
California, and apropos of numerous attempts 
in other parts of the United States, recently, 
f>n the part of public school hoards and puhlic 
school board physicians to meddle with the 
private rights of school children, it ought to 
be thoroughly understood that such proceed- 
ing an- ;i menace to the welfare of free 
popular education in the United States. The 
public schools have hut one purpose, one mis- 
sion, one claim to maintenance, and that is 
purely educational. They are not intended to 
ih feeders for dentists' or for doctors' offices. 
Xor are American children sent to school by 
'heir parents to he experimented on by 
faddists. — Christian Science Monitor, Vol. 
Xi, \'o. [04. 




The Case of Nurse Cavell 

The New Age (London, England, 
No. 1390, issue of May 1st) prints the 
following remarkable communication : 

May I be allowed to protest against 
the suggestion that Miss Cavell should 
have a public funeral, and military 
honors, and that she should be regarded 
as a martyr. Let us look facts in the 
face. The military laws are abominable, 
and everyone is justified in abusing 
them ; but they were not made in Ger- 
many ; every nation is equally responsi- 
ble for their harshness. The man or 
woman who breaks the civil or military 
law is punished by that law ; and, if 
the death penalty is inflicted, is exe- 
cuted — not murdered. Miss Cavell, in 
breaking the military laws, had not even 
the excuse that she was saving lives. 
The Rev. H. S. Gahan, who remained 
in Brussels during the war, states in 
the Daily News that Miss Cavell had 
made the nursing home a rendezvous 
for Belgian soldiers, who were assisted 
to escape over the frontier. In other 
words, Miss Cavell, who held a position 
of confidence in a city occupied by the 
German troops, and was, as a member 
of the Red Cross, trusted by the Ger- 
man military authorities, occupied her- 
self in assisting Belgians over the fron- 
tier in order that they should return 
armed and fight the Germans. It is 
regrettable that Mr. Gahan does not 
condemn her actions, but speaks as if 
she were entirely right ! We can imagine 
what would have been said and done if 
a German nurse in the British lines had 
acted in the same manner as Miss 
Cavell. We should have been told she 
was another proof that none of her 
nation had any honor. What would 
have been true of the German nurse is 
equally true of Miss Cavell. Indeed, 
if she had applied her statement that 
'patriotism is not enough' to herself, 
and remembered that there was such a 
thing as honor, she would have been 
alive to-day. If the members of the 
Red Cross had done what they ought to 
have done, and at once repudiated the 
actions of Miss Cavell, they would not 
only have saved their own honor, but 

would have probably saved her life. As 
it was, the German military authorities 
would have been justified in refusing to 
allow any members of the Red Cross, 
who were not of their own nationality, 
to remain in Brussels, or anywhere 
within their lines. 

If this public funeral takes place, 
there can be only one result. In future 
wars none of the belligerent armies will 
permit any members of the Red Cross 
Society, other than the units attached 
to their National Association, to be 
within the lines or in any city occupied 
by them. 

If confidence cannot be placed in the 
Red Cross, its usefulness is utterly 
stultified, and countless sufferers will 
be deprived of necessary assistance. The 
personal character of Miss Cavell, and 
the fact that she was a good nurse, have 
nothing to do with the question at issue. 
A. M. Cameron 


A New Leader? 

Father John Talbot Smith, LL.D., 
thinks that Chicago has a statesman of 
national proportions and promise in its 
lately re-elected mayor, Mr. William 
Hale Thomson. "Mayor Thompson," 
he says in the Irish World (No. 2540), 
"was one of the few public officials of 
America who defied the Wilson big 
stick, the Federal bullies in the depart- 
ments of state, the bullies of the press 
and the press agencies, the bullies of 
the British propaganda, the violators 
of constitutional rights, the hysterical 
high society people, the big stick of 
Wall Street, the thugs of the secret 
service, and held his ground and his 
office and his electorate through the 
exigencies of war. He was booked 
after the armistice for a trip up Salt 
Creek, but calmly overturned all his 
opponents and became mayor of Chi- 
cago in succession to himself, with a 
very good chance for national leader- 
ship when the present hysteria and 
strabismus so diminish as to give the 
public a straight, level look at the 
debts, the taxes, and the Prohibition 



J vine 1 

The "Movie" Problem 
A reader suggests that moving pic- 
ture shows be given regularly in our 
school and parish halls, under the aus- 
pices of the pastor, to counteract the 
evil and seductive programmes of the 
average moving picture theatre. He 
thinks that for such parochial perform- 
ances the productions of the Catholic 
Art Association might he taken for a 
basis and supplemented by the plays 
recommended by the Pennsylvania and 
other State and municipal boards of 
censorship. These plays are not all 
clean and wholesome in the Catholic 
sense, but they might be examined, and 
the best of them selected. 

An entertainment thus discerningly 
gotten up by the pastor or his assistants, 
or bv reliable Catholic laymen or wom- 
en, would be infinitely preferable to the 
average hodge-podge "movie," given 
without any control and appealing, as 
by far the most of them do, to the sen- 
sual passions and the desire for sensa- 
tionalism already so pronounced in our 
people, especially the young. If this 
plan were adopted by a number of 
parishes, they could exchange the names 
of plays found commendable or publish 
them in the Catholic press. 

To facilitate the execution of some 
such plan we shall continue to reprint, 
with the usual reservation, the lists is- 
sued periodically by the Pennsylvania 
State Board of Censors. The latest, 
dated May 3rd, recommends as "clean 
and wholesome'' the following photo 
plays : 

D — The Silk Lined Burglar; 6 reds; Univ. 
1). — Pettigrew's Girl : 5 r. : famous Players. 
D — Ifisa Dulcie from Dixie; 5 reels; Vitagr. 
I). — The \V;iy of the Strong; 5 reels: Metro. 
I). — A Man of Honor; 5 reels; Metro 
]>. — Eyes of the Soul ; 5 reels: Fain. Players. 
D. — Devil M'Carc; : reels; Triangle. 
l>. — The Unknown Quantity; 5 reels; Vitagr, 
D. — The Courageous Coward: 5 reels; Mm. 
D The Island of Intrigue; 5 reels- Metro. 
I). — Blackie's Redemption; 5 reels; Metro. 
D. — The Unknown Love; 6 reels; J'athe. 
C Beresford of the Baboons; 2 reels; Pa- 
moos Players. 
C — Guided and Misguided; 1 reel; Outing 
\re Second Marriages Happy? 1 reel; 
C. — The Amateur IJar : 2 reel-; PantOUS IM. 

C. — Two Young to Marry ; 1 reel ; Mutual, 
CD.— Something to Do; 5 reels; F. Players. 
CD,— The Rescuing Angel: 5 reels; F. PI. 
CD.— The Roaring Road; 5 r. ; F. Players. 
CD. — Peppy Pollv ; <; reels ; Famous Plavers. 
CD.— Three Men" and A Girl: 5 reels; F. P. 
CD.— A Regular Fellow: 5 reels; Triangle. 
CD.— That's Good; 5 reels; Metro. 
CD.— Never Say Quit; 5 reels; Fox. 
CD. — A Yankee Princess : 5 r. ; Vitagraph. 
E. — Cut it Out ; 1 reel ; Ford. 
E. — Northern Sports Under Southern Skies : 

1 reel : Ford. 
E. — Kiddies: 1 reel; Prizma. 
E.— Trout; 1 reel: World. 
E — The Little High Horse; 1 reel; Educa- 
"C." Comedy. — "D," Drama. — "E," Edu- 
cational. — '"S." Scenic. 


Projected Catholic Dailies 

Encouraged hy the example of the 
Dubuque Catholic Tribune, which is 
now publishing tri-weekly editions and 
gathering subscribers for a daily, the 
Catholic Bulletin Publishing Company, 
of Cleveland, O., which issues weekly 
papers for Cleveland, O., Canton. O., 
and Erie, Pa., announces that it will 
start a Catholic daily for northern Ohio 
if it receives sufficient encouragement 
in the form of ten thousand promised 
subscriptions at five dollars per annum. 

The zeal manifested in this offer is 
laudable, but the Catholic Bulletin 
Publishing Co., we regret to say, has 
not yet demonstrated its ability to pub- 
lish a daily paper that will be a real 
credit to the Catholic cause. The two 
of its weeklies with which we are fa- 
miliar, are scissors and paste-pot com- 
pilations of little merit. 

It is not enough that we have Cath- 
olic dailies: — to be effective, tliev will 
have to be equal in editorial ability, if 
not in newsgathering efficiency, to the 
secular newspapers with which they 
will be forced to compete. 

— Life is full of trials, and the lawyers are 
glad of it. 

— You can't please all the people all the 
time any more successfully than you can 
fool them, 

— After reading the Revikw, hand it to a 
friend ; perhaps he will suhscribe, and you 
will have done him a service and helped 
along the apostolate of the good press. 




The Crux of the Social Question 
Only a few were able to reap the 
fi uits of the pagan Renaissance in the 
sixteenth century. All the potentates 
and princes of that time became auto- 
crats, and their courtiers and servants 
grew wealthy. The masses of the 
people became entirely dependent ; in- 
stead of tree citizens they were subjects. 
The Christian doctrine, "Equal rights 
for all," did not fit into these conditions 
and soon lost its significance. But the 
knowledge of the doctrine did not die, 
as it did in antiquity, where it had dis- 
appeared entirely, except among the 
Israelites. It was a precept of the 
natural law because all men are chil- 
dren of the same parents. Christ taught 
this law, becoming our brother and 
teaching that all men are children of 
God. St. Paul wrote his letter to the 
Galatians to declare the "equal rights 
of all men." 

This doctrine did not suit Mammon, 
and his followers (Locke, Hume, etc.) 
tried to find a solution for the difficulty. 
Rousseau crowned their labors by his 
"Contrat Social," which accords to 
every man equal rights, without, how- 
ever, disturbing Mammon's property 
order. This contrat social became the 
foundation of the French revolution. 
Even to-day every man legally has equal 
rights, but he must find a way to assert 

Napoleon was a result of the French 
revolution. He tried to conquer the 
world, following the example of the 
Roman Caesars. After his downfall 
the victorious sovereigns tried again to 
rule as autocrats ; many revolutions 
were the consequence, until finally the 
natural law of equal rights for all re- 
asserted itself to a certain degree. The 
citizens received the right to vote and 
to participate indirectly in the govern- 

During the latter half of the nine- 
teenth century big corporations were 
formed and there ensued a scramble for 
wealth, which lasted for the remainder 
of the century and showed how far 
human cupidity will go. Scandals and 
panics followed ; their history is the 
most infamous ever written. 

A fear crept through the higher 
classes that the people might come to 
their senses and reclaim their rights. 
Learned men tried to justify existing 
conditions in the name of science. They 
said that religion must accommodate 
itself to the discoveries of science. They 
devised what is called Modernism, and 
tried to bring the Church under the 
power of modern science. The Italian 
"Programma dei Modernisti" states that 
purpose clearly, (p. 5, n. 1) when it de- 
mands "a spirit of complete emancipa- 
tion, tending to weaken ecclesiastical 
authority ; the emancipation of science 
which must traverse every field of in- 
vestigation without fear of conflict with 
the Church ; the emancipation of the 
State, which should never be hampered 
by religious authority," etc. 

We know the influence of the money- 
kings ( c. g. Carnegie and Rockefeller) 
on science and teaching. What would 
be the consequence if 'Modernism had 
won ? 

In that period, and up to the present 
time, the workingman has no security 
that he and his family will have their 
daily bread tomorrow. Commerce, 
which should be the servant of agri- 
culture and industry in promoting the 
welfare of mankind, has become its 
master and rules with an iron hand. 
For its protection Great Britain built 
its immense navy and the European 
powers gathered armies of a magnitude 
never dreamed of before. All commerce 
and the instruments of brutal force 
were built up and maintained by human 
labor. This shows what labor can 
accomplish ; what could it not do if 
used rightly ! 

The history of antiquity and the legal 
State of the present day show that the 
"absolute property right" is the founda- 
tion of Mammon's rule. This absolute 
property right disappeared in the begin- 
ning of the Middle Ages, and with it 
slavery, although there is no decree of 
the Church or State in that whole period 
formally abolishing slavery. 

At the beginning of the Middle Ages 
three-fourths of all men were slaves. 
The whole known world belonged to 
about 13,000 men. The Germanic tribes 



June 1 

who conquered the Roman empire be- 
came Christians, and the land became 
the property of the people. The land 
then belonged to the man who culti- 
vated it. and when he left the land, 
his right to it was forfeited. The an- 
cient law that "Land shall not be sold" 
was again in force. 

Moses had given the land to the fam- 
ilies of the tribes, and the register of 
the families was kept in the Temple. In 
tlie Middle Ages the State officials were 
trustees for the public property. They 
made their offices hereditary, thereby 
becoming princes, and the princes and 
sovereigns of the present day are their 
descendants. During the Renaissance 
they changed their trust deed into a 
property deed. 

Before commencing His work, our 
Saviour went into the desert to prepare 
Himself, after which Satan tempted 
Him. Mammon has his part in this 
temptation, for Satan offered Christ 
the world and its treasures. He makes 
the same promise to-day to every man 
who is willing to serve him. And he 
has support for his promise : it is the- 
oretically and legally possible for one 
man to acquire the whole earth and its 
treasures. Thus human cupidity is set 
tree. Mammon has made every man an 
enemy of his fellowmen. He has 
brought discord into families, making 
father and mother and children bitter 
-nemies. Mutual confidence and honesty 
have disappeared. The means used to 
acquire wealth often do not meet the 
requirements of Christian doctrine. But 
<-s wealth is in view, not God, He is 
ignored. In the U. S. we have sixty 
million modern pagans according to 
the census. The cause of the much 
lamented leakage from the Catholic 
faith is easily explained ; it is also the 
reason for the desertion of our farms. 
I he man on the farm cannot get rich. 
The rich men are shown to him as 
> camples for imitation, therefore many, 
in order to acquire wealth, move to the 
big cities, where they have access to 
isres and pleasures not available 
Oti the farm. A large and increasing 
number of our farmers arc renters who 
have but a bare living and are not sure 

of the possession of the land they till. 

Modern commerce has created a great 
many highly salaried positions for men 
able to produce big dividends for the 
stockholders, and every mother thinks 
her son lit to occupy such a lucrative 
position. The best lawyers are hired 
to show how to evade the laws given for 
the protection of the public. 

This development of human cupidity 
became possible only through our pagan 
property laws. These laws made pos- 
sible the fulfilment of Satan's promise 
to our first parents : "You will be like 
God." But the price is millions of 
slaves, not in name but in fact. If the 
people are educated to realize this, these 
iniquitous laws will vanish, and modern 
slavery with them. 
Little Rock, Ark. C. MEURER 

Editing School Classics 

A writer in the School Review — 
John B. Opdycke — makes a justifiable 
attack upon the practice of burying 
school classics under a mass of annota- 
tions. There are, in the first place, too 
many editions ; Mr. Opdycke says he 
can count over twenty of "Julius Cae- 
sar" alone upon his shelves. In the 
second, the proportion of text to edi- 
torial matter is as one to two or three, 
and the latter is "invariably diffuse, 
forbidding, burdensome, and for the 
most part unnecessary." One edition 
of Milton's minor poems has 56 pages 
of text out of a total of 137; of "Mac- 
beth," 58 out of 188; of "As You Like 
It," 93 out of 190; of "Hamlet" 141 
out of 243; of "Twelfth Night," 85 
out of 171. Any text that docs not 
preface the classic itself with the au- 
thor's life, an introductory comment, 
critical comment, parallel bibliography 
and biography, and explanation of 
versification, and follow it by explana- 
tory notes, topics for composition, re- 
view questions, and glossary, is meagre- 
ly edited. Among notes on various 
t< xts, Mr. Opdycke finds that students 
are told that "sterile means cursed with 
sterility," that "roynish is a term of 
disparagement and vilification," that 
"dareful" is used only once in Shake- 




speare, and that rallentando prevails in 
a certain Wordsworthian poem. Among 
topics suggested for composition are 
"Caesar's Epilepsy," "Portia's Shrewd- 
ness," "Milton's Idea of Sadness," "The 
Element of Reflection in Wordsworth's 
Poetry," and "The Spirit of the Ancient 
Mariner." It is one consolation that, no 
doubt, teachers and pupils ignore the 
editing almost entirely. 

The Bandelier National Monument 

Most of our readers know of the late 
Adolph F. Bandelier and his work (see 
F. R., XXI, 8, 230 sqq.). But few per- 
haps are aware of the fact that there is 
a "Bandelier National Monument" in 
New Mexico. (F. R., XXIII, 12, 188). 
This monument is part of a vast gov- 
ernment forest reservation. It covers 
thirty square miles of the Pajarito and 
Jemez plateaus, between Cochiti on the 
South, the Santa Clara River on the 
North, the Rio Grande on the East, and 
the Rio Jemez on the West. We gather 
from an illustrated description in El Pa- 
lacio (Vol. V, No. 12) that this reser- 
vation, with its 250 square miles, "is a 
wonderland that includes rugged, pine- 
clad mountains, extinct craters, lava 
fields, hot and mineral springs, trout 
streams, sulphur and soda dams, pyra- 
mid pueblos still thronged with Indians, 
Spanish plazas with Franciscan mis- 
sions, cave, cliff, and communal house 
dwellings, shrines and altars, forests, 
scenery that thrills, and all under in- 
tense sunshine, the bluest of skies, and 
a climate that for healthfulness has not 
it superior." 

The reservation may be reached either 
by automobile or narrow-guage train 
from Santa Fe. The train runs to the 
head of the White Rock Canyon, where 
the crude little settlement of Buckman 
stands guard at the entrance to Paja- 
rito Park, of which the "Bandelier 
Monument" is an integral part. 

The "Monument" is really, for the 
most part, merely a cleft in this 
wonderful national forest of almost 
2.000,000 acres. The ever present feat- 
ure is the elliptical Tyu'onyi, the exca- 
vated first story of an ancient commu- 

nity house, from the weird ruins of 
which the School of American Research 
has constructed a fairly comprehensive 
picture of the life and customs of the 
people who lived in this romantic can- 
yon many generations ago. At one 
time, with three stories and perhaps 700 
rooms, it was the metropolis of this 
valley of thirteen talus villages and 
hundreds of inhabited cave-dwellings. 

Along the Rito de los Frijoles is the 
great Ceremonial Cave with huge pil- 
lars like those of the Temple of Carnak, 
and more than 200 other caves, in one 
of which the Springer Expedition in 
recent years found wall decorations and 
frescoes of primitive drawings under 
ten to twenty coats of plastering, that 
form a parallel to those found in the 
caves of the Cro-Magnon man in south- 
ern France. From the Rito trails lead 
southward to Pueblo Viejo and other 
mounds covering ancient community 
sites, to the Capulin Canyon with its 
Painted Cave and its stone lions hedged 
in by a ceremonial wall. 

The scenery is rugged and ever 
changing. "Yet," says El Falacio, "there 
is a unity and character about it that 
set aside the Bandelier National Monu- 
ment as probably the most distinctive 
portion of the U. S. — scenically, climat- 
ically, historically, and archaeologically. 
Those who have the leisure and the 
means, could plan no more interesting 
and satisfactory outing than several 
weeks in the Pajarito Park." 

— We are always ready to furnish such 
back numbers of the F. R. as we have in 

— You are interested in the advertisements 
of others that appear in the Review. Don't 
you think others would be interested in 

— Under a law just enacted in Texas, all 
pool halls and other places where pool or 
billiards is played as a matter of revenue 
must be closed. This, at first sight, may seem 
narrow and unreasonable, and perhaps even 
unjust. There is nothing necessarily ob- 
jectionable in the game of pool or billiards. 
But there is much that is objectionable in the 
maintenance of loafing places, and it is loaf- 
ing places, rather than pool and billiard halls, 
that the communities of Texas have asked 
their lawmakers to exterminate. 



June 1 

The Mystery of Matter 
The Missionary (Vol. XXXII, No. 4) 

prints a notable posthumous paper 
from the pen of the late Father G. M. 
Searle, C.S.P., the famous convert and 
scientist. Dealing with the miracle of 
the Resurrection, he says : 

"The laws of nature which have been 
discovered are certain, as far as they go. 
. . . But wo have an immense way yet 
to go. . . . The nature of the substance 
in and by which, as a medium, the 
phenomena of electricity, and of light 
and radiant heat as well, are now gen- 
eral ly. and with good reason, believed 
to be manifested, still remains a great 
mystery. . . . We call it the ether. . . . 
YVe say that it is different from ordi- 
nary matter, as it is imponderable ; . . . 
but it is matter all the same. . . . And 
yet ether seems to pass through ordi- 
nary matter with the greatest ease. . . . 
The whole question as to the constitu- 
tion or construction not only of this so- 
called ether, but of ordinary matter, still 
remains unsolved and probably will so 
remain for a long time. We have a 
fairly plausible theory as to gases and 
vapors, but the solid and liquid states 
are still a mystery. We cannot tell why 
a liquid moves so freely on itself, and 
yet is so incompressible ; while a solid 
is comparatively stiff, and yet can be 
compressed. What the forces or shapes 
of the particles are which produce these 
different states, we can only vaguely 
imagine. How presumptuous and ab- 
surd, then, it would be for us solemnly 
to declare that even ordinary matter, 
like that composing our own bodies, 
cannot be put into a state in which, 
like the ether, it can penetrate other 
matter, but. unlike the ether, move free- 
ly and rapidly through ether also ! We 
know some tilings thai matter can and 
will do under certain circumstances 
which have come under our observation, 
and we believe it will do the same again 
under the same circumstances; that is 
what our laws of nature amount to, and 
they are important an< l valuable, and it 
has taken a good deal of trouble and in- 
genuity to find them out. But just what 
matter i>. and how far circumstances 
may be changed ; about all this we are 

densely ignorant. . . . How preposterous 
then it is for us to say to Him who has 
made this great universe, that He must 
submit Himself to the limitations of our 
puny knowledge, and that He must not 
undertake to do things which we are 
not able to do !" 

As to Dancing 

Whereas out in Denver the local 
Catholic paper declares that it will no 
longer announce or even make reference 
to dances because the dance is a form 
of entertainment contrary to the spirit 
at least, of Church legislation, no scru- 
ples on this subject seem to bother the 
Catholic Neil's of New York. That 
faithful mirror of New York Catholic 
life has a column headed "Catholic 
Local Events," where for "three cents 
a word" any Catholic organization may 
announce dancing if it wants to. In the 
issAie of April 19th the News prints an- 
nouncements of a "euchre, bridge, pino- 
cle and victory dance" of "The Catholic 
Big Sisters, Manhattan Branch, Rev. 
Thomas J. Lynch, Supervisor," at a 
local hotel, with "continuous dancing in 
the grand ball-room all evening." The 
New York Tourist Club announces a 
"euchre, pinocle and dance" ; St. Ben- 
edict's Church, a "euchre and dance" ; 
Harlem Council, K. of C, a "grand 
euchre, country store and dance" ; and 
the Woman's Catholic Club of Wash- 
ington Heights, a "euchre and dance." 

Besides these, the Salve Regina Coun- 
cil, K. of C, advertises a "euchre, pin- 
ocle, and reception," and "dancing dur- 
ing card-playing" is specially featured. 
Another "euchre, pinocle, and dance" 
is advertised to be given as "a jubilee 
anniversary testimonial to Rev. T. J. 
Doyle." And lest there should be any 
doubt as to the extent to which patrons 
of this jubilee event may practise the 
art terpsiehorean, "continuous dancing" 
is specially mentioned. St. Aloysius 
parish, Livingston Manor, announces its 
annual euchre, pinocle, and reception 
under the auspices of the friends of the 
Rev, Dr. Tracy, with "continuous danc- 
ing" as an inducement to Catholics who 
might be kept away by the comparative 
austerity of euchre and pinocle. 




But these arc not all by any means. 
Under the heading, "What is Going on 
in City Parishes," one finds constant 
recurrence of the magic words "euchre, 
pinocle, and dancing," until one wonders 
it. the Catholics of New York have time 
for anything but euchring, pinocling, 
and dancing. ( Incidentally it may be 
observed that New York seems to have 
knocked the "h" out of pinochle.) 

Now, the question is, Why should the 
Denver Catholic Register be more 
straight-laced in respect to dancing than 
the Catholic Nezvs of New York? Why 
shouldn't the Catholic press have a con- 
sistent national policv on this matter? 


The Largest Catholic Paper in the 
U. S.? 

Why does the Nezv World, of Chi- 
cago, persist in printing in display 
type, in a "box" on its title page, the 
silly assertion : "Largest Catholic Paper 
in the United States"? 

Perhaps there was a time (though 
we can not remember it) when the Nezv 
World was the largest Catholic paper 
in the United States. This boldly dis- 
played assertion as to superlative size 
may be therefore a relic of bygone 
glory. But it certainly is not according 
to fact to-day. At least a dozen Cath- 
olic papers are of the same size as the 
New World, that is to say, they are of 
the usual newspaper format ; — eight 
pages with seven columns to a page. To 
mention a few at random — the Boston 
Pilot, the Michigan Catholic, the Cath- 
olic Standard and Times, the Catholic 
Columbian, the Catholic Union and 
Times, the Echo, the Catholic Citizen, 
the two Monitors (of San Francisco 
and of New Jersey), the Catholic Trib- 
une (tri-weekly), the Southern Mes- 
senger, and Church Progress, are, each 
and every one of them, just as large as 
the New World. In fact it will be found 
6y actual measurement that the columns 
cf several of them are at least an inch 
and a half longer than those of our 
Chicago contemporary. 

Now, we can understand a paper's 
claiming to be the best medium for 
advertising or to have the most cultured 

readers, for these are matters not very 
tangible ; but any reader of the New 
World who knows any one of the pa- 
pers just mentioned may easily see how 
empty is the Chicago journal's boast. 

The editor of the Nezv World is pre- 
sumably familiar with the size and gen- 
earl appearance, at least, of his Cath- 
olic contemporaries. He must surely 
know that his paper physically is no 
larger than any one journal in the list 
given, and nothing but the sheerest 
vanity could lead him to think that it 
is larger in the sense of superiority as 
to contents. In matter of fact it is in- 
ferior in this regard to all or nearly all 
the papers mentioned. Why then does 
he allow this easily disprovable state- 
ment to flaunt itself year in year out in 
the faces of his fellow-editors? 



— The London Saturday Review ( No. 
3513) says that while Mr. Wilson was 
in Paris, he received a telegram from 
Washington saying: "If you don't 
come home soon, people here will set 
up a republic !" 

— Commander G. A. Bisset, C. C, 
U. S. N., Puget Sound Navy Yard, 
Bremerton, Wash., desires us to inform 
our readers that he is ready to supply 
collectors with postage stamps obtained 
from missionaries in foreign lands. 
The entire proceeds are to be devoted 
to the work of the Propagation of the 
Faith. : ju< 

— The anti-German agitation now set 
up, and the stories of Germany's prep- 
aration to subdue the world by com- 
merce, as she dried to do by arms, are 
prophetic of a campaign for higher 
tariffs and the exercise of all manner 
of restrictions, avowedly to protect the 
people of this country, -btit really to 
enrich the few wfr© profit by such 
restrictions. — The Public, Vol. XXII, 
No. 1100. 

— The Sixty-fifth Congress wound 
up with what' the Lamp (Vol. XVII, 
No. 4) calls a "classical," but which we 
are inclined to term a characteristic. 
lapsus linguae. As he banged the gavel 



June 1 

to mark the close of the Senate, Vice- 
President Marshall announced adjourn- 
ment "sine Deo," instead of the cus- 
tomary "si>ic die." Asked afterwards 
whether he meant by this "without 
God," Mr. Marshall declined to inter- 
pret his announcement from the chair. 

—The Dial (N. V., No. 789. p. 478) 
announces that the paper on "The 
Moral Devastation of War," which it 
printed in its No. 787, and from which 
we reproduced copious extracts in our 
No. 10. "was read in manuscript to 
several officers and to 200 soldiers. 
They endorsed it and urged its publica- 
tion. It was printed as it was read to 
them." We may add that we have heard 
much in confirmation of the statements 
made in the article since reprinting it 
in the Fortnightly Review. 

— Mr. Robert W. de Forest, presi- 
dent of the Metropolitan Art Museum, 
New York, in a recent address (see 
Evening Post, May 15), contrasted 
French, British, and American war 
posters. The French posters, he said, 
were noted for their picturesque seri- 
ousness, the British, for intensity of 
topics and typography, and the Ameri- 
can, for spectacular, alarmist, and 
enthusiastically patriotic themes. Our 
war memorials he characterized as 
"works of inferior art," in which true 
art is "camouflaged by bunting, flags, 
and cheesecloth." 

— Many people speak as if the be- 
ginning and end of democracy were 
the rule of the majority. But, as Prof. 
Bertrand Russell points out in the Dial 
(No. 789), "this is far too mechanical 
a view. It leaves out of account two 
questions of great importance, namely : 
( 1 ) What should be the group of which 
the majority is to prevail? (2) What 
are the matters with which the majority 
has a right to interfere? Right answers 
to these questions are essential if nomi- 
nal democracy is not to develop into a 
new and more stable form of tyranny, 
tor minorities and subordinate groups 
have the right to live, and must not be 
eternally subject to the malice of hos- 
tile masses." Proportional representa- 
tion is one, and perhaps the most 
effective, means of attaining this end. 

— Prof. A. Michel, in his "Questions 
Theologiques du Temps Present," just 
published by G. Beauchesne (Paris), 
strongly opposes the un-Christian glori- 
fication of the death of the soldier dy- 
ing in battle. The soldier makes a great 
sacrifice and often shows heroism, but 
he cannot be granted the title of a 
martyr. "Much confusion has prevailed 
on this point," rightly says the Ecclesi- 
astical Rcviezv (LX, 5, 574), to which 
we are indebted for a notice of Fr. 
Michel's book ; "and sentimentalism has 
distorted the issue. This clear state- 
ment will clarify matters, for the argu- 
ments are unanswerable and based on 
the authority of St. Thomas." 

— The Rev. Raymond Vernimont 
writes to us from Denton, Texas : 
"Recently a Catholic friend of mine 
returned from Michigan to Texas. He 
assisted at Mass in Chicago and St. 
Louis and was scandalized to find col- 
lectors at the church doors. That dis- 
grace should cease. To my knowledge 
no such abuse would be tolerated in 
Texas. The E. R. for March 15 had a 
note on 'Free Entry to Churches,' which 
it might be good to repeat. Perhaps 
some Catholics in St. Louis and else- 
where did not read it, as it was not 
pleasant reading. Christ drove the 
money-changers from the Temple with 
cords, saying: 'My house is a house of 
prayer ; you have made it a den of 
thieves.' Put out the thieves ! Hear 
Mass instead of hugging dollars." 

— In Maine an odious educational 
bill aimed at parochial schools was 
defeated through the efforts of Bishop 
Walsh. In Massachusetts a similar 
measure came up before the Senate 
committee of education, April 20th, and 
was vigorously opposed by Capt. George 
S. L. Connor, chaplain of the 101st 
regiment, Msgr. James F. Cassidy, and 
others, including a Jewish rabbi. "The 
centralizing tendencies of the bill, and 
the power it puts in the hands of the 
State officials to interfere with private 
schools were the chief points of objec- 
tion," says the Republic, of Boston, 
Vol. XXXIV, No. 19. We have not 
yet learned what has become of the 




Literary Briefs 

—"The Diary of a Dead Officer, Being the 
Posthumous Papers of Arthur Graeme 
West" (London: Allen & Unwin) is decided- 
ly a book to be included in any serious col- 
lection of writings on the Great War. It is 
much more than a record of moods. The 
writer of it was not an average soldier, but 
he told the truth as thousands of average 
soldiers lived to see it, and as thousands of 
them managed, with an instinctive wisdom, 
to forget it. With more honesty and less 
contentment, the diarist rarely forgot the 
truth once the impulse that had led him to 
enlist had spent itself. He agonised endless- 
ly to fit large principles into a world that 
was ruining itself by a bloody rule-of-thumb. 
And he diagnosed its problem with tragic 
clarity. He writes of his brother officers 
and their views on the war: "They are not 
often agressive or offensively military. This 
is the dismal part of it : that these men, al- 
most the best value in the ordinary upper 
class that we have, should allow themselves 
to suppose that all this is somehow necessary 
and inevitable ; that they should give so much 
labor and time to the killing of others, though 
to the plain appeals of poverty and ineffi- 
ciency in government, as well national as 
international, they are absolutely heedless. 
How is it that as much blood and money 
cannot be poured out when it is a question 
§»f saving and helping mankind rather than 
of slaying them?'* — Most thinking people 
must have felt the irony of this problem at 
some time or other during the war. None 
has stated it more decisively than this dead 

— We have already noted in these columns 
Father Edward F. Garesche's book of fine 
poems called "The World and the Waters." 
A recently published booklet by the same 

writer, entitled "War Mothers," contains nine 
poems inspired by the war. They are, like all 
of Father Garesche's writings, truly Catholic, 
and therefore sincere and simple and devoid 
of all sham. "On Women's Day" reaches the 
source of a remarkable demonstration and is 
an instance of keen appreciation. "To a 
Warrior Gone" might well have been dedi- 
cated to Guynemer, the French aviator. Let 
our readers search further in the little volume 
to their own delight and profit. We have also 
received a previously issued volume by the 
same author called "The Four Gates" and can 
heartily recommend it to all who love to see 
truths dear to the heart shine forth in the 
beauty that belongs to them. — S. T. O. 

— The subject of the amateur stage, or, as 
one reverend amateur has dubbed it, the 
"parish theatre" has been agitated of late in 
several quarters. Recent expressions of opin- 
ion on the plays given by our Catholic young 
people for parish amusement are to the effect 
that there is a dearth of suitable plays and 
that our volunteer thespians need some pro- 
fessional instruction and drilling. As a step 
toward supplying suitable plays, the Rev. 
George Nell and Mr. Joseph Feldhake have 
organized "The Nelfeld Play Company." at 
Effingham, Illinois, and have issued as a 
first offering "Bobby What's His Name." To 
encourage Catholic actors to present only 
such works as are consistent with their prin- 
ciples is a most worthy purpose and one 
which we are bound to support in every pos- 
sible way. We are sure this is the purpose 
of the publishers of "Bobby What's His 
Name" and we are therefore confident that 
they are glad to have their attention directed 
to certain features in this play which tend to 
defeat its object. The plot is ingenious and 
interesting, but the springs which operate it 
sometimes jump in the wrong direction. The 
general moral of the play seems to be that 
too much restraint in the education of the 

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June 1 

young results in failure. This is true; but 
:io\v-a-days the evil to be corrected is not 
over-restraint on the part of parents, but un- 
due and premature independence on the part 
of children. Therefore this play will tend to 
encourage an evil instead of correcting one. 
At one point in the play a young girl is urged 
by an older person to acquiesce temporarily 
in what is wrong in order that it may later 
be righted. This is dangerous and false 
procedure. Then the English of this play is 
not good. Those of the characters who are 
supposed to represent "culture and renne- 
ts ient" use incorrect expressions and show 
an imperfect knowledge of our language. 
One of the first functions of the theatre is 
the presenting of a perfect model of speech 
in pronunciation, choice of words, turns of 
expression, and grammatical construction. 
There should be at least one character who 
is infallible in this respect. The Xelfeld Play 
Company proposes to issue other plays by 
Catholic writers. Its prospectus includes 
some good "Dont's for Amateur Actors." — 
S. T. O. 

— The many graceful and scholarly trans- 
lations in Dante's own metre scattered 
through Mr. Charles H. Grandgent's book. 
"The Power of Dante" (Marshall Jones; 
Boston) inspire the hope that the author will 
some day give us that long-awaited perfect 
translation of the Divina Commedia which will 
unite accuracy and real poetry in English. 

— The Maryknoll Press sends us the life 
of another martyr missionary in "Just Brete- 
nieres. Ifiss Gilmore has made a compact, 
smooth, and readable adaptation from the 
French biography, and a numher of excellent 
illustrations enhance the value of the book, 
which is offered at an extremely low price. — 
S. T. O. 

— More than 3.000 titles are listed in "Writ- 
ings on American History, IQ16," by Grace 
Gardner Griffin ( Yale University Press ; $1.50 
net*, the eleventh in a series <>i volumes that 
has had four different publishers, and utilized 
at different time- the services of more than 
that many compilers. The series has evident- 
ly found a permanent haven at the Yale Uni- 
■• - r-ity Press, where the bibliographies for 
1912 [916 inclusive have Seen issued. In plan 
this volume differs Imt little from its prefe- 
rs under Miss Griffin's hand. America 
in general 1- tirst covered; the I'nitcd States 
I ;. periods; regional and local history by 
State- : biography : genealogy ; military and 
naval history; politic-; social and religious 
ryj education, art, and literature; and 
the l>ook i- rounded OUl by section, upon 
British America. Latin America, and the 
Pacific Islands. The work has Keen thoroughly 
and extend^ even to significant articles 
in popular magazines. Criticism is net within 
Ope, hut in the case of the more import 

ant works references an given to authorita- 
tive reviews. 

Books Received 

Preparation for Marriage. Necessary Questions and 
Explanations fcr Pastors according to the New 
Code of Canon Law. By Rev. J. A, McHugh, O.P., 
S.T.Lr. 89 pp. 16mo. Benziger Bros. 60 cts. net. 
Sit»iinarinm Thcologiae M oralis ad Codicem Juris 
Canonici Accontmodatum. Auctore Nicol. Sebas- 
tiani, Sac. Editio 3a, recognita. viii & 404 pp. 
8va Turin: Pietro Marietti. Fr. 8,50. (Wrapper). 
Mr. John Joseph McVey, 1229 Archer Str., Phila- 
delphia, has sent us copies of his complete series of 
Catechisms of Christian Docrtine (Course of Reli- 
gious Instruction, Institute of the Brothers of the 
Christian Schools), which, so far as necessary, have 
been brought into conformity with the new Code of 
Canon Law. They are the following: 

Catechism for First Communicants, $2.50 per 100 
(wrapper). — Catechism No. I, $3.50 per 100 (wrap- 
per). — Catechism No. .?, $7.50 per 100 (wrapper). 
Catechism No. .?, $12 per 100 (wrapper). — Cate- 
chism \'o. 4, $50 per 100 (cloth). — Manual of 
Christian Doctrine, by a Seminary Professor, 31st 
edition, $1.35 net (cloth). 

From the Catholic Truth Society, 69 Southward 
Bridge Road, S.K. 1, London, England, we have 
received the following penny pamphlets, which can 
be ordered in this country through the B. Herder 
Book Co., 17 S. Broadway, St. Louis, Mo. 

The Resurrection, by Fr. Bede Jarrett, O.P. — 
Liberal Christianity and Its Alternative, by Leo 
Ward. — li'hv Catholics Go To Confession, by G. 
Elliot Anstruther. — The Miraculous Birth of Our 
Lord, by Herbert E. Hall. 3rd ed. — The Comersion 
of St. Augustine, taken by permission from Leaves 
From St.. Augustine, by Mary H. Allies. — Deletion 
to Mary, by G. Elliot Anstruther. 

A Teacher and Organist wanted for the higher 
classes of a country public school. Good salary, 
house and garden. Send references with application 
to A. B., c. o. Fortnightly Review. 

Stamp Collectors 

The Mission Stamp Company, of Bremerton, 
Washington, devotes all its proceeds to the Catholic 
Missions. I'.uy your stamps from this Company and 
aid a good cause. 

Stamp collecting is an entertaining and instructive 
Occupation. Young people who are not now col- 
lectors should take up collecting. 



go to 


408 Washington Avenue 


The Fortnightly Review 

VOL. XXVI, NO, 12 


June 15, 1919 

Catholic Lay Leaders 

Men do not look to Germany now-a- 
days for examples of brave moral 
leadership, and yet that country glories 
in a roster of brilliant names which 
have honored the cause of political and 
religious freedom. Catholics would do 
well to recall the memory and the splen- 
did parliamentary work of the noted 
leaders of the 'sixties and 'seventies of 
the nineteenth century and the noble 
fight they waged for the rights of their 
brethren. Unfortunately, the names of 
these heroes and their great work are 
not known to many among us, and yet 
it is just such inspiring leadership we 
need in the conflict which, it seems, our 
enemies are preparing for the Church. 
It was a wise idea to gather under the 
general title "Leaders of the People"* 
short biographies of sundry men and 
women who have opened new doors to 
the human spirit. 

A cosmopolitan sympathy, indicative 
of the true democracy that rules among 
the children of the Church Militant in 
various lands, guided the selection of 
the Catholic worthies represented in 
these biographies of eminent workers 
for the cause of God and of the people. 
For besides names distinguished in the 
history of Germany, we find Francis of 
Assisi, Catherine of Siena, and Andreas 

Heft 19 contains a fine and readable 
sketch of Hermann von Mallinckrodt, 
by Dr. Franz Schmidt. This great par- 
liamentarian was born at Minden, West- 
falia, February 5, 1821, and died on 
May 26, 1874. Flis death was hastened 
by the strenuous labor of the last six 
months of his noble career, during 
which he was especially active in par- 

■ * "Fuhrer des Volkes. Eine Sammlung von 
Zeit unci Lebensbildern." M.-Gladbach, 1916. 

liamentary debate and controversy for 
the privileges of his constituents and 
the rights of the Catholic Church. 
When, in January 1859, a suggestion 
had been offered by high officials to 
abandon the name "Catholic Party" on 
the ground that it seemed to be a con- 
tinuous challenge to the other members, 
it was Mallinckrodt who made a con- 
ciliatory proposal. The name "Centre 
Party of the Chamber of Deputies 
(Catholic Group)" was adopted. Three 
years later Mallinckrodt drew up a 
programme explaining the name ; the 
first clause was as follows : "The essen- 
tial foundation of a just and free State 
consists in the teaching and principles 
of Christianity. Therefore we oppose 
all efforts to undermine this basis of 
public welfare." We must remember 
that at this time there was no united 
German Empire, but the Kingdom of 
Prussia was gradually forging ahead to 
its position of supremacy among the 
German States. After the eventful year 
1866, Mallinckrodt was again sent by 
his district ( Beckum-Ahaus) to the 
North German Parliament. 

How sorely Germany needs such a 
valiant champion of justice and political 
liberty in the crisis now confronting 
her! It may be interesting to some to 
know that the foundress and first Su- 
perior General of the Sisters of Chris- 
tian Charity was a sister of this famous 
Westfalian statesman. 

Like Hermann von Mallinckrodt, his 
fellow-worker in parliamentary reform, 
Rurghard von Schorlemer-Alst,* was a 
scion of the old Westfalian nobility, 
having been born at Herringhausen, 
October 21, 1825. His political activity 
was, perhaps, even more fruitful for 
the Catholic cause than that of his great 

* Burghard von Schorlemer-Alst, von Dr. 
Franz Schmidt. M.-Gladbach, 1916. 



June 15 

countryman. For he lived through all 
the stressful years of the Kulturkampf 
and took part in the heated debates on 
the "May laws." He died on May 17, 
1895, and therefore continued the good 
tight for twenty-one years after the 
demise of Mallinckrodt, and his circle 
of friends and fellow-workers in the 
great cause of securing religious liberty 
for Catholics included Lowenstein, 
Hertling, Ballestrem, Galen, Hompesch, 
Ketteler. etc. He won the lasting grati- 
tude of his rural constituents by his 
lively interest in the Westfalian Farm- 
ers' Alliance. Even non-Catholic jour- 
nals, like the Kreuz-Zcitung, spoke of 
him as "a knight without fear and re- 
proach." who fought bravely for his 
high ideals. 

In our own country we are entering 
upon troublesome times. Legislation 
hostile to Catholic rights and interests 
ij being attempted in many States. Our 
bishops have just issued a social "Re- 
construction Program" which may do 
some good in conciliating those who 
are in danger of being won over by the 
forces of lawlessness and revolution. 
But more than all else do we need men 
who. like Mallinckrodt and Schorlemer, 
will fearlessly proclaim that Christian 
justice must form the foundation of 
social progress and political liberty, and 
who live up to Catholic principles in 
their evervdav lives. A. M. 

To Daffodils 
By Roi'.i-.kt Hkrrick 

Fair Daffodils, we weep t<> see 

You haste away SO soon; 
As yet the early-rising Sun 

lla^ not attain'd his noon. 
Stay, stay, 

Until tin- hasting day 
Ha- run 

But to the even-song : 
And, having pray'<l together, we 

Will go with you along. 
We have short time to stay a^ you, 

We have SJ <-hort a spring; 

As quick a growth to meet decay 

\- you. or anything 

We die, 

As JTOUr hours do, and dry away 
Like to the Summer's rain; 
Or a- pearls of morning'> di-w ' 

• • . i.< found again, 

The Servile Press 

The Toronto Statesman, a weekly 
"journal of progressive thought," whick 
is about to complete its first year, says 
in its No. 44 that, whereas the servile 
press received fat advertising contracts 
from the Canadian government during 
the war, the independent journals were 
put off with a non-committal reply. 
The Borden government disbursed over 
two million dollars to the "quiescent" 
papers between August 1915 and 1917. 
The Statesman, for one, was denied its 
share, and when its editor patriotically 
offered a certain amount of free space 
as a contribution to the campaign he 
had to wait weeks before he could ob- 
tain the necessary "copy" from the 
Finance Minister. 

We think there are journals on this 
side of the border which could tell a 
similar tale, and the reason why the 
independent press was thus unfairly 
treated, is much the same here as in 

The governments of both countries 
discouraged, nay sought to destroy, 
freedom of public discussion at a time 
when freedom of the press was essential 
to the cause of true democracy. Besides 
this there was another powerful influ- 
ence at . work. Here as in Canada all 
advertising, to quote the words of the 
Statesman, "is practically in the hands 
of the Big Interests, or in the hands of 
advertising agents who are the friends 
of the Big Interests." The difference 
in the advertising patronage enjoyed by 
the papers that docilely serve the Big 
Interests and that doled out to the Free 
Press, as Hilaire Belloc calls it, clearly 
demonstrates the octopus-like hold 
which the forces opposed to true 
democracy exercise over the govern- 
ment and the avenues of public discus- 

The dangers of this situation are 
patent. We have emphasized them time 
ami again in the pages of the FORT- 
NIGHTLY Review, which glories in be- 
longing to the category of free journals. 
The Statesman indicates the danger and 
the probable outcome in these words, 
which, mutatis mutandis, can be applied 
also to the United Stales: 




"Are the Big Interests who control 
not only the government of this conn- 
try, but also the press by which Union 
government was made possible, deter- 
mined that not even moderate opinion, 
when opposed to the conditions that 
now prevail in Canada shall be permit- 
ted to find expression? There can be 
but one outcome to such a proposal. 
Papers like the Statesman cannot be 
silenced by any boycott methods of the 
advertising agencies. But what zvill in- 
evitably happen is that public opinion 
will be hardened against a bourgeois 
class zvhich neglects to set its house in 
order and which, with suicidal intent, 
rushes headlong to its own destruction." 

"A Princely Gift" 

That John McCormack, the gifted 
Irish tenor, is generous, nobody doubts. 
All artists have the reputation of being 
generous, and if they happen to be 
Irish, they are of course superlatively 
so. But lest any one should, by any 
possibility, have any doubts as to the 
generosity of Mr. McCormack, his 
press agent makes sure that no act of 
generosity goes unreported. This is 
looked upon as good publicity, although, 
for that matter, Mr. McCormack's gifts 
are so great, and he has reached such 
a degree of popularity by his singing, 
that he does not need the bad taste of 
this "boosting." 

The other day John's assistant man- 
ager presented fourteen Victrola rec- 
ords to a Catholic home for the Blind. 
Whereupon a Catholic paper burst 
forth in admiration of "a princely gift 
from the prince of song." Maybe 
"princely gifts" are not so munificent 
now as they were before the world war 
lessened the resources of so many 
princes, but a gift of fourteen (count 
them) Victrola records, even in these 
degenerate days, hardly deserves to be 
called "princely." 

Publicity men, reporters and editors 
who write in this strain should take a 
little lesson in the value of words. 


— Many a man has a great head from other 
uses than intellectual. 

causes than intellectual. 

Dean Harris — Historian, Scholar, 
and Critic 

Dr. Thomas O'Hagan contributes to 
the Canadian Vrccman (Vol. XXXV, 
No. 23) a brief account of the literary 
labors of the Very Rev. W. R. Harris, 
D.D., LL.D., of Toronto, formerly of 
Salt Lake City, Utah, and widely known 
in this country as well as in Canada as 
"Dean" Harris, because of his former 
position as dean of the Niagara Pen- 
insula in the city of St. Catherine. 

Dean Harris is one of the foremost 
Catholic writers of this continent, espe- 
cially dear to the Fortnightly Review 
as a life subscriber and an occasional 
contributor. We are sure our readers 
will be interested in the subjoined quo- 
tations from Dr. O'Hagan's paper : — 

It is now about twenty-five years 
since Dean Harris gave to the public 
his first literary achievement — "Early 
Missions in Western Canada." His 
clear and glowing style, his fine com- 
mand of narrative, and his attention to 
historical detail witnessed to the fact 
that if the author devoted his fine 
talents to the historical field, the most 
brilliant success would follow his 

This book was followed, in 1895, by 
"The Catholic Church in the Niagara 
Peninsula," a work of inestimable value 
for the future historian of the Catholic 
Church in Ontario. 

Then followed, in succession, "Davs 
and Nights in the Tropics," 1905, "By 
Path and Trail," 1908, and "The Cath- 
olic Church in Utah," 1909. The two 
first-named works were the outcome of 
extensive travels in the West Indies, 
Central and South America, and gave 
Dean Harris an opportunity of reveal- 
ing not only his fine gift of observation 
and his wide ethnical and archeological 
knowledge, but also his picturesque and 
fascinating power as a writer, whereby 
he was capable of limning in these two 
works, as with brush of Correggio or 
Tintoretto, character, landscape, and 
the ever-varying and rich scenes of 
tropical life. 

In 1914, Rev. Dr. Harris gave to the 
public a new and enlarged edition of 
his "Early Missions" under the title of 



June 16 

"Pioneers of the Cross in Canada." This 
will remain for all time the standard 
work on that heroic period in Canadian 
history consecrated by the blood and 
martyrdom of the early Jesuit mission- 
aries on the Georgian Bay. 

Dean Harris's latest work, a timely 
Study of Occultism and Spiritism, ap- 
peared a few months ago in both a 
Canadian and American edition (B. 
Herder Book Co.), and is considered 
a scholarly exposition of a subject 
that within the past three years has en- 
grossed the attention of leading think- 
ers both in Europe and America. 

Within the department of history 
there is one kindred or cognate subject 
which the Dean has virtually made his 
own — that of archaeology. Here are 
the titles of the chief papers which he 
has published in this department: The 
Ape Man ; Primitive Civilization of the 
American Indian ; Practice of Medicine 
and Surgery by Early Canadian Tribes ; 
The Pre-Christian Cross ; The Mystery 
of the Land that Disappeared ; The 
Evolution of Man and Pre-Columbian 
Civilization of Mexico and Yucatan. 

Dean Harris has had conferred upon 
him [honoris causa) the degree of 
Doctor of Laws by the University of 
Ottawa and Toronto University and has 
been invited to address some of the 
most learned societies, both in Canada 
and the U. S. 

The venerable and learned author 
will celebrate the golden jubilee of his 
priesthood in 1920, which will mark not 
only fifty years of priestly life at the 
fool of the altar, but fifty years of 
faithful literary work, during which he- 
has been at all times the helpful friend 
and Maecenas of every Catholic literary 
toiler in Canada, and, we may add, of 
not a few in tbis count rv. 

Thus far Dr. O'lla^an, whose article 
we have hut slightly abbreviated. We 
may add that Dean Harris has in press 
two other works, entitled, respectively. 

"The ( >o>s Bearers of the Saguenay," 
which will be published by Dent & Co. 
in time for the Christmas holidays, and 
'*l(<r<- and There in Mexico," from 
which we lhall print an advance chapter 
in our next issue. 

We first learned to know Dean Harris 
when he was temporarily editing the 
Intcrmountain Catholic, and have al- 
ways regarded him highly as a thinker, 
a student, and an author, and many 
commendatory references to his writ- 
ings will be found scattered through the 
twenty-five volumes of this magazine. 
We hope the venerable priest and scho- 
lar will not only live to celebrate his 
golden jubilee, but continue for many 
years to enrich Catholic literature with 
the products of his brilliant pen. 

"Pastor" Koenig and His Medicine 

Apropos of our recent note on "Pas- 
tor" Koenig and the medicine ("Nerv- 
ine") advertised under his name (No. 
10, p. 157), we have received several 
communications informing us that 
"Pastor" Koenig was really a Catholic 
priest. "He was for many years pastor 
of St. Paul's Catholic Church, Fort 
Wayne, Ind.," writes Father C. J. 
Schwarz, the historian. "In 1887, when 
about sixty years old, he wrote me that 
on account of old age and feebleness 
he intended to entrust the making and 
handling of his medicine to some com- 
pany, and that concern always called 
him 'Pastor Koenig' in their advertise- 

Father H. Eilermann, of Harrison, 
O., supplements this information by 
stating that Father Koenig "was for 
years chaplain of an insane asylum in 
West f alia before he came to this coun- 
try. He was a specialist for nervous 

A Chicago reader writes that the 
"Nervine" people advertise their hero 
as "Comrade Koenig" in the Socialist 
journals, and Col. P. H. Callahan of 
Louisville. Ky., writes us: "This crowd 
make their medicine over our branch 
office in Chicago and some years ago 
the Menace linked me up with them." 

Father Koenig was probably a very 
worthy priest, but we doubt whether 
he would approve of the advertising 
methods of the concern that is now 
making and selling his medicine, about 
the merits of which we have no infor- 




Has Catholic Training Failed? 

I read "Why Does Catholic Training 
Fail?" in the'/ 7 . K. of May 15th with 
interest. In a general way one can ap- 
prove of most of the things said by the 
writer, but if each statement is specif- 
ically considered, some of the points 
he makes do not seem to be applicable 
to the question asked. Let it be under- 
stood that what I shall say is not in- 
tended as a criticism, but rather as a 
kind of analysis, made for the purpose 
of arriving at the truth. 

Personally, I am unwilling to admit 
that Catholic training has failed. I 
deny that it has. Let us determine, first 
of all, whether Catholic education, or 
rather, to quote from the article, "Char- 
acter training as practiced in Catholic 
schools," has failed. I say it has not ; 
and from those who say it has I de- 
mand proof. 

Many glance at the statistics of a 
juvenile or criminal court and, noting 
that there is a fair sprinkling, or a pre- 
ponderance, of Catholics among youth- 
ful or seasoned offenders, they immedi- 
ately jump at conclusions which are by 
no means warranted ; more than that, 
they are entirely false. 

I will not pause to point out at length 
that all criminal statistics that pretend 
to give information concerning the 
"religion" of the offenders are in them- 
selves half lies. Thus no mention is 
made of the fact that sonic of the so- 
called "Catholic" offenders came from 
homes whose parents were non-relig- 
ious, that is to say, not practicing Cath- 
olics, nay, not even church-going Cath- 
olics. Some never went to a Catholic- 
school ; ergo, never had any Catholic 
training. Some have come from homes 
where only one of the parents was 
Catholic; ergo, their Catholic training 
was almost nil. But the big and out- 
standing fact is that the Catholic 
Church is the only church that tries to 
hold to her bosom and keep near her 
heart the poor, the unfortunate, the 
downtrodden children of the human 
race; and it is well-known that poverty 
and misery are fecund causes of crime. 
The mission of the Church is to save 
sinners, to seek and bring back the err- 

ing and lost sheep. Is not this a point 
worth considering? It explains why 
you will sometimes find a goodly per- 
centage, and even a preponderance, of 
Catholics in certain sets of so-called 
criminal statistics. There is nothing 
strange about it. and certainly, it is in 
itself no cause for alarm. 

I should like to remind all those who 
have arrived at the conclusion that 
Catholic training has failed, that, ac- 
cording to criminologists, "crime ex- 
perts," "psychopathic authorities," etc., 
three per cent of the population is 
criminally inclined, — weak-minded or 
mentally defective, — and it is from this 
class that criminals are supposed to 
come. Apply this to the seventeen mil- 
lion Catholics. Three per cent of seven- 
teen million is 510,000. In all the crim- 
inal statistics of the United States 
(juvenile courts, criminal courts, work- 
houses, jails, penitentiaries, etc.) you 
will not find 510,000 Catholics. Yet that 
number would, according to "scientific" 
authority, be within the limits of sub- 
normally explained phenomena. 

But. assuming that there were 510.000 
Catholics listed in the criminal statistics 
of the United States, that would still 
leave 97 per cent (or 16,390,000) Cath- 
olics on the right side of the ledger. 
Surely, a system that has kept within 
the zone of safety (I will not say salva- 
tion) 97 per cent, cannot be condemned 
as a failure. That is one point I desire 
to make, viz., that taking only the 
criminal statistics as a basis, it is by no 
means evident that the Catholic system 
of training is a failure ; quite the op- 

If all the criminal statistics for the 
U. S. were compiled, and the "religion" 
of all the offenders given, I am by 
no means certain that the Catholic per- 
centage would be out of proportion to 
the percentage of Catholics in the total 
population. But even though the per- 
centage would be greatly exceeded, this 
could be explained by the fact already 
stated, Wr.. that a large portion par- 
ticularly of juvenile offenders comes 
from the poorer classes and the only 
church that concerns itself with the 
poor is the Catholic Church. The poor, 


June 15 

;is a matter of fact, are more readily 
apprehended ; they have no one to inter- 
cede for them. When they get into 
trouble no one shields them either from 
punishment or from publicity. 

But comparative statistics have abso- 
lutely no scientific value as far as the 
question under discussion is concerned. 
As I see it, the criminal statistics are 
not conclusive, and therefore, to base 
any contention on them is misleading 
and unfair. 

If it were possible to get the statistics 
of sinners instead of criminals, what a 
frightful showing is would be for all 
of us ! There are millions of sinners — 
grievous sinners — that ought to appear 
in criminal statistics, but they do not. 
Let me give you an example or two. 
Abortion is a crime, — a violation of the 
law of God, of nature, and of the State. 
There are no statistics dealing with this 
subject, but if there were, and a com- 
parison between Catholics and all other 
classes could be made, in whose favor 
do you suppose it would be? Divorce 
is not listed as a crime in the statutes, 
but it frequently involves offenses 
against the moral law. Yet there is 
hardly any divorce among us. Don't 
overlook that in your calculations. I 
am by no means disposed to say that 
the average Catholic is a saint. He or 
she is not. But the same is true for the 
rest of the world. Moreover, the way 
to arrive at a fair and just conclusion 
is not merely to take the list of delin- 
quents or derelicts — the social accidents 
— but the average of individuals or 
groups, the entire 100 per cent. Surely 
you will not arrive at the conclusion 
by looking at statistics of hospitals, 
morgues and cemeteries, — that all the 
people arc sick, dying or dead. 

I can discern some fundamental de- 
fects in all present-day systems of edu- 
cation, our own included; but that is 
an entirely different matter which has 
nothing to do with the subject under 
discussion. I freely admit there is room 
for improvement. But taking it as it is, 
1 repeal that there i- not sufficient evi- 
dence to justify the claim that Catholic 
training has failed. S. A. Baldus 


For a Universal Catholic Press Pay 

On June 29, 1918, a Catholic Press 
Day was celebrated throughout Spain 
under the auspices of the episcopate. 
The Rev. Dr. I. Montero Diaz, director 
of the "Ora et Labora" Society, of the 
Pontifical Seminary of Sevilla, had 
organized the festival for the purpose 
of promoting the interests of the Cath- 
olic press by prayer (masses, commu- 
nions, sermons), propaganda (confer- 
ences, meetings, watches), and collec- 
tions in churches, streets, and homes. 
The contributions amounted to 300,000 
pesetas. Ten per cent of this sum was 
sent to Rome as a Peter's pence offer- 
ing, and the remainder distributed 
among the various Catholic publishers. 

His Holiness Benedict XV, by Apos- 
tolic Brief of April 26, 1918, granted 
his formal approbation to this work 
and a plenary indulgence to all the 
faithful of Spain who celebrate Catho- 
lic Press Day on June 29th by prayer 
and contribution. 

The Rev. Dr. Diaz, in a circular to 
the Catholics of all countries, communi- 
cates these facts and winds up with this 
exhortation : "Let us commence at once 
to prepare a universal Day of the Cath- 
olic Press, which, with the blessing of 
His Holiness Benedict XV, may be 
celebrated in all countries of the world 
on the 29th day of June, 1919." 

It is too late to carry out this plan 
for the current year, but perhaps steps 
could be taken to make possible the 
celebration of a universal Catholic 
Press Day in 1920. The Catholic Cit- 
izen and a few other papers have, after 
many years of agitation, finally suc- 
ceeded in introducing, at least in some 
dioceses, what is known as Catholic 
Press Sunday. All that is necessary is 
to transfer this to June 29th, or the 
Sunday after, and to systematize and 
enlarge the work after the example of 
our Spanish brethren. 

Hut no, something more is needed. 
To make the Catholic Press Day suc- 
cessful in this country we require a 
clerical leader of the character, influ- 
ence, enthusiasm, and assiduity of Dr. 




The Melting Pot 

: Le Devoir, of Montreal, in its No. 
108 synopsizes a lecture recently de- 
livered by its editor-in-chief, Mr. Henri 
Bourassa, before a French-Canadian 
audience at Lowell, Mass., on the 
future of America. The whole is well 
worth reading, but' we have space only 
for a few salient paragraphs. Mr. ■ 
Bourassa is not only a prominent edi- 
tor, he is a leader of his race in French 
Canada and distinguished for clarity of 
thought and honesty of character. 

After pointing out the many and 
serious dangers that threaten America 
as a nation, he says (we give a resume 
of his thoughts rather than a transla- 
tion of his exact words) : 

The different ideas peculiar to the 
various ethnic groups that constitute 
the American people greatly complicate 
the social problem and render it more 
difficult of solution. An exaggerated 
individualism provokes Socialist re- 
actions, and the ensuing class war is 
likely to be ferociously egotistic. 
: Assimilation of the various elements 
by means of the English language is 
impossible. The substitution of an 
inferior tongue for all the other idioms 
of European civilization now in use 
will prove neither a gain nor a remedy, 
nor even a factor of unity. Assimila- 
tion by means of the State schools is 
still less promising. The so-called "na- 
tional school," in America, on account 
of the multiplicity of sects, must needs 
be godless, un-moral, and without 
ideals. The education it imparts pro- 
duces a false and immoral patriotism, 
which leads men to approve blindly 
whatever their government does, 
whether it be right or wrong. 

The only efficient remedy for the 
evils which threaten America is care- 
ful and systematic preservation of the 
best elements of each race. Every 
language and every civilization has its 
own good qualities. It is necessary 
above all to preserve, (1) the integrity 
of the family, which is menaced by 
divorce; (2) religion, which is threat- 
ened by agnosticism; and (3) fidelity 
to the social obligations of the Chris- 
tian citizen, which is endangered by 

egotism, utilitarianism, and greed. 

Appealing to his French-Canadian au- 
ditors Mr. Bourassa said in conclusion, 
that the French-Canadian element of 
our population is able to contribute to 
the solution of the social problem in 
America moral and intellectual factors 
of incalculable value. Most important 
is the role they are destined to play as 
Catholics. This role they cannot essay 
alone, but 'only in union with their co- 
religionists of other nationalities. With 
due regard, therefore, to their special 
and inalienable patrimony, they are in 
duty bound to lend their aid to all 
Catholic activities. 

Mutatis mutandis, these exhortations 

apply to every other group of Catholics, 

and Church and fatherland will both 

profit if they are carried into practice. 

•-»<$-•-• ■ 

"Let the People Vote on War" 

Former Congressman Charles C. Dill, 
of the State of Washington, has begun 
the publication in the national capital, 
of a monthly entitled, "Let The People 
Vote On War." The office of the publi- 
cation is at 1311 G street, N.W., and the 
subscription price is one dollar a year. 

The idea of a war referendum, which 
the publication champions, was first 
suggested by Mr. Dill in a series of 
magazine articles published in the 
months immediately following the out- 
break of the war in 1914, and, in the 
following year, the plan was worked 
cut in a book. 

Since then, the idea has gone round 
the world. Senator Owen, almost an- 
nually, has introduced in Congress a 
resolution proposing a constitutional 
amendment providing for a war 

The idea is in conformity with the 
views of our Holy Father, Pope Bene- 
dict XV, as expressed some time ago 
to the Bishop of Orleans, through Car- 
dinal Gasparri. (See this Review. Vol. 
XXV, No. 11, p. 161). 

If no war could be declared by any 
government except after putting the 
matter to a popular vote (a truly 
democratic measure!), the world would 
be safer than under the projected 
League of Nations. 



June 15 

The German Language in America 

V. Rev. Prior Stocker, O.S.B., D.D., 
who is not a German, says in the course 
of a strong article in the Little Rock 
^Ark.) Guardian (Vol. VIII. No. 51) : 

"The unification of language in 
America, like the formation of the 
American nation itself, is a natural 
process. And natural processes take 
time. Violent interference with them 
on the part of man will do more harm 
than good. When immigrants come to 
this country we want them to qualify 
for citizenship, to learn to understand 
and appreciate our institutions. Many 
of them have neither leisure nor apti- 
tude to become so familiar with the 
English language as through it to im- 
bibe the spirit of America. Is it not 
letter, then, to let them have newspa- 
pers in tbeir own language, edited un- 
naturalized citizens, which make it a 
point to imbue the new-comers with a 
knowledge of America. Either that or 
the certainty that many immigrants will 
forever remain ignorant about the coun- 
try of their adoption. Which is better? 
The only wise policy seems to be, on 
the one hand, not to force the English 
language on the often incapable immi- 
grant, who is. in the nature of the case, 
only a transitory phenomenon in our 
national life and the natural by-product 
of the genesis of our nation, and, on 
the other hand, not to tolerate any ob- 
struction to the spontaneous American- 
ization of his descendants. 

"So much on the language question 
in reference to the immigrant, lint that 
Americans, of Irish, English, or any 
other descent, even if they aspire after 
a higher education, should by law be 
debarred from learning the German 
language, just because we have been at 
war with Germany, seems a proposition 
-'. preposterous that it is difficult to 
reconcile it with American common 
sense. The Governor of Pennsylvania 
v. ould have no legislation of that kind, 
though the legislature of that State bad 
given it it> sanction. In Missouri a bill 
of that kind wa> defeated by the legis- 
lators of the State. In .Arkansas — and 
we are proud of the record — there was 

not a vestige of even attempting such 
silly legislation. Though England and 
France have suffered infinitely more 
from Germany than America, in neither 
of those countries has the study of the 
German language been tabooed. This 
singular phenomenon is peculiar to cer- 
tain sections of America. 

"It should be remembered in this con- 
nection that the German language exist- 
ed long before the war and has a litera- 
ture — in bibles, letters, history, science, 
etc., — that ranks with the best in the 
world. To supinely ignore it means 
just so much of a gap in the culture of 
an otherwise educated man or woman. 
Boycotting the German language 
amounts to self-stultification. 

"Finally, you cannot hate the German 
language without throwing some slur on 
her sister the English language, which 
favors her very much. The more our 
English is of the Anglo-Saxon stock, 
like Shakespeare's, the more it moves 
in sounds cognate to the German. That 
may be the reason why Shakespeare has 
always been honored almost like a 
national poet in Germany, and is so 
honored to-dav." 


Wilson and Free Speech 

Addressing the French Academy of 
Moral and Political Sciences not long 
ago. President Wilson declared : "I have 
always been among those who believe 
that the greatest freedom of speech was 
the greatest safety." (The Nac Repub- 
lic, Vol. XIX, No. 238). 

His hearers probably knew that one 
of Mr. Wilson's rival candidates in a 
presidential election, Eugene Debs, is 
now serving a fifteen years' prison sen- 
tence for exercising the right of free 

Probably they knew, too, that the law 
which convicted Debs was put through 
Congress with Mr. Wilson's support. 

And probably they were also aware 
of the fact that freedom of speech has 
never been so ruthlessly suppressed in 
America than under the administration 
of Woodrow Wilson. 

Wonder what they thought of this 
modern democratic czar whose actions 
Ik lie bis words !?! 




Freemasonry a Bogey? 

A correspondent writes : 

Referring to your article, issue of May 15, 
"Freemasonry and the World War" — isn't it 
just about :is wild a guess for Catholics to 
assume that Freemasonry started the war, as 
for Protestants to believe that the Jesuits 
started it? You are doubtless familiar with 
the type of Protestant who firmly believes 
that Jesuitry is at the bottom of all the 
world's troubles and disturbances. Well, 
there is a type of Catholic the exact counter- 
part of this, who puts everything evil down 
to the account of the Freemasons. The Free- 
mason is to him the same sort of omniscient, 
omnipresent, and omnipotent bogey-man that 
the Jesuit is to the panicky Protestant. Is 
France falling away from the Church ? It is 
the Freemasons who are to blame for it. 
Is Catholic Ireland still down-trodden? The 
Freemasons are the cause of it. Has Michael 
J. O'Toole or Ignatius Adolph Glauber failed 
to get a commission in the U. S. Army? 
Freemasonic influence is working against 
them. Has Mary McCarthy lost her position 
as primary teacher in the local public school? 
The principal is a Freemason. Has "Reddy" 
McLaughlin fallen outside the breastworks in 
his drive for a seat in Congress? How could 
the poor fellow succeed with the Freemasons 
against him? Has Father Bacigalupo's brass- 
band been overlooked in the invitations to 
celebrate the Fourth of July? There are 
several Freemasons on the Committee. Are 
our parish schools threatened because of a 
trend in this country toward centralization of 
education? The Freemasons have brought it 
about. Does that terrible curse, prohibition, 
seek to destroy our personal liberty? It is 
the Freemason's hatred of the Mass that laid 
the foundation of it. And so and, and so on. 
The Freemasons are "always on the job." 

Now far be it from me to suggest that 
Freemasonry may not be responsible for a 
great many anti-Catholic movements and 
tendencies : but when I see the gullible 
Protestant reacting toward Jesuits just as 
the credulous Catholic does toward Free- 
masons, it makes me wonder if we are not 
in danger of magnifying the power of 
Masonry in a ridiculous manner. We laugh 
at the fears of Protestants toward the Jesu- 
its. May not our exaggeratedly frightened 
anti-Masonic attitude be just as funny to 
non-Catholics— T. H. D. 

No doubt it may, and no doubt the 
machinations of Freemasonry are often 
exaggerated. A careful perusal of "A 
Study in American Freemasonry.'' 
edited by Arthur Preuss, and of the 
many articles printed on the subject in 
this magazine, will, we think, show 
that the Fortnightly Review does 
not belong to the extremists in this 
matter. The little article in No. 10, to 

which our correspondent refers, con- 
tains no assertion, but merely registers 
a rumor, a titrc de curiosite. Whether 
this rumor deserves serious notice or 
not, one thing is certain, — the great 
majority of our coreligionists are in- 
clined rather to underestimate than to 
exaggerate the danger, against which so 
many Popes have warned, to Christian 
civilization and the Church arising 
from the secret machinations of 
Masonry. We recommend to our cor- 
respondent a careful perusal of Father 
Gruber's article "Masonry" in the 
Catholic Encyclopedia (IX, 771 sqq.) 
and take this opportunity to suggest 
that some Catholic publisher reprint, in 
the form of a handy volume or bro- 
chure, the various pontifical condem- 
nations of Freemasonry, from Clement 
XIFs Constitution "In eminenti," down 
to Leo XIII's "Humanum genus,'' 
"Praeclara," "Esti nos," and "Ab 
Apostolici.*' These documents, not 
now available in a single volume, — 
many of them in fact inaccessible to 
the general public, — would open the 
eyes of many optimistic Catholics who 
fancy that Freemasonry is merely a 
bugbear to frighten children with. 

K. of C. War Work 

Colonel P. H. Callahan of Louisville, 
Ky.. is telling the inside story of the 
rise and development of the war work 
of the Knights of Columbus, in his new 
semi-monthly magazine, Good of the 
Order. The Colonel's account is much 
more interesting, being much more in- 
timate, than the ''official history." 
glimpses of which we occasionally get 
in other publications. In Collier's 
Weekly, for example, there recently 
appeared a story of the Knights' war 
work, which was very vague as to the 
beginnings of the same, but featured 
the dramatic doings of the K. of C. 
secretaries in Europe. Collier's writer 
seems never to have heard of Colonel 
Callahan, who was the first chairman 
ot the Committee on War Activities, 
who devoted a whole year to laying 
the foundations of that work, and to 
whom a great deal of the credit for 
its success is due. Not onlv does 



June- 15 

Collier's writer not mention Colonel 
Callahan, but he goes out of his way to 
give all the credit to Mr. Pelletier, of 
Boston, the Supreme Advocate of the 
Order. And the K. of C. War Service, 
a publicity agency of the Knights of 
Columbus, sends out to the Catholic 
press a long article on K. of C. men in 
the war, in which it goes so far afield 
as to mention Secretary Tumulty, John 
Burke. Treasurer of the U. S., and 
others even less directly connected with 
the actual work, whereas Colonel Cal- 
lahan's name does not appear. Evident- 
ly, there is "a little rift in the lute" ; of 
course, but such deliberate ignoring of 
a man who did his work well, and who 
made real sacrifices, does not speak 
well for the broad-mindedness of the 
present K. of C. administration. Surely 
there is "glory enough to go around." 

Our Schools and the State 
The Bishop of Harrisburg writes to 
US, apropos of his letter to the Ecclesi- 
astical Review, which we quoted in our 
No. 9, p. 135, that he is not committed 
to any particular policy in dealing with 
the State's attitude towards our Cath- 
olic school system and would be willing 
to change his present views, as laid 
down in his letter, and to stand with 
those who deem it better to offer strong 
re-i-tance to every attempt of the State 
to invade the educational rights of 

Strangely enough, the FORTNIGHTLY 
REVIEW has not received a single ex- 
pression of opinion in regard to the 
important subject broached in Bishop 
.-.IcDevitt's letter. Before the Catholic 
presfl commits itself to any particular 
course in the matter, it would be well 
M; learn whether or not the consensus 
of opinion among Catholics, and espe- 
cially among our bishops, is that ati un- 
compromising attitude should be the 
policy of the future in dealing with the 

fust now there seems to be no policy 
at all. We cannot but regret that there 
\- nothing in the way of authoritative 
guidance from the hierarchy as to what 
should be done. 

Is President Wilson a Freemason? 

We have repeatedly stated that, so 
far as the general public knows, Presi- 
dent Wilson is not a Mason. 

The National Masonic Research So- 
ciety's Journal for the Masonic Student 
(Vol. IV, No. 5, p. 109; May, 1919) 
in reply to a query from a subscriber 
says: "President Wilson is not a 

On the other hand, Dr. L. Hacault 
writes us from Holland, Manitoba, 
Canada, under date of May 25th : 

"La Franc-Maconncrie Dcniasquee, 
organ of the Anti-Masonic Association 
of France (Paris, March 10-25, 1919, 
p. 23), reproduces from the Depeche 
Algcrienne, Dec. 30, 1918, the follow- 
ing correspondence (I translate from 
the French) : 'Committee of Vigilance 
and Masonic Action of Algiers. — On 
Dec. 8, 1918, the Freemasons of Algiers 
in plenary meeting resolved to send the 
following telegram to President Wil- 
son : "At the moment of your arrival 
on French soil the Freemasons of the 
four lodges of Algiers, in plenary ses- 
sion assembled, Dec. 8, send to their 
illustrious Brother Wilson fraternal 
greetings and most cordial felicitations 
upon his Masonic work for the rights 
and liberties of nations." The follow- 
ing answer was received from Mr. 
Wilson's secretary: "The President 
commands me to transmit to you his 
profound gratitude for the words of 
welcome expressed in your telegram 
of Dec. 13." ' The Paris paper adds that 
the Grand Lodge of France sent Bro. 
Tangour, dean, to Brest to salute Mr. 
Wilson upon his arrival." 

These documents do not prove that 
Mr. Wilson is a Mason, but they indi- 
cate that the French Masons regard 
him as such. Are we to suppose that 
tiny know more about his affiliations 
than the American public? 

— Have you renewed your subscription for 
1919? The address label will show. Please 
attend to the matter if you have not yet 
done so. 

— "Fighl for justice unto death, and God 
will overthrow thy enemies." (Ecclus. IV, 




How to Solve the Social Question 

The Creator gave man the faculty to 
work and free-will, consequently man 
Cart work according to God's will or 
against it. Therefore, man's labor is his 
absolute property. But man cannot pro- 
duce anything with labor alone ; he 
needs material, but all material is 
created by God. The product of man's 
labor consists of material and work, the 
latter giving the material form and 
Value. The value of the product can 
consist only of the labor employed on 
it, because the material belongs to the 
Creator, therefore, man cannot put a 
price on the material without usurping 
God's right. As all human possessions 
are material and labor, man cannot own 
them absolutely. Christian doctrine 
teaches that man has only a conditional 
property right. 

This doctrine is laid down in the 
Decalogue and the "Our Father." The 
first commandment shows God as the 
Master and Lord ; in the Lord's Prayer 
He appears as the almighty and benevo- 
lent Father, who gives equal rights to 
all His children. The second command- 
ment and the sentence : "Hallowed be 
thy name" are equal. The third com- 
mandment is very important for the 
social economist. The Saviour taught 
the true sense of this commandment by 
word and example. He told the Phari- 
sees and Scribes : You adhere to the let- 
ter, but you have killed the spirit. The 
declaration of Moses contains the spirit 
of this commandment ; it forbids the 
sale of land and interest taking, regu- 
lates debts, provides for the poor ; 
allows the sale of houses in cities, but 
not in the country. Hence, this com- 
mandment is the social foundation of 
States. We can truthfully say it pre- 
scribes that on the Sabbath the people 
shall remember their duties to God and 
tc their neighbors. But the leaders of 
Israel had omitted the second part ; they 
had enacted blue laws as we have them 
to-day; for the Jews of the time of 
Christ celebrated the Sabbath only in 
God's honor and did not consider their 
duties to their neighbor. 

The fourth commandment lays the 
foundation of authority in family and 

State. The State consists of families, 
not of single individuals. The tribe is 
a great family, and the nation unites 
the different tribes. Mammon's rule has 
decomposed the family, tribes and na- 
tions, scattering them so that no true 
nation of uniform origin can be found. 
To-day families must disperse to seek 
work, which would not be necessary if 
land, could not be sold. By Mammon's 
rule the father has lost his authority 
and the State lacks the foundation given 
in the fourth commandment. 
i The sentences : "Thy kingdom come" ; 
"Thy will be done," and "Give us this 
day our daily bread," express the same 
meaning as the third and fourth com- 
mandment. The fifth, sixth, seventh 
and eighth commandments are the penal 
code for the State and at the same time 
the standard of each man's conscience. 
The Saviour taught us to pray: "And 
forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive 
those that trespass against vis." These 
two prayers cover the contents of the 
four commandments. The ninth and 
tenth commandments reflect the prayer : 
"Lead us not into temptation, but de- 
liver us from evil." 

It is evident that the use of labor and 
its products according to God's will are 
divine service; if we use our work and 
the products of it against the will of 
God, we serve Mammon and put the 
God-created materials in Mammon's 
service. The men in Christ's time had 
done that, and Christ called Mammon 
"the prince of this world." 

The history of the Middle Ages gives 
us an example of the other side. The 
barbarians became Christians after con- 
quering the Roman Empire. The land 
became the property of the people, and 
the right and the means to work were 
free to every one. Agriculture developed 
and as a natural consequence handicraft 
reached a high grade of perfection. The 
skilled laborers formed unions and gave 
the right to work to their members, but 
only to those who proved that they were 
capable. All had to promise to sell only 
genuine and well-made articles at just 
prices and stood under constant super- 
vision. No authority prescribed this, 
but the artisans themselves created 



June 16 

these rules and supervision, men at that 
time put into practical execution the 
iaw, " Thou shalt love thy neighbor as 
thyself." The right to work was for 
all, the Christian spirit made opposition 
impossible and at the same time secured 
fair prices and just wages to all. 

The Renaissance did not destroy the 
guilds. But as land and natural re- 
sources could be sold, they originated 
capital, which became the mother of 
modern industry and is ever ready to 
tight any supervision tending to give 
the people just wages, good articles, and 
fair prices. 

The true difference between paganism 
and Christianity consists in the manner 
of using the products of labor, which 
we call property. The Christian uses it 
as a steward who has to give ati account 
of his administration. He must use his 
property according to the law: "Love 
thy neighbor as thyself." His eternal 
destiny depends upon the use he makes 
of his property. 

The pagan, on the contrary, uses his 
property for himself, without regard to 
his neighbor. He tries to believe that 
there is no judgment after death, and 
his philosophers have studied out many 
systems to prove it. 

The social question can be solved, not 
entirety but largely. God created man 
and knows what is best for him, and 
hence the observance of His laws must 
produce the best possible state. This 
and the foregoing article contain a full 
programme for a Christian Social Party. 
These truths are so simple that the peo- 
ple can understand them, and success is 

Programme for a Christian 
Social Party 

The motto: He who will not work, 
neither let him eat. These WOrdfl of 

Vpostle forbid gain without useful 


The demands : the right to work ; just 
wage* ; just prices. 

Ai it k impossible to restore the right 
to work to the people without restoring 

the land, that miht be done first. 

The English go v ern m ent has. shown 

a way in Ireland to do it. without 

wronging anyone. The people buy the 
land back on time payments. 

To restore just wages and just prices 
the English workingmen have put up a 
programme according to which the old 
guilds shall be reinstated. The work- 
ingmen slowly acquire the industrial 
plants, paying the present owners from 
the profits. 

Here is a simple programme for a 
Christian Social Party, which all work- 
ingmen can and will accept if there are 
leaders to show them that the demands 
are attainable. 

Little Ro.ek, Ark. C. Meurer 

• • $ >♦- 

The "Columbiad'' and the Irish 

The "Columbiad," the official organ 
of the Knights of Columbus, comes in 
for some scathing criticism from the 
Newark (New Jersey) Monitor, be- 
cause of its avoidance of the Irish ques- 
tion as a topic for presentation and dis- 
cussion. Almost every other question 
is discussed by the Columbiad, but Ire- 
land is never mentioned. 

What does the Monitor expect? We 
don't look for live discussion in official 
organs of any kind. It is not to be ex- 
pected from them. It is to the pages of 
independent journals that we go for 
what is fresh and stimulating. 

A few years ago, the Rev. Dr. Cotter, 
whose name still appears as one of the 
"contributing editors" of the Columbiad, 
discussed the Irish situation in such a 
lively way as to call forth protests from 
certain Canadian K. of C.s — where- 
upon the Supreme Knight of the Order 
made a most abject apology to the ag- 
grieved Britishers. Since then Ireland 
has been as foreign to the Columbiad 
as if names like Flaherty, Callahan, 
Larkin, McGraw, Mulligan, and Mc- 
(iinley were not borne by some of its 
highest officers. 

— In a [taper on "The Impending 
Revolution in Italy," Flavio Venanzi, a 
Socialist writer, says in the Dial (No. 
789), that the Italian government is 
now "in the hands of Freemasons." 





— If you meet a friend with an anx- 
ious look on his face he is probably 
wondering what the world is going to 
be made safe for next. 

— In the current Asiatic Review 
(London, April '19) Miss Olga Novi- 
koff makes the timely reminder that it 
was the murdered Czar who, twenty- 
one years ago, first proposed a League 
of Nations. 

— The first sale of the 4% per cent 
Victory Bonds on the N. Y. Stock Ex- 
change, May 27, was at 99.90. A good 
deal of surprise was expressed in Wall 
Street at this fact. It had been con- 
fidently expected that the first trans- 
actions in these bonds would be at par, 
at the very least. 

— It has now come out that during 
his visit to the U. S., M. Viviani made 
a speech, publication of which was 
promptly suppressed, in which, having 
recalled the way in which "France" had 
driven God from the State and then 
from the schools, he concluded, "now 
we shall drive God from the churches." 

— We publish on another page an ad- 
vertisement, which we are glad to con- 
tribute gratis, of the lay retreats to be 
given this summer at Techny, 111. Simi- 
lar retreats for laymen will, we under- 
stand, take place at the Kenrick Semi- 
nary, Webster Groves, Mo., and at the 
Jesuit Scholasticate, Florissant, Mo., 
though we have been furnished with no 
details regarding these. 

— According to the Catholic Colum- 
bian (XLIV, 22) there are now six 
Catholics in the U. S. Senate : Ashurst 
of Arizona, Walsh of Montana, Phelan 
of California, Ransdell of Louisiana, 
Nugent of Idaho, and W'alsh of Massa- 
chusetts. Ransdell and Nugent are re- 
puted to be real practicing Catholics. 
The others, we presume, are merely 
Catholic politicians of the common 
ward variety. 

— Of vers librc (free verse) a writer 
in Rccdy's Mirror (XXVIII, 22) says: 
"It has run a pipe line to the Pierian 
Spring, strung a trolley wire along the 
rugged slopes of Mount Parnassus, put 
18-cent gas in Pegasus, hung the red 

light above the doorways of the Muses. 
Anyone who has a fountain pen, a type- 
writer, a dictaphone or a ouija board 
may now qualify as a poet and no ques- 
tions asked." 

—The London Universe (No. 3044) 
chonicles the death of Father Arthur 
Devine, C.P., the welt-known theologian 
and author. His many and well-known 
books have been a great help to clergy 
and laity alike. Among those who 
knew him personally Fr. Devine was 
highly esteemed for his power of spirit- 
ual penetration. "He was," says our 
esteemed contemporary, "an almost 
infallible guide of souls." R. I. P. 

— The honor of having first crossed 
the Atlantic through the air belongs to 
the U. S. Navy. Lieut. Commander A. 
C. Read and the daring crew of the sea- 
plane NC-4, swept into the harbor of 
Plymouth, England, at 2:26 p. m. on 
May 31, having started from Rockaway 
Point at 10:04 a. m., May 8. They 
covered approximately 3,150 miles. The 
actual Hying time for the entire distance 
was a little more than forty-three 

— Some of the Italian papers, out of 
pique at President Wilson's stand on 
the question of Fiume, have been print- 
ing a series of articles on "the white 
terror of America," a term applied to 
the imprisonment of political offenders 
under the Espionage Act. Political 
prisoners in other countries have here- 
tofore had America's sympathy, but 
now that we have numerous political 
prisoners of our own, we appear to be 
a little embarrassed, and our foreign 
critics are disposed to jeer. 

— "The way the Catholics of Ger- 
many have organized to meet the crisis 
of their history," says Father J. F. 
Irwin in the Brooklyn Tablet (Vol. 
XVI, No. 8), "spells success. They 
have the second strongest political 
organization behind them. The Chris- 
tian Socialistic party will guard their 
interests and there is no fear of gov- 
ernmental seizure of church property 
in the new German republic. Their 
organization is a lesson to American 



June 16 

— Paderewski's request for an Amer- 
ican commission of inquiry into the 
treatment of the Jewish population in 
Poland is accompanied by a denial of 
the stories of anti-Jewish pogroms. 
When accusations so explicit and sup- 
ported by detailed evidence are met by 
an equally explicit denial, the only way 
to ascertain the truth is by an impartial 
investigation. Personally, we suspcet 
that the accusations against Catholic 
Poland are. as were those against Cath- 
olic Austria during the war, very much 

— The X. Y. Herald publishes the 
results of an inquiry into the contro- 
versy that has arisen between the 
management of the Christian Science 
Monitor and the directors of the 
"Mother Church" at Boston. It appears 
that the circulation of the Monitor does 
not exceed 50.000 and of the $2,000,000 
bequeathed by Mrs. Eddy $1,300,000 
have been lost in trying to establish the 
paper. These revelations, in the words 
of the Buffalo Echo (V, 17), "prove 
the Chr. Se. Monitor an enterprise 
which Catholics will hardly care to 

— According to the Catholic Tele- 
graph (Vol. 88, Xo. 22) the Catholic 
Mutual Benefit Association has been 
compelled to levy upon its members 
extraordinary assessments yielding 
about $100,000 a month, for the next 
five or six months, in order to make up 
a deficit of $580,000. This Association 
is one of those we criticized years ago 
on account of their unsafe insurance 
plan. The extra assessments will have 
\'i be repeated and will prove the begin- 
ning of the end of the C. M. B. A. All 
the "cheap insurance" societies are go- 
ing the same way. An A. P. despatch 
of June 4 announces that the Royal 
Neighbor^ of America have been forced 
to increase their rates nearly 100 per 
cent. "IVcr nicht horen 'will muss futi- 
le n." 

— The Canadian J-reeman has re- 
ceived a request to re c ommend the Boy 
Scooti of America. The editor, Father 

D. A. Casey, emphatically declines to 
do so. "We Ixlieve," he says (Vol. 

XXXV, No, 23), that "there is already 
far too much of this playing the soldier 
among the school youth of our land. 
All the courage our boys need they will 
rind in doing their daily duty ; all the 
manliness, in a strict adherence to truth ; 
and all the courtesy and politeness — 
things sadly absent in our life to-day — • 
they can cultivate in their homes among 
their brothers and sisters. All these 
virtues have their root in the altar and 
the home, and not in the Ten Com- 
mandments of Sir Baden Powell." 
Very true ! 

— -The Ecclesiastical Review (LX, 5, 
574) prints two belated indults of the 
S. Congr. of the Council referring to 
the law of Lenten abstinence for the 
U. S. and Canada. These indults permit 
Wednesday to be kept as a day of ab- 
stinence in Lent, instead of Saturday, 
as provided in the new Code of Canon 
Law. The Review expresses the opin- 
ion, which is shared by several canon- 
ists, that the general law laid down in 
the Code is intended to replace all old 
indults and regulations hitherto in force 
in different sections of our country. 
The new indults were issued in January, 
1919. and are valid for two years only, 
which is additional evidence of the in- 
tention of the Holy See to bring the 
law of abstinence into general uniform- 

— An interesting discussion is going 
on in the pages of the Ecclesiastical 
Review on the subject of "censorship 
of the 'movies.' " In the May number 
a Chicago priest calls attention to the 
efforts made by the film producers to 
defeat the movement aiming at State 
censorship. He suggests "an effective 
national board of censorship." The 
question is, how can national censorship 
be made effective? Who can legally 
confer upon the censors "absolute 
power to reject any objectionable film"? 
All that Congress could do, in our 
opinion, would be to prohibit the trans- 
shipment of objectionable films from 
State to State. What we need is State 
and municipal censorship; at least, if 
censorship is to be tried, that, in our 
humble opinion, is the only kind that 
will prove effective. 




Literary Briefs 

—"Catholic Leaflets," published by Mr. 
John Brechting at Grand Rapids, Mich., are 
instructive and useful. Being small in sjzc, 
they can be enclosed in an envelope in com- 
pany with the letter. Such a gift is appreci- 
ated by many. Again, they can easily be scat- 
tered in depots and on trains and street cars 
without attracting notice. I know from ex- 
perience that they are read. Perhaps the 
small leaflet you leave behind you is the first 
piece of Catholic literature which some non- 
Catholic will chance upon, and it may be- 
come the means of his conversion. — (Rev.) 
Raymond VErnimont, Denton, Tex. 

— In the book trade many of the standard 
jokes are built around customers' mistakes in 
the titles of books. Booksellers themselves 
sometimes err, as is illustrated by the ancient 
?tory of the clerk who directed an inquirer 
for Lamb's '"Tales" to a butcher shop. It is 
the unusual title that serves as the theme 
for elaborate variations. Thus Mrs. Unter- 
meyer's "Growing Pains" appeared on an 
order the other day as "Blowing Pains." In 
another shop a customer in a New York 
book store, according to the Post, was aston- 
ished by a look of indignation on the face 
of a girl in charge of the poetry section when 
he asked, "Have you 'Growing Pains'?" 

— Two attractive books of spiritual read- 
ings are Fr. E. F. Garesche's "Your Soul's 
Salvation" (pp. 156) and "Your Interests 
Eternal" (pp. 155). While keenly alive to 
losses and evils in the Catholic ranks, the 
author is always stimulating, bracing, and 
encouraging. Owing no doubt to the fact that 
the various chapters were originally written 
for magazine use, the writing, in places, is 
less carefully done. The repetition, for ex- 
ample, of the same noun and cognate adjec- 

tive thirteen distinct times on six small pages 
of the first-named book should have been 
remedied by better editing. Emphatically to 
be deprecated as unesthetic and betokening a 
too commercial spirit, is the encumbering of 
books with pages upon pages of advertising 
matter. (Benzigcr Bros.; 75 cts. each). 

— The Christian Brothers' "Course in Re- 
ligious Instruction" (Philadelphia: John 
Joseph McVey) has been revised and brought 
into conformity with the new Code of Canon 
Law. The series consists of a catechism for 
first communicants, four graded catechisms 
for the various classes of the parochial 
school, and a "Manual of Christian Doctrine" 
for high schools. The latter is of particular 
excellence and has already run through thirty 
editions. There will be added presently a 
full "Exposition of Christian Doctrine" in 
three volumes : Dogma, Moral, and Worship, 
which will no doubt fitly crown the series. 
The prices of the different volumes are given 
under "Books Received" in our No. 11, p. 176. 
A letter to the publisher will bring additional 
information if desired. 

—"The Theistic Social Ideal, or the Dis- 
tributive State" is the title of a pamphlet, by 
the-Rev. P. Casey, A.M., on the social ques- 
tion. The publishers, in a sensationally 
worded circular, announce it as "the only 
American work of its kind ever published," 
"the most remarkable work of the reconstruc- 
tion period," which "deals the death-blow to 
Bolshevism, gives an antidote for capital- 
ism," and so forth. In reality the pamphlet 
is simply a crude re-statement, with many 
ill-assorted quotations, of the hoary fact that 
Capitalism is founded on an unequal distribu- 
tion of wealth and that it must make way 
for a more equitable social system. The same 
thesis has been set forth innumerable times 
with far greater ability and better arguments 
by Fr. Pesch, S.J., Dr. J. A. Ryan, Mr. F. P. 

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June 15 

Kenkel. Dr. Chas. Rriilil, and other writers. 
(Diederich-Schaefer Co.; Milwaukee, Wis.; 
60 cts. net). 

— Admiration for John Brown and a feel- 
ing that previous writers had not done full 
justice to him. prompted Mr. Hill Peebles 
Wilson to undertake a new biography. With 
untiring energy he went about his task, 
searching all available records. His labors 
were rewarded with the bitterest of all 
prizes — disillusionment. He discovered that 
John Brown's biographers, instead of under- 
valuing his personality, had heaped upon him 
unmerited praise and honor; that the Captain. 
far from being a hero, was nothing but a 
common adventurer, a self-seeker whose 
constant preoccupation was to get rich quick, 
even if the gold nuggets he got had to be 
washed in innocent blood. This is what Mr. 
Wilson has found out about the famous 
John Brown, and this is what he has had the 
courage to sot down in his new book, "John 
Brown: Soldier of Fortune"' (The Cornhill 
Co.), which may be recommended to all who 
love and seek the truth in history. 

— Now that the Student's Mission Crusade 
is organized, there is imperative need of 
providing the kind of literature that will 
nourish the flame of generous enthusiasm 
gradually spreading among the youth of our 
colleges. A contribution of this nature is a 
pamphlet by P. J. Sontag, S.J.. "America's 
\n-wer, or The Great Opportunity for the 
Boys of America" (Loyola University Press 
Cbicago: 10 cts. a copy; per 100, $7). It is 
primarily an appeal for workers in the mis- 
sion held, but has also the more general ob- 
ject of arousing interest in the missions along 
Other lines of endeavor. The style and man- 
ner of the author reveal a knack of appealing 
to the heart of the American boy. No doubt 
there will be a sympathetic response. It is 
t<> lie hoped that "America's Answer" will 
be followed by other brochures along the 
same line, for it is only by dint of unceasing 
agitation that the great and difficult goal 
which these "Crusaders" have set themselves, 
can l>e attained. 

— The Catholic Truth Society of England 
is keeping up the good work of supplying 
the people with readable and up-to-date 
brochures on questions concerning Catholic 
faith and practice Fr. Bede Jarrett, ().!'., 
present- in a leaflet of twelve pa^es the 
[.roofs for the Resurrection of our Divine 
Lord. This pamphlet ought to prove service- 
able to who must mingle with scoffers 
and unbelievers. "Devotion to Mary" is tlu 
title of a tract by Mr. (',. Klliot \11-t ruth. r. 
and those who have read this writer's previ 
• HI COntribtttionfl to the apologetic and 
devotional series of the C. T. S.. need no 
assurance as to his ability in handling S1K h 
'hemes. In "Liberal Christianity and its 
Alternative," Mr. Ronald A. Knox, no doubt 
<nt of hi- previous experiences in inquiring 
for the on< true Church, eomes to die cOfl 

elusion that the need of a mental and spir- 
itual foundation is acutely felt by modern 
men and women." This foundation, of course, 
is supplied only by the Catholic faith. "The 
Conversion of St. Augustine" is a chapter 
taken from "Leaves from St. Augustine," by 
Mary H. Allies, and embodies a message 
that is old yet ever new. 

Books Received 

A Handbook of Moral Theology. By the Rev. An- 
tony Koch, D.I)., Professor of Theology. Adapted 
and Edited by Arthur Preuss. Vol. I: Introduc- 
tion (Definition, Scope, Object, Sources, Methods, 
History, and Literature of Moral Theology); 
Morality, its Subject, Norm, and Object. Second, 
Revised Edition, iv & 293 pp. 12mo. 15. Herder 
Book Co. $1.50 net. 

The Most Beloved Woman. The Prerogatives and 
Glories of the Blessed Mother of God. By Rev. 
Edward F. Garesche, S.J. 155 pp. 16mo. Benziger 
Bros. 90 cts. net. 

Sermons on Our Blessed Lady, "House of Gold." By 
Rev. Thomas Flynn, C.C. xiii & 304 pp. 12mo. 
Benziger Bros. $2 net. 

Whose Name is Legion. A Novel by Isabel C. Clarke. 
350 pp. 12mo. Benziger Bros. $1.35 net. 

The Theistic Soeial Ideal, or The Distributive State. 
By Rev. Patrick Casey, M.A. 68 pp. 12mo. Mil- 
waukee, Wis.: The Diederich-Schaefer Co. 60 
cts. net ( Wrapper). 

Lc Canada Apostolique. Revue des Oeuvres de 
Missions des Communautes Franco-Canadiennes. 
Par Henri Bourassa, Directeur du "Devoir." 173 
pp. 12mo. Montreal: Bibliotheque de 1' Action 
Franchise. 60 cts. net. (Wrapper). 

Report of the Bureau of Catholic Charities of the 
Archdiocece of Cincinnati for 1918. By the Rev. 
Francis A. Gressle, Director. 24 pp. 8vo. (Wrap- 

Our Own St. Rita. A Life of the Saint of the 
Impossible. By Rev. M. J. Corcoran, O.S.A. vii 
& 187 pp. 12mo. Benziger Bros. $1 net. 

A Teacher and Organist wanted for the higher 
classes of a country public school. Good salary, 
house and garden. Send references with application 
to A. B., c. o. Fortnightly Review. 



go to 


408 Washington Avenue 


The Fortnightly Review 

VOL. XXVI, NO. 13 


July 1, 1919 

Some Sound Ideas on "American- 

Mr. Horace J. Bridges, author of a 
recent book, "On Becoming an Ameri- 
can" (Marshall Jones; Boston), sees 
more clearly than most of us native- 
born Americans, whatever is great and 
good in the American spirit and tradi- 
tion and what Americanization should 
really aim at. Mr. Bridges, English 
born and trained in the English tradi- 
tion, making his home in the U. S. 
only when he was mature, and after 
careful considertaion, conceives it to be 
the "business of Amercia to produce 
a new type of national character and 
civilization by the cross-fertilization of 
the many cultural types which the Re- 
public has absorbed and is absorbing." 
This thesis he developes at length, it 
being his conviction that hybrid civil- 
izations have always, as history shows, 
been culturally the most rich. In the 
U. S., he says, we have now undevel- 
oped and unappreciated, the materials 
for a new and richer civilization than 
the world has yet seen : 

It is an astonishment to me that so few 
Americans seem aware of the great educa- 
tional opportunity which lies at their doors, 
through contact with their fellow-citizens of 
alien origin. One would have expected a 
priori that familiarity with foreign languages 
would be more general among Americans 
than among any other people. Yet the fact, 
1 fear, is precisely the opposite of this. My 
impression, tested on a fairly large scale, is 
that among native-born Americans there arc 
comparatively few who are really at home in 
the languages and literatures of continental 
Europe. . . . We blame our foreigners for 
their clannishness. We resent the fact that 
they sequester themselves among people of 
their own race, and do not take the trouble 
to understand our language or our history 
and institutions; but we are guilty of an ex- 
actly analogous piece of provincialism when 
we betray our unwillingness to learn from 
them, while expecting them to learn from us. 

Mr. Bridges objects to our favorite 
figure of speech, "the melting pot," as 
utterly unsuited to define the Ameri- 
canizing process. "There is," he ob- 
serves, "no such thing as humanity-in- 
general, into which the definite, heter- 
ogeneous, living creature can be melted 

down There is no human mould 

in America to which the spiritual stuff 
of the immigrant is to be patterned. 
Not only is there as yet no fixed and 
final type, but there never can be." He 
adds that "the very genius of democ- 
racy, moreover, must lead to desire the 
widest possible range of variability, 
the greatest attainable differentiation 
of individuality, among our population. 
.... The business of America is to 
get rid of mechanical uniformity, and, 
by encouraging the utmost possible 
differentiation through mental and 
psychic cross-fertilization, to attain to 
a higher level of humanity." 

Mr. Bridges would have the foreign- 
language press fostered rather than 
discouraged, not only to afford Ameri- 
cans an opportunity to learn of their 
neighbors, for he would have every 
American read at least one foreign 
language paper, but also as a means 
to genuine Americanization for the 
foreign-born and their acquaintance 
with the spirits and ideas of the Re- 
public. Foreign societies are likewise 
one of the best means to Americaniza- 
tion and serve another purpose only 
less important : 

Let them keep alive Italian and German 
music and literature, Balkan handicrafts, and 
I he folk-lore and folk dances of the Old 
World: — not for the sake of the Old World, 
but as elements contributory to American 
culture. Let them spend as much time in 
bringing the spirit and meaning of American 
institutions home to their members as in 
bringing home to Americans the spirit and 
meaning of their European traditions. 



July I 

I Shall Not Care 

When 1 am dead and over me bright April 

Shakes out her rain-drenched hair, 
Though you should lean above me broken- 

1 shall not care. 

1 shall have peace a> leafy trees are peaceful, 
When rain bends down the bough, 

\ncl 1 shall be more silent and cold-hearted 
Than you are now. 

A Protest by the Bishop of Burlington 
The r>ish<>i> of Burlington, Msgr. J. 
I. Rice, has sent a letter of protest to 
Senator Ira Larleur against a hill he- 
ft ire the Vermont legislature (S. 84) 
requiring the exclusive use of the En- 
glish language in all public and private 
schools, lie says, inter alia: 

I am at a loss to know what possible good 
could follow the passage of Senate Bill 84; 
practically the only class of people affected 
by it are the French Canadians. 

To outward appearances this Bill is a 
patriotic measure, but we know fully well 
that everything labeled patriotic is not neces- 
sarily patriotic: S. 84 i- a measure dictated 
neither by education nor patriotism, but by 
Socialism; it denies to a father his essential 
rights in educating his child and it arrogates 
to the State the right which the Creator has 

: lade inherent in parenthood itself 

S. 84 seem- to cast a slur on the patriotism 

of the graduate- ,,f the French schools of 

Vermont, yet can the proponents of this Bill 

ce any cases in which the graduates of 

the French schools of Vermont did not 

measure up t<> the loftiest standards of pa- 

tism during this last war? .... 

We all know what a dismal failure our 

English speaking schools have made of the 

teaching of foreign languages; our State 

innualty thousands upon thousands ol 

dollar- to teach French in our high schools 

hot without very noticeable results. Our 

ot-ni- to recognize by its attempt to 

French that it i- a very desirable and 

useful thing for the State to have a goodly 

number of its citizens capable of -peaking 

rench language; why then enact a law 

v hich will prevent the children of French 

parents from acquiring a knowledge of 

I rench? 

French schools have not cost the 

State of Vermont one penny and they have 

eminently successful in teaching their 

• a knowledge of both French and En 
•'li-h. whereas the teaching of French in the 
high school, of tlie State has already cost 
hundreds of thousands of dollar- and has 

:. decid d failure. 

The interpreter! in the American army. 

• .u-;md- of telephone operator- who 

volunteered for service, were almost without 
exception graduates of French schools. The 
essentia] qualifications of these interpreters 
and telephone operators was a perfect speak- 
ing knowledge ''i French and English; now 
how many <\i our high school graduates or 
C< liege graduates could measure up to that 
requirement? Very, very few! The army 
was obliged to depend almost entirely and 
exclusively on the graduates of the schools 
that Senate Bill 84 is aimed at. 

It seems singularly inconsistent to attempt 
to prevent the teaching of French in the only 
practicable way in which it can be learned, 
I. <".. by young children in French schools 
which cost the State nothing, and then turn 
around and waste hundreds of thousands of 
dollars of taxpayers' money in a futile effort 
to teach young men and young women the 
French language. 

T am not <>i French extraction, but T have 
spent many happy years of my life in a close 
intimacy with the Canadian people; I know 
ihem thoroughly, therefore I love and ad- 
mire them for their sterling qualities and in 
the name of true Americanism and honest 
patriotism I raise my voice to protest agam-t 
this short-sighted and ungrateful treatment 
of tlje loyal French Canadians of Vermont 

Non-Catholic Children in Catholic 

The opening of a free Catholic paro- 
chial school in Goliad, Tex., raises an 
interesting question. 

The school, we see from the Southern 
Messenger ( XXVIII, 17), is to he "free 
to Catholics and non-Catholics," and as, 
according to the same paper, "the Cath- 
olics in Goliad are only a handful.'" the 
expectation of the pastor and congrega- 
tion obviously is that a sufficient num- 
ber of Protestant children will attend 
to make the free school worth while. 

The question arises: Is it advisable to 
open our Catholic parochial schools to 
non-Catholic children:' There would 
seem to he many reasons against the 
practice. Are these outweighed by solid 
arguments in favor of it? 

We should he pleased to print ex- 
pressions of opinion on the subject from 
Catholics who have given serious 
thought to the subject. 

It i> -till time io Keep that promise you 

made lo yourself la-t year to help the Rb- 

• 11 u along by sending in a new subscriber. 

■No mail can complain of being measured 

by hi- own yard slick. 




Cardinal Gibbons's Reconstruction 

The letter addressed by Cardinal 
Gibbons, under date of May 5th, to the 
Administrative Committee of the Na- 
tional Catholic War Council, marks a 
further step towards the convocation 
of the fourth Plenary Council. 

The Cardinal asks the four bishops 
(Muldoon, Schrembs, Russell, and 
Glass) to constitute themselves a "Gen- 
eral Committee on Catholic Interest 3 
and Affairs," "to prepare for the regu- 
lar meetings of the hierarchy, and to 
serve as an executive to carry out their 
dicisions and wishes." This will neces- 
sarily constitute the Committee "a 
clearing house for the general interests 
of the Church." His Eminence sketches 
a schema of topics for consideration, 
as follows: (1) The Holy See; (2) 
Home Missions; (3) Foreign Missions; 
i 4 ) Social and Charitable Work ; ( 5 ) 
the Catholic University; ('6) Catholic 
Education in General; (7) Catholic 
Literature; (8) The Catholic Press; 
(9) Legislation; (10) A Catholic Bu- 
reau ; (11) Finances. 

Under No. 6 the Cardinal calls atten- 
tion to the dangerous trend in education 
and asks the Committee "to have a care- 
ful treatment of this subject prepared 
and submitted to the judgment of the 
most expert." His Eminence finds that 
"there are many signs of increasing 
hostility to the Church and a desire to 
translate this hostility into legislation." 
He says that hitherto American Catho- 
lics have "hardly had any policy at all 
in regard to such matters," and empha- 
sizes the need of one that is both cau- 
tious and effective. 

The "Catholic Bureau" (No. 10) is 
to be the headquarters of the Commit- 
tee on Catholic Interests and Affairs, 
equipped so as to enable it to realize 
the purpose of its creation. 

Even the poor Catholic press re- 
ceives honorable mention in the Car- 
dinal's letter. He admits that "up to 
the present time the hierarchy has taken 
no concerted action on behalf of the 
Catholic press." and adds: "In view of 
the immense influence for good which 
a popular press could have on our peo- 

ple, it is worthy of inquiry whether we 
cannot come to its aid." 

About Lord Kitchener 
From a review of "My Diaries. Being 
a Personal Narrative of Events, 1888- 
1914," by Wilfrid Scawen Blunt (Lon- 
don: Seeker), in the Book Section of 
the N. V. Evening Post (June 21), we 
take the following interesting passage 
concerning Lord Kitchener : — 

Mr. Blunt joined the Gordon family 
in their horror and protest at the ( >m- 
durman massacre being translated into 
the theme of "Gordon avenged" by the 
English press and Imperialists. He also 
reveals the true history of the Mahdi's 
head being dug up and desecrated. Some 
officers had jokingly proposed giving 
the Mahdi's toe nails as trophies to 
White's Club. "Kitchener on this hint 
seems to have fancied having the 
Mahdi's head for himself to make an 
inkstand of and gave Gordon [the 
( reneral's nephew] the order to dig the 
body up and keep the head for him." 
The matter was severely criticised in 
Parliament and the head discreetly dis- 
posed of. Blunt's informant was the 
officer who made the original sugges- 
tion. He had been at a military school 
with Kitchener and told Blunt the un- 
explained reason why Kitchener served 
in the war of 1870. Owing to a little 
affair and debts which his father would 
not pay. Kitchener and another boy ran 
away. Kitchener "was tried by court- 
martial as a deserter. The two went to 
France and enlisted 
Army, and Kitchener 
for his handling of 
When the war was over, Linthorn Sim- 
mons, the head of Woolwich, forgave 
him and he got his commission. Pie is 
finite fairly epigrammatized as "a won- 
derful organizer though a bad general." 
Mr. Blunt records with satisfaction 
Gen. Sir William Butler's greeting to 
Kitchener on his arrival from Egypt at 
Dover : "Well, if you do not bring down 
a curse upon the British Empire for 
what you have been doing, there is no 
truth in Christianity"; — whereat Gen. 
Kitchener onlv stared. 

in the French 
got some credit 
a mitrailleuse." 



July 1 

Catholics and Community Life 
Doubtless Father Lynk (F. R., Vol. 
XXY1, 9) is right in his prognostication 
of trouble ahead for the Catholic 
Church in America within the next 
twenty-five years. But is there not al- 
ways trouble ahead for the Catholic 
Church in America? And do we not al- 
ways have some anti-Catholic outbreak 
every twenty-five years or thereabouts? 
There is a periodicity in anti-Catholic 
manifestations almost as unfailing as 
i lie recurrence of the seventeen-year 
locust, from which some of our States 
are suffering this year. Any prophet 
may with certainty prophesy trouble for 
the Catholic Church. W'e all might well 
feel disturbed if the Catholic Church 
should cease to be a target for igno- 
rance and malevolence. Our Divine 
Lord foretold this for her. 

But Father Lynk has no doubt some 
especially violent form of persecution 
in mind : he mentions a number of anti- 
Catholic tendencies at the present time, 
and demands, as a preparation against 
•>uch a persecution, "closer organization, 
a clearer realization of our dangers, and 
a perpetual watchfulness as the price of 
our liberty." I would add (I am speak- 
ing only as a layman and for the laity) 
greater personal sanctitication ; and then 
die "peaceful penetration" of the public 
life of our communities by Catholics, 
eager not so much for public office as 
for public service; a greater manifesta- 
tion, by Catholic men and women, of 
interest in the welfare of the commu- 
nity : a hearty entering into all move- 
ments having for their object social and 
civic betterment, thus making Catholic 
influence for sanity and correct ethics 
felt in movements that might otherwise 
•urate into fads and generalities. 
As it i-. in all too many cases and 
places, Catholics stand too much aloof, 
and flock too much by themselves. This 
exclusive herding, this avoidance of 
community team-work, begets suspicion 
among non-Catholics. Even the best of 
them come to believe that we are not of 
the common life, that we have interests 

apart from our fellow-citizens of other 

The Catholic politician, although quite 
frequently as good a type of politician 
as his non-Catholic competitor in the 
political field, has all too frequently 
been allowed to monopolize all attention 
as "the Catholic in public life." We 
have not been rich in Catholics who 
have given themselves to public service 
unless there was a salary attached to it, 
or an emolument of some kind. We 
should have more Catholics unselfishly 
interested in public movements, social 
and economic. We should have fewer 
attacks upon movements simply because 
they are new, or because they emanate 
from sources outside our own group. 
We should have more positive-minded- 
ness and less of the other kind. We 
shouldn't be always "agin" the popu- 
lar mood. Frequently the popular mood 
is wrong and unhealthy; but it is not 
always so. It is quite as often a healthy 
reaction springing from the very heart 
of America. When Catholics are quoted 
as opposed to it — worse, when Catholics 
pretend they are opposed to it because 
they arc Catholics — they are doing their 
Catholic fellow-citizens and the Church 
generally a marked disservice. 

I know that no matter how Catholics 
may or may not act, persecution of the 
Church in some form or other will never 
cease. This is the destiny the Church is 
fulfilling as the Church of Him Who 
was crucified. But my observation of 
life in American communities has led 
me to feel that a great deal of the mis- 
understanding and suspicion of Catho- 
lics is attributed to their own indiffer- 
ence and hostility even, to public move- 
ments which are, in the end, for their 
benefit and the benefit of their children, 
as well as for that of any other element . 
in the community. 

The "closer organization" advocated 
by Father Lynk would do good, no 
doubt. I hope we may have it. But 
we cannot live hermetically sealed. Our 
men, our women, as citizens, are con- 
stantly rubbing elbows with men and 
women of other beliefs. We must 
make manifest our Catholic life in 
terms of citizenship so far as these 
"outsiders" are concerned. Let us be 
open-minded and open-hearted as re- 




gards community life. This will not do 
everything-. But in the crisp locution 
of the day: "It will help some." 

Denis A. McCarthy 
Washington, D. C. 

Bolshevism in America 

It is generally admitted that Bolshe- 
vism has gained a foothold in this coun- 
try, but not every American is aware 
that the prospects of this radical move- 
ment are better here than perhaps any- 
where else. 

In the first place, because, under the 
existing order, a great part of the work- 
ing class is unable to live decently. "The 
truth is," says Reconstruction (Vol. I. 
No. 5), "that there is too much con- 
gested wealth and too much poverty in 
America — [there are] too many mil- 
lionaires and multi-millionaires and too 
many who can barely live from their 
labor. These facts arise not from 
chance, but from the nature of our 
institutions and our laws. ... So long 
as existing conditions continue, Bol- 
shevism will not merely remain the 
menace that it is, but it will grow. 
Whoever thinks otherwise has need to 
think again." 

The second reason is that nothing 
can prevent the Bolshevists and their 
sympathizers from forming a political 
party committed to the election of a 
Congress pledged to propose the substi- 
tution of the Bolshevist form of gov- 
ernment for the republican form. If 
such a party were in existence, nothing 
could prevent the American people, if 
they so desired, from voting for its can- 
didates, and if a majority so voted, they 
would have a right to remodel the gov- 
ernment. If a minority, having been 
defeated at the polls, should resist, the 
majority would be entitled to use force 
to make their will effective. 

One does not need to be a prophet to 
foretell that, unless the existing social 
evils are speedily cured by the use of 
the ballot, a Bolshevist revolution is 

•- ♦<$-•-• 

— True happiness is found in making others 

K. of C. Fraternizing With Freemasons 

Fraternal greetings were exchanged 
the other day, at Fargo, N. Dak., be- 
tween the Scottish Rite Masons and 
the Knights of Columbus. We reprint 
the respective letters from the Fargo 
Forum, of June 6th, page 10: — 

Greetings of the Masons 

In view of the fact that during the past 
week in the city of Fargo, N. D., there have 
assembled three great fraternal organizations, 
of which we are assured that one of the 
fundamental principles is the brotherhood of 
mankind, regardless of creed or opinion, we, 
the members of the June, 1919, class of 
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite wish to 
extend greetings to the members of the 
Knights of Columbus and Independent Order 
of Odd Fellows, and assure them of our 
heartiest good wishes in the furtherance of 
all the principles of that greater fraternity 
of which we are all members. 

Scottish Rite Class, June, 1919, by M. L. 
Hibbard, president. 

Reply of the K. of C. 

The Knights of Columbus of North Da- 
kota sincerely appreciate the friendly spirit 
expressed in the cordial greetings received 
today from the Scottish Rite Class of 1919 
now assembled in Fargo. We regard the 
message as a herald of a new era,, the dawn- 
ing of a new day, in which clouds of mis- 
understanding will be dispelled under the 
clear light of truth and charity, making pos- 
sible the great ideal of the Brotherhood of 
Man. We wish to assure the members of the 
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of our 
• reciprocal feelings of good will and of our 
sincere desire to cooperate with them in the 
furtherance of every lofty principle and in 
the promotion of a better understanding be- 
tween all classes to the end that the ideal 
fraternalism for which we both strive may 
be the more quickly and adequately realized. 

Knights of Columbus of North Dakota, by 
George McKenna, state deputy. 

Such fraternization, in our opinion, 
is wrong and dangerous. No true Cath- 
olic can consistently hail "the brother- 
hood of man" (as understood by Free- 
masonry), "regardless of creed or opin- 
ion," as "the dawning of a new day." 
and offer to co-operate with an organ- 
ization which is notoriously the sworn 
enemy of the Church, in bringing 
about that "ideal fraternalism" which 
would spell the abolition of dogmatic 
Christianity and the substitution in its 
place of a religious system that is 
essentially pagan. 



July 1 

Some Results of the "New Education" 

The Fortnightly Review has often 
called attention to the looseness that 
vitiates a great deal oi modern ''think- 
ing" and especially the vast output of 
some oi our universities in the shape of 
'"doctor dissertations" and '"original 
research work."' It seems that many of 
the candidates for higher degrees have 
not learnt how to express their thoughts 
dearly, concisely, and accurately. \\ e 
would not revert to this subject to-day. 
had it not been lately brought to the 
notice of educators in a very striking 
vav by one oi the professors of what 
is perhaps the greatest of our American 
universities — Columbia, New York. Un- 
der the title. "Twenty-five Suggestions," 
this professor, Dr. (lidding-, has sent 
out a leaflet "to ladies and gentlemen 
who have completed an American col- 
lege education and are now pursuing 
graduate studies as candidates for 
higher degrees." J le says that all of his 
"suggestions were directly provoked by 
outrages committed in dissertations 
offered by candidates for the degree of 
doctor of philosophy in one university 
department in one year." 

As these suggestions have a practical 

value for all writers of English, and not 

only for the "higher degree" candidates 

1 olumbia, we reprint the first fifteen 

of them. 

i. Don't say "between" when you mean 
"among." Look up these word- in the dic- 

j. Don't -ay "consider" when you mean 
'"regard" or "think"' or "view." 

.}. Don't say "coordinate" when you mean 
"correlate." I.< >< >k up these words in the 

4. Don't -ay "differentiate" when you 
mean "discriminate" or "distinguish from." 

5. Don't -ay "due to" when you mean "at- 
tributable to" or "on account of" or perhaps 
something else. "Due to" i- inaccurate and 

• uly. 
'p Don't -ay "during" when you mean 
7. I)'. n't say "eventuate" when you mean 

nr" or "happen." 
S. Don't -ay "motivate" when you mean 
"move," or "force of motivation" when you 
mean "motive." 

"phenonu na H I plural ) when 
you mean "phe no meno n " (singular). 

10. Don't forget that "none" i- a contrac 
t : on of "no one" and takes the verb "is." not 

11. Don't say "people" when you mean 
"individual-" or "persons." 

]j. Don't say "point of view" when you 
mean "\ie\v" or "opinion." 

The phrase "point of view" is now and 
then both accurate and useful, but it should 
Ik- employed sparingly. 

1,?. Don't say "sociological" when you 
mean "social," or "psychological" when you 
mean "mental" of "psychical." or "biological'! 
when you mean "organic" or "vital," or \ 
"physiological" when you mean "physical." 

14. Don't overwork "hence." 

15. Don't begin as many as ninety-live 
per cent of your sentences with "thus." 

The Educational Rcviciv (Vol. 53, 
February, 1919), comments as follows 
on the need of such advice for "grad- 
uate students" : 

"This is emphatic and convincing tes- 
timony that the hachelor's degree, when 
conferred nowadays by an American 
college, means little or nothing. The 
vague and feeble philosophizing that has 
tickled the fancy of so many American 
teachers during the past few years, and 
has led them to helieve that they were 
really making progress because they 
were intellectually and morally restless, 
and the odd notion that hecause some 
conspicuous psychologists have undis- 
ciplined minds there is no such thing 
as discipline, will disintegrate any edu- 
cational process over which they gain 
an influence. It is no more possible to- 
day than it has heen in days gone by 
to make educational silk purses out of 
educational sows' ears. Probably all 
the young ladies and gentlemen who 
have outraged Professor (iiddings 
by their lack of education, are 
the proud possessors of 'views' on all 
sorts of social, philosophical, political, 
arid religious questions. They are like 
engines with boilers of great capacity 
and no steam. They can not write 
English hecause they can not speak En- 
glish. They can not write correctly 
because they can not think correctly. 
They have spent innumerable years in 
school and in college and have care- 
fully avoided getting an education. 

"If Professor (iiddings stood alone, 
ho might perhaps he thought to be 
supersensitive, but unfortunately he is 
one of many. University teachers of 
graduate students in almost every field, 
teachers of law and of medicine, of 




journalism and of engineering, prac- 
tical men of affairs who wish to engage 
College graduates in their business, all 
unite in testifying to the fact that 
whatever else the American schools 
and colleges may just now he doing, 
they are not insisting upon the merest 
rudiments of a liberal education. A 
radical attempt 10 deal with this many- 
sided question would be more promis- 
ing and much more in the public inter- 
est than ninety-nine one-hundredths of 
the educational discussing and paper- 
reading which now go on all over the 

Would it not be worth while to go 
into this matter more fully and ascer- 
tain how much of the slipshod work of 
schools is due to "the new education"? 

The Bomb Outrages 

When the governments of the world 
have been preaching "force without 
stint" for five years as the means of 
accomplishing their aims and desires, 
it is not surprising that unbalanced or 
criminally minded individuals should 
likewise think to accomplish their pur- 
poses by killing and destruction. The 
fresh bomb outrages are the most un- 
happy illustration possible of the hate- 
ful idea that the way to achieve reform 
is to use violence. 

There is no place in America for ter- 
rorism of this sort, and not the slightest 
need of it ; for the Anglo-Saxon way 
of altering social and political institu- 
tions by free debate and discussion 
remains the only sound and safe one. 

What these fanatical bomb-throwers 
will accomplish is nothing else than 
further restriction on immigration, the 
immediate passage of severely restric- 
tive and reactionary legislation at 
Washington and the strengthening of 
the hands of such visionless legislators 
as Senators King and Overman. 

At the same time it is onlv just to 
point out that the country is now reap- 
ing what the government has sown 
throughout the war by its Prussian 
intolerance, its stupid prosecution of 
men like Eugene Debs, and the abolition 
of the right of free speech and a free 
press. — The Nation, Xo. 2814. 

Solving the "Movie Problem" 
We have received the subjoined com- 
munication from Mr. Anthony Matre, 
K.S.G., Chicago. National Secretary of 
the American Catholic Federation: 

Stimulated by the good advice set 
forth in the FORTNIGHTLY IvKVIKW, we 
• have finally succeeded in establishing in 
Chicago a Center for Clean Movies. 
Clean films are a scarcity. — as from 22 
to 40' < of all those put on the market 
portray illicit love and adultery; 20'.» 
murders, 10% drunkenness, and 27' \ 
theft and robberies; — but by patient 
and persistent work, and a good deal of 
cutting and censoring, we have estab- 
lished a Library of Films which are fit 
to be shown in Catholic halls and Cath- 
olic institutions. 

All films have been and will be per- 
sonally reviewed by the undersigned 
and several clergymen, and up to date 
several hundred thousand feet of films 
have been carefully inspected and the 
necessary "cut outs" ordered. 

In order to guarantee the Catholic 
public that the films reviewed and ap- 
proved Will be presented in their censor- 
ed form, arrangements have been made 
to open a "Clean Film Department" at 
76 W. Lake Str., Chicago, where these 
films can be rented at nominal rates. If 
the plan succeeds and there will be a 
demand for clean films, we have the 
assurance of several large film produ- 
cers that they will produce Catholic 
subjects. Among the censored films 
now available are : 

"Quo Yadis," "Julius Caesar." "St. 
Paul and the Centurion," "Your Obe- 
dient Servant." "Salts of the Earth," 
"The Little Chevalier," "The Apple 
'Free Girl," "Christ Among Men." 
"Princes Necklace," "Cris and His 
Wonderful Lamp," "The Storv the Keg 
Told," "The Star-Spangled 'Banner," 
"The Royal Pauper," "Election of Pope 
Benedict XV," and other dramas and 

Thanking you for your advice in 
bringing about this much needed service 
foi Catholics. I am yours faithfully. 

Anthony Matrf 
Chicago. III. 



July 1 

The Allies in China 

"Peking Dust," a new hook by Miss 
Ellen X. La Motte (The Century Co.), 
contains much first-hand information 
that has not hitherto passed the censor. 

We have heard a good deal about the 
imperialistic ambitions of Japan in 
China, but little or nothing of the de-. 
mands and claims of the nations that 
fought with us in the war against Ger- 
many. We quote the subjoined inter- 
esting passages from a notice of Miss 
La Motto's book in the New Republic, 
No. 240. p. 191 : 

It may be that Germany's distrust of 
Allied protestations of noble aims was 
founded to some extent on a knowledge 
of carefully veiled conditions in provin- 
ces other than Shantung. England, ac- 
cording to Miss La Motte, holds as con- 
cessions in Tibet, Szechuen, Kwantung, 
and sections of the Yangtse valley 27.8 
per cent of all China. Before the war 
the holdings of other powers amounted 
to 3.4 per cent for France, 1.37 per cent 
for Germany. 4.3 per cent for Japan, 
and 42.3 per cent for Russia. The total 
area under foreign influence came to 
7°- per cent. Japan has taken over 
Shantung, increasing her area to 5.6 
per cent. 

The others have not merely held on. 
Two years after the beginning of the 
war with Germany, while all eyes were 
turned toward Belgium, France coolly 
occupied three hundred and thirty-three 
acres in the heart of the city of Tien- 
tsin. "The attack, or charge, or party 
of occupation, whatever you choose to 
call it. was led in person by the French 
charge d'affaires, at the head of a band 
of French soldiers. They seized and 
arrested all the Chinese soldiers on duty 
in the district, put them in prison, and 
in the name of the Republic of France 
annexed three hundred and thirty-three 
acres of Chinese soil to the overseas 
dominion of the great republic!'' Peking 
and Tientsin were in uproar, the papers 
printed nothing but protests, every 
Chinese servant quit the seized quarter, 
a run was started on the French bank 
that came near mining it. a boycott of 
French goods was declared. Then the 
French government threatened an in- 

demnity for all loss to mercantile 
houses, the press was muzzled by for- 
eign interference, the matter sank in 
public discussion from an outrage to 
an affair, from an affair to an incident, 
and France had her way in Tientsin. 
The excuse of the act was that France 
had asked for the district as long ago 
as 1°TJ2 and several times afterward. 
The strike of the servants brought on 
a new and humiliating vassalage. The 
French consul-general published an 
ordinance to the effect that "every 
Chinese employed in the French con- 
cession is obliged to have a little book 
containing his name, age, place of birth, 
and so on, together with his photograph 
and ringer-prints." 

To the list of English injustices must 
be added the opium intrigue of 1917 
and the twelve demands by means of 
which she frightened China into enter- 
ing the war. The cynical attitude of 
Japan toward Chinese autonomy is too 
well known to require comment. The 
United States has been at least super- 
ficially fair, and her reward is to be 
less hated than any other of the great 
Powers. For China has seen herself 
eaten alive by capitalistic nations, and 
has learned that every proposal from 
them, however straightforward in 
seeming, carries with it some insidious 
leverage for exploitation. 


—The late Bishop Guilleme, in an article 
contributed to Catholic Missions (Vol. JX, 
No. ;) tells of some of the difficulties mis- 
sionaries in his part of Africa (the Nyanza 
district ) have to contend with. One Satur- 
day when the Father who had come to 
Kachebere, a Christian centre with about 300 
converts, entered the chapel to hear con- 
fission, lie found the confessional had been 
devoured by white ants. lie asked the 
natives to improvise a temporary confession 
al, which they did by standing his bicycle on 
end and draping it like a confessional. The 
catechist, announcing the fact to the priest, 
said: "You can begin to hear confessions 
when you want to, and I assure you that the 
biggest sins will pass easily through the 
grill." This incident shows how inventive 
tin blacks are. One result was that on the 
same day a number of important people of 
the locality gol together and decided to build 
a larne and solid church in place of the old 
thatched chapel, which was [rightfully dam- 
aged by the ants. 




Women Against War 

At the second International Con- 
gress of Women for Permanent Peace, 
which was held in Zurich, May 15-25, 
and attended by two hundred women 
from nearly all civilized countries of 
the world, a beautiful message of greet- 
ing from twenty-five French working- 
women to their German "friends" was 
read and answered by the German 
women present. The message read as 
follows : 

Message of the French Women 
to the German 

Today for the first time our hands which 
have sought each other in the night can be 
joined. We are a single humanity, we women. 
Our work, our joys, our children, are the 
same. French and Germans ! The soldiers 
who have been killed between us are for 
both of us alike victims. It is our brothers 
and our sisters who have suffered. We do 
not want vengeance. We hate all war. We 
push from us both the pride of victory and 
the rancor of defeat. United by the same 
faith, by the same sense of service, we agree 
to consecrate ourselves to the fight against 
war and to the struggle for everlasting 

All women against all wars ! 

Come, to work. Publicly, in the face of 
those who have vowed eternal hate, let us 
unite, let us love each other. 

This truly Christian message was 
answered by the German delegates to 
the Congress as follows : 

Reply of the German Women 
to the French 

We German women have heard the greet- 
ings of our French sisters with the deepest 
joy, and we respond to them from the depths 
of our souls. We. too, protest against the 
perpetuation of a hate which was always 
foreign to women's hearts. Our French sis- 
ters ! It is with joy that we grasp your ex- 
tended hand. We will stand and march to- 
gether, in common effort for the good of 
mankind. On the ruins of a material world, 
founded by force and violence, on misunder- 
standing and hate, we women will, through 
death and sorrow, clear the road to the new 
humanity. As mothers of the coming gene- 
rations, we, women of all nations, want love 
and understanding and peace. Despite the 
dark and gloom of the present we stumble, 
comforted, toward the sunshine of the 

If woman suffrage would lead to the 
realization of this beautiful spirit in 
the lives of nations, we should hail it 
with joy. 

A Letter from a Negro Catholic 

The article on "Negro Catholics and 
the K. of C." in our No. 9 has been 
variously commented upon in the Cath- 
olic press. Perhaps the most note- 
worthy contribution to the discussion 
was a letter by William Miner, a col- 
ored Catholic, to the Newark Monitor 
(XIII, 23). 

"Great Catholic organizations, such 
as the Knights of Columbus," he says, 
"owe it not only to the colored people, 
but to the Church, not to exclude us 
from their orders because of our color, 
but on the contrary should help us to 
rise. No organization is stronger than 
its weakest link, and the Catholic 
Church is no exception to this rule. It 
would be charitable if the stronger 
groups of the Church would affiliate 
with the weaker ones, in order that the 
weaker ones may be made strong. If I 
understand correctly, the K. of C. is not 
known to the world as a social organ- 
ization, but as the mouthpiece of the 
Church so far as organization goes and 
for that very reason, as practical Cath- 
olics, we should be allowed to be associ- 
ated with so powerful an organization. 
We are not trying to break any social 
barriers. There was no social barrier 
broken when we joined the Holy Name 
Society and I can not see where any will 
be in this case. We are only asking 
that the word democracy be put into 
effect at home, for thousands of our 
brave black boys went to France to 
fight, and to die if needs be, in order 
that the world be made 'safe for democ- 
racy.' " 

In conclusion. Mr. Miner calls atten- 
tion to an even more important problem 
than Negro membership in the K. of C. 
There is, he says, "a great and fertile 
field for the conversion of the Negro to 
the Church. What is being done about 
it? I must confess that I do not know. 
But I do know that if the recent press 
reports are true, millions of dollars are 
being donated for colored religious and 
uplift work by the several Protestant 


— If you do not bind your Review, hand 
the copies to others after yon have read them. 





Masonic Camouflage 
The Indiana Catholic (X, 487) 
quotes Capt Asa C. Howard, of the 
17. S. army, as saying, in a lecture on 
"•.Masonry in France." that the Grand 
( 'rient of France is frankly atheistic, 
has abandoned the use of the Bible. 
and struck out of its by-laws every 
obligation of belief in God, and there- 
fore should not be recognized by 
American Masons. 

"In my opinion," he says, "the rec- 
ognition of French Masonry will be a 
severe blow to the institution of [in?] 
America. To say that we Ameri- 
can Masons recognize an atheistic 
Masonry will bring- on us a concerted 
attack by every church in the United 
States. There are many men in the 
United States who have no church 
affiliation : a great number of our most 
prominent members are of this class. 
To them Masonry is, to use the expres- 
sion, their religion. They, too, will 
criticise us and refuse to join us. I 
sincerely hope that in the near future 
those of our Grand Lodges who have 
acted hastily will reconsider their state- 
ments and action, and consider them as 
'actions in the emergency.'" 

It is hard to say whether Capt. How- 
ard is in good faith or whether his 
address is intended as camouflage, to 
throw sand into the eyes of the un- 
initiated and the "knife and fork 
Masons," SO numerous in this country, 
who an- ignorant of the real teachings 
and aims of the Craft. Xo one who has 
read Chapter VIII, "The God of Amer- 
ican Freemasonry," and Chapter XI, 
"American Freemasonry and the Bible," 
in "A Study in American breemason- 
rv." edited by Arthur Preuss (3rd ed., 
1914; St. Louis: 1'.. Herder Book Co.), 
need he told that the God of bree- 
nrv is not the God of Christian 
Revelation, but a deified pagan I luinan- 
itv. and that the Bible of the Lodges is 
a Bible robbed <>f its Christian mean- 
ing and placed on a level with the 
Koran, the Vedas, and the Xendavesta, 

nay beneath the Kabbala, — a book ad- 
mitted even by Bre. Pike to be a medley 
oi absurdities mingled with what he 
call* "philosophy." 

There is no valid reason why Ameri- 

can Masons should refuse to fraternize 
with the Grand Orient of France, which 
holds substantially the same faith as 
they do ami differs from them only in 
carrying that faith to its last conclu- 


The Mormons in Illinois 

A good deal of important new matter 
on the Mormon War is contained in the 
second volume of Dr. T. C. Pease's 
Centennial Historv of Illinois — "The 
Frontier State. 1818-1848." 

When the Mormons came to Illinois, 
in 1838, they were very favorably re- 
ceived and their settlement at Nauvoo 
throve ; but within five years the West- 
ern section had risen in arms against 
them, Joseph and Hyrum Smith had 
been murdered, and the powerful sect 
had been expelled to take up the march 
to Salt Lake. Why? 

D"r. Pease makes it clear that the 
fast-growing enmity to Mormonism was 
rooted in political antagonism. The 
Mormons were wholly swayed by 
Joseph Smith, who cherished political 
ambitions ; and between the Whigs and 
Democrats they held the balance of 
power. When they turned to support 
the latter party, the Whig leaders in 
Illinois assumed a violent anti-Mormon 
attitude. The "revelations" of a rene- 
gade Mormon as to the aims of Smith 
further irritated the public. Commercial 
jealousy of the city of Nauvoo on the 
part of the other cities played a part; 
for in the early forties, while the Mor- 
mons had their headquarters at Nauvoo, 
that town became twice as large as 
either Chicago or Alton, a thriving seat 
of 15.000 people, with fine brick man- 
sions and great public structures like 
the Temple. 

Underneath all else lay an instinctive 
feeling that Mormonism would be a 
horrible political and social excrescence 
on the State. 

By the use (if old files of the Mor- 
mon paper, limes and Seasons, and of 
other contemporary sources, Dr. Pease 
has made a dramatic story of the up- 
rising, of the vigorous seizure of Mor- 
mon power by Brigham Young after the 
murder of the Smiths, and of the aban- 
donmenl of Nauvoo. 




Martyr Nations 

The case of Ireland is the most 
advanced of those nations seeking self- 
government. Sir Edward Carson has 
forbidden Lloyd George to receive the 
American Commission sent to raise the 
Irish question at the Peace Conference. 

The English occupation af Egypt is 
the most outstanding case of interna- 
tional treachery on the part of a Eu- 
ropean nation. At the bidding of the 
Egyptian bondholders, English guns 
were turned on Alexandria in 1882, and 
the promising nationalistic movement 
under Arabi Pasha was crushed. The 
English government promised solemnly 
in the sight of all Europe to withdraw 
from Egypt. After continuing its occu- 
pation for thirty-two years, it declared 
a protectorate over Egypt in 1914. For 
nearly five years the United States re- 
fused formal recognition of this act. 
Only a few days ago President Wilson's 
complacency triumphed over his con- 
science ; he accepted the protectorate, 
adding a little pious piffle to the Egyp- 
tians about the folly of their attempts 
at self-determination. 

The whole of India is a burning, 
seething sore. Literally, millions are 
engaged in a demonstration against the 
economic exploitation of the country 
under British authority — and particu- 
larly against the withdrawal of all civil 
rights from Hindus by the Rowlatt 
Acts. The voices of Robert Williams, 
Robert Simillie, and George Lansbury 
are raised in their behalf in a call to 
their countrymen "to join us in our 
protest against the bombing and shoot- 
ing of unarmed men and women, and in 
our demand for a public inquiry into 

i these outrages." 
In this connection it is interesting to 
remember that England has always pro- 
fessed to hold India as trustee for the 
Indian people on the same principle as 
that implied in the system of manda- 
tories under the League of Nations. 

It is with little confidence in the light 
of the news from Egypt and India that 
we contemplate the prospect of handing 
the rest of Africa over to England as 
.mandatory. The Japanese atrocities in 
Korea are likely to be duplicated in 

Shantung — underwritten by President 
Wilson, the United States, and the 
League of Nations. 

The connection of this state of affairs 
throughout the world controlled by the 
executive powers of the League with 
the future of Germany under the Treaty 
is obvious. Germany is to take her 
place as the chief of the martyr nations 
— the exponent of their wrongs, the 
leader in their plea for justice and in 
their movement for freedom. It would 
be another ironical turn of history that 
should make Germany the hope of free- 
dom in the world, and enroll the nations 
that fought for liberty and self -deter- 
mination in a League of Free Nations 
as misnamed as the Holy Alliance. — 
The Dial, No. 791. 


The Catholic Students' Mission 

We have received a pamphlet, titled, 
"God Wills It !" — which gives in brief 
the history, aims, and methods of the 
Catholic Students' Mission Crusade 
and is intended to serve as a handbook 
for those interested in that praise- 
worthy organization. 

The number of high schools, colleges, 
and universities affiliated in this new 
movement for Catholic mission en- 
deavor is rapidly increasing. The fact 
that units are established in New York, 
Maryland, Connecticut, District of Co- 
lumbia, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wis- 
consin, Minnesota, Washington, Mis- 
souri, Kentucky, and Arkansas, as well 
as in Canada, shows how widely this 
new spirit of interest in Catholic mis- 
sions has spread, and that, in spite of 
wars and plagues, the great mission 
cause is moving on. 

The Crusade was organized last sum- 
mer for the purpose of arousing the 
Catholic student body, especially in the 
United States, to study the mission 
problems and thereby to secure greater 
support and more vocations for this 
great work. The present headquarters 
of the organization are at Mount St. 
Mary Seminary. Cincinnati, Ohio, with 
a Field Secretary at the Apostolic Mis- 
sion House, Washington, D. C. 

Frank A. Tiiill 



July 1 

The Y. M. C. A. in France 

The Providence J'isitor (Vol. 45, No. 
34) thinks it is high time for the Cath- 
olic press and people to protest energeti- 
cally against the mixing of religions 
proselvtism with social service by the 
Y. M. C. A. in France. 

The Y. M. C. A., it appears, is en- 
gaged in a gigantic drive against the 
Catholic Church in France. Ten mil- 
lion dollars worth of proselytizing will 
be spent, "not to restore shattered homes 
and churches." but. in the words of 
Bishop Wilson, "what we will do is the 
replacing of Christ that He might 
occupy the place where the prophet 

How thoroughly this drive is organ- 
ised is told by Francis Beattie in 
America. The country is combed for 
the best preachers, many of whom are 
already working the Y. M. C. A. propa- 
ganda in France. Bishops and presi- 
dents of theological seminaries are 
drafted for the ventnre. Three thou- 
sand ministers are installed as secre- 
taries and the services of two hnndred 
leading clergymen are promised. 

"This is truly a gigantic movement 
against the faith of the French people.*' 
comments the Visitor. "It is a revival 
of the sonp-kitchen, as practised in Ire- 
land by the Evangelizing societies of 
England centuries ago. The Y. M. C. A. 
is taking advantage of the present dis- 
tress among the poor of France to buy 
them over from the Church. Where 
the bodies be there shall the eagles 
gather. These Y. M. C. A. secretaries 
are preying upon the wretchedness of 
that war-worn country and are trying 
to relieve their bodies in exchange for 
their souls.'' 

So many weak-kneed Catholics have 
been roped in by the Y. M. C. A. right 
here in America, without protest, that 
it is not likely that the anti-Catholic 
drive of this Protestant society in 
France will make much of an impres- 
sion upon our people or lead to anything 
like an effective counter-movement. 

— How abotlt that new subscriber you 
promised to lend us last y»ar? It is still 
time to keep your promise. 

—Not many people will remember 
the seven followers of "Pastor Russell" 
who were given prison sentences of 
twenty years, in June 1918, for obstruct- 
ing the draft. A few days ago these 
men were set free, and their sentences 
annulled, by the United States Circuit 
Court. "The defendants in this case," 
said the court, "did not have the tem- 
perate, impartial trial to which they 
were entitled, and for that reason the 
judgment is reversed." The New Re- 
public (No. 240) thinks, and so do we, 
that there are many men and women in 
jail to whose cases this same truth 

Catholics in the U. S. Senate 

To the Editor: — 

You do an injustice to a Catholic of 
the finest type, Senator Walsh, of Mas- 
sachusetts, when (F. R., XXVI, No. 2) 
you impliedly place him "among the 
Catholic politicians of the common ward 
variety." Senator Walsh, of Massachu- 
setts, is, in the opinion of those who 
are in a position to know, far removed 
from the low-class politician you have 
in mind. Knowing him personally for 
years, I have had exceptional oppor- 
tunitv to observe him in private as well 
as public life, and can assure you that 
he is a Catholic whose practice of his 
religion puts most of us to shame. His 
life is an open book, and in Massachu- 
setts, where he was governor for two 
terms, he is known as well for his sim- 
ple Catholic piety as for his progressive 
political ideas. 

As to the other Catholics in the 
Senate whose names you quote from 
the Catholic Columbian, will you let me 
say that while I have had no personal 
touch with Phelan of California, 
Ashurst of Arizona, or Walsh of 
Montana, I have frequently sat beside 
Senator Ashurst at Mass at St. Math- 
thew's Church on Sundays here in 
Washington. Going to Sunday Mass 
may not be, of course, a test of maxi- 
mum Catholicity, but I think that in 
justice to Senator Ashurst this fact 
should be recorded. 

Denis A. McCarthy 

WasJuneton, D. C. 





— The Christian Cynosure (Chicago, 
Vol. LII, No. 2) reprints from the 
Indiana Tribune a detailed account of 
the "christening," by the "Shriners," 
who are high-degree Freemasons, of a 
young camel ! 

— Heretofore it has been illegal to 
make bequests in the United Kingdom 
for the saying of Masses for the dead. 
The money so left reverted back to the 
estate for the benefit of the next of 
kin. The House of Lords has repealed 
the law. From now on it is lawful to 
make such bequests. 

— The American Federation of La- 
bor has decided to admit Negroes to 
full trade union membership. In case 
discrimination is tried by any of the 
unions, separate charters are to be 
issued to the Negro organizations. This 
is a good example for the K. of C. to 

— We see from the Southern Mes- 
senger (XXVIII, 17, 3), that a newly 
organized "court" of the Daughters of 
Isabella in Waco, Tex., has among its 
officers a "grand regent," a "regent," a 
"prophetess," a "monitor," and a "sen- 
tinel." Why this nonsense in an organ- 
ization of Catholics? 

— The American Child, a "Journal of 
Constructive Democracy," is the succes- 
sor of the National Child Labor Com- 
mittee's quarterly Child Labor Bulletin. 
It will deal with all aspects of the child 
welfare problem under the editorship 
of Owen R. Lovejoy. (105 East 22nd 
Str. ; New York ; quarterly ; $2 a year. ) 

— There can no longer be any doubt 
that General Wood is a candidate for 
the presidency, for he is having himself 
initiated into prominent secret societies 
such as the Ancient Arabic Order of 
the Mystic Shrine. The fact that he 
was admitted into this body proves that 
the General is a Mason of at least the 
32nd degree. 

— There is no more important section 
in the report of Mr. Gompers and the 
Executive Committee of the recent A. 
F. of L, convention than their insistence 
that "the very life and perpetuity of 

free and democratic institutions are 
dependent upon freedom of speech, of 
the press and of assemblage and associ- 

— The Y. M. C. A. camouflage seems 
to be not only religious but commercial 
as well. The London Saturday Review 
(No. 3317) charges that "the Hotel 
Adlon in Berlin is crowded with Amer- 
ican bagmen ['drummers'] in the guise 
of agents of the Y. M. C. A., who are 
offering and securing business for the 
United States." 

— The Catholics of London are organ- 
izing against the new Public Health 
Act, which proposes to set up machinery 
to deal with every Englishman eugen- 
istically from birth to death, or, more 
correctly, until he has been cremated. 
Measures such as this, in the words of 
Msgr. Provost Brown (Universe, No. 
3045), are among the most terrible 
dangers of modern legislation. 

— The attention of the editor of the 
Christian Cynosure is called to the fact 
that there is no such paper as "the Cin- 
cinnati Catholic Register" and that the 
remark credited by him (Vol. LII, No. 
2, p. 63) to that paper about God hav- 
ing "doubly blessed the Catholic Church 
by placing one of its most faithful sons 
[Joseph Tumulty] at the right hand of 
President Wilson," is spurious. There 
are not a few Catholics who regard Mr. 
Tumulty as a very doubtful "blessing." 

— Sharp reductions have been made 
by the House of Representatives in our 
army and navy programmes for 1920. 
The War Department asked for an army 
of 500,000 men; the House decided 
upon 300,000. The Navy Department 
requested an appropriation of $900,- 
000,000; this figure the House cut to 
S600.000.000 — no new ships being pro- 
vided. It is last year's tax bill and not 
the fourteen points that have put some 
sort of limitation on our armaments. 

— The uneasiness which the Catholics 
of England are feeling just now in re- 
gard to the all-important question of 
education, has led to the foundation of 
the Sower, a small monthly journal de- 
voted especially to the interests of Cath- 
olic education. The first number con- 
tains contributions by the Bishop of 



Tulv 1 

Sal ford, the Bishop of Northampton, 
Msgr. Brown. Canon Driscoll, the Rev. 
C. C. Martindale. S.T.. and others. The 
. N wer is published by the Shakespeare 
Press, Hincldey Star., Birmingham, En- 

— The glory of the first shore-to- 
shore non-slop flighl across the Atlantic 
< Vean belongs to Great Britain. With- 
out advance advertising, Capt. John 
Alcock. the British pilot, and Lieut. 
Arthur W. Brown, his American navi- 
gator, "hopped off" at St. John's. X. F., 
June 14th. in the midst of a fog, on a 
Vickers-Vimy biplane, and landed at 
Clifden, Ireland, sixteen hours and 
twelve minutes later, having made an 
average speed of about 140 miles an 
hour. Tlie achievement marks man's 
greatest triumph in the air. 

— An article by Dr. J. P. Arendzen 
on "Ante-Xicene Interpretation of the 
Sayings on Divorce" in the Journal of 
Theological Studies (XX. 79). ends 
with the conclusion that "lk'fore the 
Council there is no evidence that the 
Christian Church interpreted the clause 
except a fomicatione as authorizing the 
breaking of the marriage bond itself, in 
the sense that the partners ceased to he 
husband and wife, and that at least the 
innocent party might remarry. All the 
evidence there is, and it is considerable, 
points the other wav." 

— By a decree of the Holy See two 
new prefaces have been provided, one 
for Masses for the dead, the other for 
feasts of St. Joseph. The text is printed 
in the current Acta Apostolicae Scdis. 
An English translation will be found in 
Xo. 3045 of the London Universe, 
which incidentally calls attention to the 
fact that "proper prefaces" were for- 
merly much more numerous than they 
art now. the Leonine Sacramentary, 
for instance, containing no less than 
267. The new preface for Masses for 
the dead had been widely used in 
Prance and elsewhere. 

— The Senate subcommittee which 
has been inquiring into anti-patriotic 
activities has submitted a vague report 
and recommended "control and regula- 
tion of foreign-language publications" 
and a permanent law similar to the war- 
time espionage act. Such proposals run 
counter to American principles and tra- 
ditions and should be opposed by every 
true American. "Freedom of speech 
and the press," comments even the hide- 
bound Globe-Democrat (June 16), "is 

essential to democracy Let not 

America set an example of govern- 
mental control of thought worse than 
that of the late czar." 

—The number of farm tenants has 
increased 40 per cent, in Kansas in the 
last eighteen years. The number of 

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acres farmed by tenants in that State 
has increased 80 per cent, in the same 
period. ( lOvemor Allen has begun a 
campaign to eliminate the farm tenant 
as far as possible by providing State 
aid for those who wish to buy farms 
and who will farm them. The last 
Legislature voted to submit to the pin- 
pie at the next election a constitutional 
amendment which will authorize the 
State to invest money in lands and sell 
them to farmers on easy terms and at 
low rates of interest. 

— Apropos of prospective Catholic 
dailies. (F. R.. XXVI, 11, 168), the 
Indiana Catholic, too, has declared its 
willingness to change from a weekly to 
a daily on Mr. Gonner's "Iowa plan" 
( semi-weekly, tri-weeklv, daily ; by de- 
grees). Mr. J. P. O'Mahony, who is 
an able writer and a good manager 
(tare combination!), says his paper 
was started with less than nothing and 
lias "made good" as a weekly, and that 
there is no reason why it should not 
succeed as a daily. — "if the Catholics 
of Indiana want it." We hope he will 
meet with encouragement. Indiana is 
at least as good a field for a Catholic 
dcily as Iowa. 

— The girls employed in the \Yool- 
worth store in South Chicago, 111., were 
recently organized and demanded in- 
creased wages and shorter hours. When 
the demand was rejected, the girls 

walked out of the store. Wages paid 
were from $4.50 to $7.50 per week. The 
Public says i No. 1106) that this is the 
rate paid in nearly all the stores of the 
Woolworth Company. It will be re- 
called that the head of this company, 
i\ W. Woolworth, died recently and 
left $60,000,000. The accumulation of 
this enormous fortune is attributable 
largely to the extreme low wages paid 
to the employes and the slavish condi- 
tions exacted. 

— In reply to our disproval of its 
standing claim that it is "the largest 
Catholic newspaper in the United 
States" (/•. A\. XXVI, 11. 173). the 
Chicago New World (XVIII, 50. 4), 
without quoting a word of what we 
said or even intimating the nature of 
our criticism, tells its readers that 
"Pruess [sic ! | is the word for Prussian ; 
if it is not. it should be." and that the 
Fortnightly Review cares for noth- 
ing American except Liberty bonds. 
Whether these silly charges are true 
or false cannot possibly concern the 
readers of the New World. What does 
concern them, however, and the whole 
Catholic press, is that "the official 
organ of the Archdiocese of Chicago 
and of the Province of Illinois" flaunts 
at the top of every issue the mendacious 
assertion that it is "the largest Catholic 
newspaper in the United States." Are 
official organs permitted to lie? 

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Literary Briefs 


— The St. John's Orphanage Edition of the 
Belleville (111.) Messenger is. both as to text 
and letter-press, one of the finest publications 
oi its kind that has ever come to our notice. 
It contains, on J64 richly illustrated folio 
pages. 114 sketches of existing or extinct 
parishes of the Diocese of Belleville. In the 
words of Rev. Dr. P. Gnilday. "no one but 
the hard-pan research worker can realize the 
infinite patience and skill it demanded to 
produce such a magnum opus." Unfortunate- 
ly, because of various difficulties and the 
tremendous expense involved, the editor, 
Father F. Beuckman. and the publisher. Mr. 
Joseph X. Buechler. were unable to include 
in this edition all the parishes and institutions 
<>t the diocese and to give the general history 
of the diocese, which was the real task they 
had set for themselves. Fr. Beuckman's 
preface strikes a somewhat pessimistic note, 
but he has written us since that he hopes to 
be able to complete the work and to issue it 
in book-form, eliminating all biographies and 
half-tones. For this octavo edition the his- 
tory of the old French missions has been re- 
written, and foot-notes have been added 
referring to the sources. Meanwhile the St. 
John's Orphanage Edition of the Messenger, 
— so called because the proceeds are destined 
for the diocesan orphan asylum, — will prove 
a most useful work for strengthening the 
faith and interest in Catholic matters in the 
descendants of the sturdy pioneers, so many 
of whom appear here in word and picture, 
and a precious collection of historical frag- 
ments, most of which would surely have 
perished had they not been gathered to- 
gether in time. We congratulate the editor 
and the publisher on their excellent work, 
which has been a labor of love (work of 
this kind is ever unprofitable among Ameri- 
can Catholics), and trust that they will not 
be discouraged by the apathy and indiffer- 
ence amid which their path is laid, but con- 
tunic and complete the good work for its 
own sake. It will stand as an opus aere 
pcrennius to perpetuate their names. (A 
copy of this edition will be sent to any ad- 
dress for $.^ by Mr. Joseph X. Buechler, 332 
W. Main Str., Belleville. 111.) 

—In '"The Letters of Charles Algernon 
Swinburne," lately edited by Edmund Gosse 
and Thomas J. Wise ( 2 vols. John Lane Co.), 
there i- found a sharp exchange of views be- 
tween Newman and Swinburne. The former 
had declared to Gosse that he thought Swin- 
burne - - poems "soaked in an ethical quality, 
whatever it is to be called, which would have 
made it impossible in the last generation for 
a brother to read them to a sister" ; and Swin- 
burne retorted by professing infinite amuse- 
ment at the view ot Newman that "amorous- 
and religion were wholly irreconcilable. 
Needle-- to ->ay, this was evading the real 



go to 


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The Fortnightly Review 

VOL. XXVI, NO. 14 


July 15, 1919 

For the Freedom of Education 

Cardinal O'Connell. in a paper read 
at the St. Louis meeting of the Catholic 
Educational Association and printed in 
pamphlet form by the latter under the 
title, "The Reasonable Limits of State 
Activity," protests against "the present 
tendency of the State to increase its,. 
powers and to absorb the individual in 
its paternalistic legislation," especially 
by monopolizing education. Against 
this "un-American tendency of the 
government to enlarge the area of its 
activity at the expense of popular lib- 
erty," he emphasizes the fundamental 
principles that constitute the rationale 
of civil society. The State, he says, 
came after, not before the family. It 
had its origin in the union of families 
seeking the protection of their rights 
and the promotion of their temporal 
well-being. The State, therefore, ex- 
ists for the individual. Its purpose is 
to further the common interests and 
the temporal prosperity of the commu- 
nity and to protect the private rights 
of the citizens. This is not only sound 
philosophy, it is likewise genuine 
Americanism. Nevertheless, we in 
America are drifting in the direction 
of State absolutism. "Each year the 
volume of over-legislation is increas- 
ing; the sacredness of human rights is 
ignored, and the State, according to the 
philosophy of the day, is regarded as 
an object of worship, the one supreme 
authority in society. This is the Czar- 
ism of Russia and the Prussianism of 
Germany reproduced, and as such, we 
resist it because it is disastrous in its 
consequences and false to the spirit of 
American traditions" (p. 19). 

The Cardinal's teaching is practical- 
ly applied in a brochure just published 
by the Catholic Central Society, "For 

the Freedom of Education." It is, as 
the sub-title indicates, "an argument 
against the Towner and Smith bills," 
now before Congress, which embody 
the tendency towards a State monopoly 
of education against which Cardinal 
O'Connell so strongly protests. The 
Towner and Smith bills mark a long 
step in advance on the way to an ab- 
solutistic system of centralized educa- 
tion which would seriously endanger 
American liberty. The authors of the 
brochure justly combat the two meas- 
ures, which are fathered by the Nation- 
al Education Association, as "danger- 
ous, un-American, and unjust." Con- 
gressman Fitzgerald, of New York, is 
quoted as saying that this movement, 
if continued and not stopped, "means 
an entire change in our system of gov- 
ernment, a practical subordination of 
State and local government, if not the 
elimination of self-government in this 
country, and the building up of a great 
federalized central government, which 
I believe is the greatest menace to this 

The authors of the pamphlet before 
us carefully analyze the Towner bill 
and call upon all loyal Americans to 
warn their representatives in Washing- 
ton against the Towner and Smith bills, 
lest, while they are seeking to relieve 
industry of the federal control imposed 
in the course of the war, they help to 
adopt a scheme which will permit, nay, 
foster the federalization of something 
which is far more ideal and far more 
necessary to the liberty of every Amer- 
ican citizen than factories, raw mate- 
rials, and manufacturing products. 

Copies of the Central Society's time- 
ly pamphlet can be had free of charge 
by applying to the Central Bureau. 
201 Temple Building, St. Louis, Mo. 



July 15 

I Shall Not Cry Return 
By M. H. Gates 
1 >hall not cry Return ! Return ! 

Nor weep my years away: 
But just as long as sunsets burn, 

And dawns make DO delay, 
1 shall be lonesome — I shall miss 
Your hand, your voice, your smile, your kiss. 

Not often shall I speak your name, 

For what would strangers care. 
That once a sudden tempest came 

And swept my gardens bare. 
And then you passed, and in your place 
Stood Silence with her lifted face. 

Not always shall this parting be. 

For tho I travel slow. 
1, too. may claim eternity 

And End the way you go: 
And so I do my task and wait 
The opening of the outer gate. 

The Opal City 
By Dean Harris 
One of the quaintest and. historical- 
ly, most attractive cities in the Republic 
of Mexico is Queretaro. It is seldom 
seen by members of touring parties and 
is known to visitors only as a station 
on the Mexican Central Railway, where 
topazes, rebosos, and opals are sold to 
travelers by gaudily dressed boys and 

S ir,s - 

\\ ben I entered the fascinating city, 

some distance north of the depot, it was 
past eight o'clock at night. The band 
was playing in the plaza and the roman- 
tic and historic garden was tilled with 
people listening to the music and ap- 
plauding the musicians. 

The plaza was lighted by incandes- 
cent lamps and odorous with flower-;, 
while the gorgeous palm trees and 
tropical shrubbery imparted a mysteri- 
ous charm to the fascinating place. 
From the window of my hotel room I 
could look down upon this floral square, 
the very heart and centre of the city. 
Beyond it was the city market, the en- 
trance to which was through a massive 
stone arch, near which was a fountain 
and the life-Sized statue of a Triton, 
hi the morning the market is crowded 
with venders and buyers, but when the 
sun is setting, it becomes, in harmony 
with the early history of the land, a 
place of silence and mystery. 

Silence and mystery! These are the 
attributes which belong to Queretaro 
above all other cities, for it is filled 
with memories of great men and great 
events, and its life is largely of the ro- 
mantic and warlike past. Its fifty 
thousand inhabitants are contented if 
not rich, its monuments are not often 
visited by strangers, its thrilling story 
is seldom told. Even the native bask- 
ing contentedly in the glorious sunshine 
seems indifferent to. or ignorant of, the 
history of the great men whose fame 
is indirectly associated with the city. 
It is only when you meet and partake 
of the lavish hospitality of the well- 
informed and prosperous citizen, that 
you hear for the first time of the re- 
markable men and events which give 
importance and heroic setting to this 
fascinating city. 

The native village of Ouerendora 
("A Place surrounded by mountains") 
which antedated by centuries the pres- 
ent city, was swept away by the Spani- 
ards under Tapia, in 1531, and on its 
ruins was founded the Christian city 
of Queretaro : — "Queretaro of St. 
James." Soon the locality acquired a 
reputation for its splendid climate, the 
most salubrious in all Mexico, and 
from the wealthy City of Mexico vice- 
rovs, generals, and people of means 
with their households flocked to Quere- 
taro where the religious atmosphere and 
the healing air and quietude restored 
their shattered health. 

In time Queretaro became a city of 
splendid churches, magnificent convents 
and monasteries, which imparted to the 
place a unique distinction and a relig- 
ious and social repose inviting peace, 
contentment, and happiness. If we ex- 
ec] >t Celaya, which lies in the valley of 
I.aja, not more than twenty miles away, 
there was no city in all Mexico where 
ecclesiastical architecture and religious 
institutions acquired more picturesque 
and permanent proportions than in 
Queretaro. Many great churches and 
sixteen educational institutions yet ex- 
ist, after war, confiscation, and vandal" 
istn have ravaged the ancient city. 
Many of these churches and buildings 
are of historic Interest. 




The monastery of the religious order 
of the Teresitas. where the unfortunate 
Emperor Maximilian and General 
Mendez were imprisoned for a time, is 
a vast pile, now converted into a State 
school. The Federal Palace occupies a 
part of the Convent of Saint Augustine 
and is famous all over the republic for 
the beauty of its architecture and the 
richness of its superbly carved marble 
galleries surrounding the courtyard. 

The venerable church of San Fran- 
cisco, which was made the Cathedral 
of the diocese (in 1863), was founded a 
few years after the Spaniards acquired 
possession of the Aztec town. As it 
stands to-day, it represents many years 
of patient labor ; for though pronounced 
complete in 1698, it was repeatedly 
repaired and altered, the last time in 
1727. The beautiful choir, a mass of 
carved oak now black with age, inclos- 
ing a tall rack full of priceless volumes 
of ancient music, was completed a cen- 
tury ago. 

It is passing strange that in this at- 
tractive and conservative city more 
plots and uprisings against Spanish 
viceroys and Mexican presidents were 
fomented than in any other town or 
place outside the City of Mexico. 

The first proclamation of independ- 
ence which is intimately associated with 
the history of the city was the result 
of the conspiracy of Iturrigaray to 
secede from Spain and establish in the 
ancient dominion a new and more 
liberal government. Since then all rev- 
olutionary uprisings begin with a shout 
— a "grito" — for liberty, equality or 
death. Whether Iturrigaray, who by 
the way was viceroy at the time, really 
meditated rebellion against Spain, is a 
disputed point to this dav. But all agree 
that when the report of his dissatisfac- 
tion was heard by the Spanish junta, 
he and the intendant and some other 
prominent men in Queretaro were ar- 
rested and deported. 

A few years later another and more 
memorable conspiracy was hatched in 
a house overlooking the Plaza Mayor 
— the city park. This house, two stories 
high and in no way distinguished struc- 
turally from other houses, dates back 

to the beginning of the nineteenth cen- 
tury. In 1810, it was the home of 
Miquel Dominguez, the "Corrigidor" 
(mayor) of the city. Dominguez, the 
historian Mendista assures us, "was 
one of those unselfish, devoted, high- 
minded men whose careers adorn every 
page of Mexican history." Be that as 
it may, his name and the name of his 
wife are held in veneration wherever 
the annals of Mexico's "Wars of Lib- 
erty" are read. 

It was in Dominguez's house, in 
Queretaro, where the heroic parish 
priest of Dolores, Miquel Hidalgo, 
planned the uprising that brought death 
to him and independence to Mexico. 
W. R. Harris 
( To be continued) 


The Newspaper Mind 

It is frightful to think of the quantity 
of banal thought daily put forth and 
seven-fold renewed in volume and ba- 
nality on Sunday, under which the hap- 
less American mind struggles like a 
bug in an Ostermoor. A despot of 
genius like Napoleon would shut up 
the printing shops, scrap the presses 
and put the faineants of the pen to 
some useful work, such as making 
roads or reclaiming the desert lands. 
And what an enormous economic and 
intellectual waste would thereby be 
saved to the country ! 

In Europe, by virtue of the classic 
tradition, the book has precedence of 
the newspaper, which, by the way, is 
restricted to its legitimate functions, 
and usually edited with taste and intel- 
ligence. In this country the newspaper 
"hogs" the entire intellectual field, lo 
the complete mental stupration of the 
public. It has all but killed the taste 
for books (we publish fewer and worse 
books than Bolshevist Russia), and it 
has so cheapened the printed word that 
nobody any longer believes in "literary 
genius." But its greatest achievement 
is that it has produced in the American 
people what may justly be called the 
newspaper mind, which, as a substitute 
for intelligence, provokes the derision 
of Europe. — Michael Monahan in 
Rcedy's Mirror, Vol. XXVIII, No. 25. 



July 15 

About Atrocities 

While the German atrocities in Bel- 
gium are now admitted even by British 
journals to have been largely "a pack 
of lies." another far more real kind is 
attracting public attention. W'e shall 
illustrate our meaning by three quota- 
tions from leading American journals. 
The first is from the X. Y. Nation (No. 
2816) : 

"The Walsh-Dunne report on condi- 
tions in Ireland, now available in its 
complete text, is as shocking a docu- 
ment as any that has been called forth 
by the world's present relapse into bar- 
barism. It records a situation of utter 
horror in Irish prisons, and of almost 
unbelievable brutality on the part of 
the British authorities. Hundreds of 
men and women have been confined for 
months without charges having been 
preferred against them ; hundreds have 
been discharged from jail with broken 
constitutions and shattered minds as 
a result of their treatment. Prison- 
ers have been confined in narrow 
cells with their hands handcuffed be- 
hind them day and night; in this con- 
dition they are fed by jail attendants, 
and are permitted no opportunity to 
answer the calls of nature, other than 
to lie in their filthy clothes. During 
the winter and spring, prisoners have 
been showered with ice-cold water, and 
forced to lie on stone floors in their wet 
clothing; many of these died of pneu- 
monia. The specific charges of the 
report are seventeen in number ; they 
are enough to stop the mouths of those 
who prate of civilization." 

For the full text of the Walsh-Dunne 
report see the X. Y. Herald, June 15th, 
and the Irish World, June 21st. 

Our second quotation is from a paper 
contributed by Mr. Robert Dell, the 
well-known British journalist and 
author, to the X. Y. Dial (No. 792, 
p. 588). 

"We have imposed our rule on Egypt 
in defiance of the wishes of the inhab- 
itants and, when they rose against us 
in defense of their liberties, we sup- 
ied the rising with a severity 
which, if the accounts be true, should 
make us hold onr tongues in future 

about German atrocities. I do not know 
how far the accounts are true, for the 
government as usual has deprived us 
of any but the most meager informa- 
tion. L'Humanite published, on April 
26, a pathetic and very moderate ac- 
count by Zagloul Pasha of the Avrongs 
of his country; M. Franqois Crucy, 
who interviewed the Pasha on behalf 
of the paper, said that England was 
dishonored by what had happened. I 
agree with him. And I fully under- 
stand the feeling of Frenchmen and 
Italians that, so long as our govern- 
ment acts in this way, it is not in a 
position to oppose the imperialism of 
their governments." 

Our third quotation is from the same 
Dial, same issue, page 597, where 
Sailendra Nath Ghose says in the 
course of an article on "India's Revolu- 
tion" : 

"News coming from India at the 
present time is very meager. But this 
is certain: the revolution is. on, as also 
are the massacres perpetrated by the 
British on the masses — atrocities com- 
pared with which German barbarities 
in Belgium sink to nothingness. These 
atrocities are carried on by the very 
power which has been given the 'man- 
datory' of practically half the habita- 
ble world by the conference of old 
diplomats sitting at Versailles. This 
much is also certain : Britain will sacri- 
fice much of that habitable area before 
she w r ill give up India. She will give 
China to Japan, she will give up many 
of her other possessions, but desperate 
and bleeding India, and the route lead- 
ing to India, she will hold by every 
means from diplomacy to liquid fire 
and poison gas." 

Were it not that the American peo- 
ple have been blinded by pro-British 
propaganda, these reports would be far 
more widely circulated and arouse tre- 
mendous indignation. 

— After reading the Review, hand it to a 
friend ; perhaps he will suhscribe, and you 
will have done him a service and helped 
along the apostolate of the good press. 




Finis Austriae 

Austria is not punished by the peace 
terms ; she is annihilated. 

The Hapsburg dominion was found- 
ed on the subordination of the various 
branches of the Slav race, the Czechs, 
the Croats, the Slovaks and Slovenes, 
to the Germans and the Magyars. The 
Germans are now to be taken out of 
this patchwork, and the different fam- 
ilies of Slavs are to be started on a new 
career as independent republics. The 
basis of the new arrangement is purely 
racial, and it is beyond doubt, in the 
words of the London Saturday Review 
(No. 3319), "the most tremendous 
political experiment yet attempted by 
human agency." 

Large empires, as the same journal 
justly says, do not grow together by 
chance, nor are they maintained by 
force alone, or nonsense. There is al- 
ways some reason for their existence. 
The principal reason for the existence 
of the Austro-Hungarian Empire was 
economic, and it remains to be seen 
whether it can be pulled to pieces and 
successfully reconstructed on ethnolog- 
ical lines. What is to be Austria, con- 
sisting of Germans, will, of course, join 
I he German nation, and very much 
strengthen the German power in Cen- 
tral Europe. How the Magyars and 
the Slavs in Hungary will live together, 
and how Bohemians, Moravians, Serbs, 
Croats, Slovaks, Slovenes, and Bulgars, 
are going to thrive higgledy-piggledy 
as neighbors without any centripetal 
or cementing force is a fearsome prob- 
lem. Presumably in this firmament of 
democracy the kings of Greece and 
Roumania will still be allowed to 
twinkle as lonely stars. 

The so-called Austrian treaty is no 
treaty at all, but the mere sketch of 
one. All the really difficult questions 
of Eastern and South-Eastern Europe 
are simply postponed to "some other 
day." The boundaries and constitution 
of the Hungarian Republic are not even 
sketched : they are ignored. The Satur- 
day Review thinks there is no sense in 
this. "What hope. " it asks, "is there 
of peace if you postpone all the really 
urgent and complicated problems, such 

as the delimination of the new nations, 
which you are going to carve out of 
the Hapsburg carcass?" 

If the application of the historical 
attitude of mind to modern political 
problems were not out of fashion 
among democratic politicians, our 
rulers might have elaborated a reply 
to Bismarck's adaptation of a famous 
Voltairian epigram, "If Austria did not 
exist, we should have to create her." 

Mary, Star of the Sea 

A little while ago, in conversation 
with one of the priest-professors at the 
Catholic University, I adverted to the 
change which had come over the world 
since the days of Columbus. Of the 
three ships which carried the famous 
discoverer to this New World, one was 
called the "Santa Maria," expressive 
of the faith of the times ; whereas in 
this day and age of ours the flying 
machine which bore Read and his com- 
panions from Newfoundland to Europe 
did not even have a name. It was 
simply the "N-C 4," suggestive of a 
chemical formula. 

My friend called my attention to the 
fact that the name of the Blessed Vir- 
gin was not entirely missing from the 
record of the oversea flight, inasmuch 
as the boat which picked up Hawker 
and his companions, the English avia- 
tors, when they were at the mercy of 
the sea after their gallant attempt to 
be the first to cross the Atlantic in one 
unbroken flight, was the "St. Mary." 

And now Valerian, in the Brooklyn 
Tablet, tells us, on the authority of 
Father Cacciola of Newfoundland, that 
Hawker greatly edified the Catholics 
at Trepassey before he "hopped" 
across. He is an exemplary Catholic, 
and on the morning of his start re- 
ceived Holy Communion at the village 
church. Incidentally he made a week's 
mission during the long wait for 
favorable weather. "Surely." remarks 
Valerian, "the Blessed Mother looked 
after his interests by the miraculous 
method of his deliverance." 

Dexis A. McCarthy 
ll\is!iiii»ton, D. C. 



July IB 

The League of Nations and Immorality 
The League of Nations scheme is 
already being exploited by faddists and 
theorists of various kinds, but its most 
revolting application, so far, seems to 
be that which Dr. C Killick Millard, the 
Medical Officer of Health for Leicester, 
England, has set out in a recent news- 
paper article. Put into a few words, 
this official suggests that as the League 
will reduce lust for territorial power, 
and consequently the need for maintain- 
ing high birth rates, it should be fol- 
lowed by "birth control," under State 
auspices : and it is not without signifi- 
cance that Dr. Millard suggests this 
provision as an especial need of "the 
poorer classes, who unfortunately are 
the most prolific." 

It goes without saying that the mon- 
stious doctrine of birth control, as un- 
derstood by this medical officer and 
other limitationists, is one that will 
meet the most strenuous opposition 
from Catholics, and we trust also from 
every non-Catholic who values the 
dictates of morality in relation to this 
subject ; and we rejoice that the New 
Witness and the Universe are already 
engaged in a campaign against the 
growing tendency of immoral official- 
dom to find victims among the poor for 
their horrible social theories. 

The last-mentioned journal (No. 
^045 ) notes, as a matter of surprise 
mingled with doubt, that Dr. Millard 
mentions with approval "clergymen" as 
among those of the professional classes 
whose families are designedly being 
kept "'below the average." He states 
that certain bishops — Anglican bishops 
being obviously implied — have recently 
issued a private memorandum for the 
ns< of the clergy in which the need 
for birth control under certain circum- 
stances i> "frankly admitted.'' Nor is 
this all: he quotes words from two 
bishops which range these two prelates 
f»n the side of the limitationists. 

"If the Church of England," com- 
ments tin Universe, "has really reached 
•age when her bishop-, give a lead 

to the disciples of Malthus rather than 

to the teaching'- of Christian morality, 

it is indeed high time that men should 
turn from her in earnest if the State 
is to be saved from extending sin. But 
we trust there has been some misappre- 

-♦ -»<$-•-•- 

Benedict XV on the Social Question 

Our Holy Father says in the course 
of a letter addressed under date of 
April 10th to the American episcopate : 

"It is wonderful how greatly the 
progress of Catholicism is favored by 
those frequent assemblies of the bish- 
ops, which Our predecessors have more 
than once approved. When the knowl- 
edge and the experience of each are 
communicated to all the bishops, it will 
be easily seen what errors are secretly 
spreading, and how they can be extir- 
pated ; what threatens to weaken dis- 
cipline among clergy and people and 
how best the remedy can be applied ; 
what movements, if any, either local 
or nation-wide, are afoot for the con- 
trol or the judicious restraint of which 
the wise direction of the bishops may 
be most helpful. It is not enough, how- 
ever, to cast out evil ; good works must 
at once take its place, and to these men 
are incited by mutual example. Once 
admitted that the perfection of the 
harvest depends upon the method and 
the means, it follows easily that the 
assembled bishops, returning to their 
respective dioceses, will rival one an- 
other in reproducing those works which 
they have seen elsewhere in operation, 
to the distinct advantage of the faith- 
ful. Indeed, so urgent is the call to a 
zealous and persistent economico-social 
activity that we need not further exhort 
you in this matter. Be watchful, how- 
ever, lest your flocks, carried away by 
vain opinions and noisy agitation, 
abandon to their detriment the Chris- 
tian principles established by Our pre- 
decessor of happy memory, Leo XIII, 
in his Encyclical Letter Berum Nova- 
nun. More perilous than ever would 
this be at the present moment, when 
the whole structure of human society 
is in danger, and all civic charity, 
swept by storms of envious hate, seems 
likely to shrivel up and disappear." 




The Housing Situation 

( )ne of the chief contributory causes 
to the industrial unrest so rife at pres- 
ent is the unsatisfactory housing situa- 
tion in our cities and large towns. The 
last few years have witnessed a tremen- 
dously rapid increase in house profit- 
eering. Following the example of the 
food profiteers, property owners in the 
large centres of population have, as a 
class, taken advantage of the abnormal 
conditions resultant from the war to 
line their own pockets without con- 
science and without compunction. 

In nearly all cities and towns, build- 
ing operations were practically at a 
standstill during the war. The conse- 
quence is that, with the population 
being so rapidly added to by the return 
of the soldiers, there are not anything 
like enough houses to go round. The 
landlord has not been slow to see and 
to seize his chance. Eagerly he has 
invoked the man-made "golden law" of 
Supply and Demand which, in so many 
and such various ways, is responsible 
for the straitened circumstances which 
haunt and hamper many an humble 
home. It is difficult, in fact, to speak 
with moderation of his exorbitant de- 
mands in the shape of increased rentals. 

We could cite numerous instances of 
rents having been doubled and even 
trebled during the last four years or 
so. And, as is ever the case, it is on 
the shoulders financially least able to 
bear them that these burdens have been 
laid. For the most part, the well-to-do 
own their own houses. But even where 
they do not, the rentals of large resi- 
dences have not increased in anything 
like the same proportion as those of 
smaller houses. The figures demanded 
for houses of this size are little short 
of iniquitous. Many a working-man. 
if he desires to keep a roof over his 
own and his family's head, has to dis- 
burse nearly a third of his wages in 
the form of rent. Such are the dimen- 
sions to which this scandal has been 
suffered to attain. 

Nor is the extortion of the house 
profiteers confined to rent. Instigated 
by their expert advisers, the real estate 
men, and — conscious of the fact that 

house property in our cities and large 
towns is more valuable to-day, owing 
to the abnormal conditions, than it is 
likely to be again in their lifetime — 
some of the profiteers are refusing to 
rent houses at any price. "Buy or get 
out" is their ultimatum to their luckless 
tenants. Many of them will even go 
to the length of keeping their houses 
empty for a time sooner than rent them 
at any figure. The result is that, in 
large numbers, workingmen who can 
ill afford to do so, are being forced into 
buying houses at fabulous prices, and 
with the practical certainty that they 
will be unable to keep up the instal- 
ments of principal and interest. 

Thus, between them, the food prof- 
iteer and the landlord profiteer are 
squeezing the man who works with his 
hands as dry as a sucked orange. The 
government has done nothing to stay 
this anti-social course of rapacity and 


Unobjectionable Photo Plays 

The Pennsylvania State Board of 

("elisors has issued the following new 

list of photo plays which "can afford 

those who view them clean and whole- 
some amusement." 

D.— For Better, For Worse. 7 reels ; Famous 

D. — Little Orphaned Annie, 5 reels; World. 

D.— Little Red Riding Hood, 5 r. ; Whole- 

D.— Cinderella and the Magic Slipper, 4 r. ; 

D.— His Deht, 5 reels ; Mutual. 

D. — The Lion's Den, 5 reels ; Metro. 

D. — The Busher, 5 reels; Metro. 

C. — Squared. 2 reels ; Famous Players. 

C. — Peggy Mixes In, 1 reel; Christie. 

C. — A Wonderful Night, 2 reels: Goldwyn. 

C. — Their Day of Rest, 2 reels ; Goldwyn. 

CD. — One of the Finest, 5 reels; Goldwyn. 

CD. — Daddy Long Legs, 7 reels; Pickford. 

CD. — The Big Little Person, 6 reels; Univ. 

CD. — Words and Music By. 5 reels ; Fox. 

CD. — You're Fired, 5 reels ; Fain. Players. 

CD.— Fools and Their Money. 5 r. ; Metro. 

CD. — Xearly Married, 5 reels ; Metro. 

E. — A Wild Goose Chase, 1 reel ; Ford. 

E.^— Itasca Makes Her Bow. 1 reel; Outing 

K. — Birds and Flowers, 1 reel; Prizma. 

E. — At the Cross Roads. 1 reel : Goldwyn. 

"D," Drama; "C," Comedy: "E," Educa- 
tional; "S," Scenic. 



July 15 

"Apostolic Canada" 

Protestant missionary societies fre- 
quently make an elaborate display, by 
means of charts and statistics, of the 
work they are doing to bring "the 
gospel" to nations that have not yet 
been converted to Christianity. ( Hir 
Catholic missionaries publish such 
statistics only when they are required 
to do so by the superiors of their re- 
spective congregations or at the sug- 
gestion of those who have charge of 
our missionary propaganda. 

The Catholic people, however, are 
vitally interested in this splendid work 
of the heralds of the Gospel in foreign 
lands, and love to hear of their suc- 
cesses and experiences in converting 
pagan nations to the truths of Chris- 
tianity. Many a champion of our mis- 
sionary activity has been won by the 
recital of the hardships and dangers 
that the heroic Catholic missionary 
priest or sister must encounter in dis- 
tant missionary lands. 

It was altogether a happy thought, 
therefore, that suggested to that emi- 
nent Canadian orator, publicist, and 
scholar. M. Henri Bourassa, the publi- 
cation in book-form of a "conference" 
given by him on December 5. 1918. on 
"Missionary Works of Religious Com- 
munities of Canada." This lecture has 
been expanded and published under 
the very appropriate title. "Apostolic 
Canada."* The author looks upon his 
work as merely a preliminary sketch of 
the missionary undertakings launched 
bj the zealous religious communities 
of Canada and expresses the hope that 
it may "suggest more detailed studies 
and larger works" to others. 

After a preliminary chapter on 
"French Canada and the Missions." M. 
Bourassa takes up the missionary work 
of religOUS communities of men and 
women, giving interesting details about 
the principal missionary centres of each 
of the orders and congregations. The 
"foreign" missionary work, that is. 
work in South America. Africa, and 
\-ia. i- described in a separate chapter, 

as is also that of the "Missionary Sis- 
ters of the Immaculate Conception," 
who devote themselves to the care of 

But it is in his last chapter, "The 
Support of the Missions a Social Duty/' 
that the ardent zeal and deep faith of 
this eminent Catholic lay-apostle find 
their most eloquent expression. Some 
oi the thoughts here expressed would 
inspire many a priest to devote himself 
with greater ardor to the support of 
the missionary apostolate. The last 
section, "Expiation Necessaire," stress- 
es a fact which is unfortunately but too 
well founded — namely, that many so- 
called Christians have been a scandal 
to the pagans among whom they so- 
journed and that it is the duty of the 
missionaries and of all zealous Catho- 
lics to make reparation for this bad 
example offered to those who have not 
yet accepted the law of Christ. 

It would be well worth while to show 
in a similar way what the religious 
communities of men and women in the 
United States are doing in the cause of 
the missions and so arouse greater zeal 
in this holy work among American 
Catholics. M. 

Those Ignorant Foreigners 

Judge Gosh beamed upon the crowd 
of foreigners in his stuffy court room. 

"You want to become American cit- 
izens?" he said. "Good. You will pass 
the examination for naturalization pa- 
pers, I am sure. Giuseppe Palavicini, 
what clause of the Constitution is still 
in force?" 

"No tella, Judge. Not know." 

"You don't know, eh ! Well, neither 
do I. You, Aristarchos Papadopoulidis, 
were the efforts of the founders of this 
republic to achieve our independence 
of (ireat Britain successful?" 

"I )on't know." 

"Nor does anybody else. I'll admit 
you both to citizenship for you're just 
as ignorant as if you were native 
Americans. Reconstruction, Vol. I, 
No. 7. 

" "he Canada Apostolique.*' Bibliotheque 
dc PAction Franchise, Montreal. 1919. 60 cts. 

m t 

-•"»<£ • • 

— Witch hunters mal<e witches, ami <lis 
loyalty hunters make disloyalty. 




The Official Catholic Directory for 1919 

The Official Catholic Directory for 
1919 reached us on June 27th. An ac- 
companying statement from the pub- 
lishers, Messrs. P. J. Kenedy & Sons, 
New York, explains that the belated 
appearance of the Directory is attrib- 
utable to "difficulties unheard of in pre- 
war times, the general upsetness [why 
coin such an ugly new word?] of labor 
conditions and the continual shifting 
of help," "in addition to the 101 other 
obstacles." We are promised within 
the near future "an announcement by 
the publishers regarding the prompt 
appearance of future issues." 

The difficulties caused by the war 
are gradually passing away, and we 
sincerely hope one hundred of "the 101 
other obstacles" will be obviated by 
the publishers, so that the Directory 
may appear promptly at the beginning 
of each year hereafter, because a refer- 
ence work of this kind loses much of 
its value if it is partly obsolete and 
antiquated when it reaches the user. 
We think that if the editors would send 
the forms to press regularly, say, Nov. 
1st, and issue each year's directory 
promptly on Jan. 1st, the tardy dio- 
cesan officials who are responsible for 
the ordinary delays would soon "speed 
up," especially if the note that now ap- 
pears on the title page were repeated 
frequently throughout the volume and 
made to read something like this : "The 
information contained in this Directory 
is printed exactly as furnished by the 
ecclesiastical authorities. For the dio- 
ceses marked with an asterisk no cor- 
rected data were received at the time 
of going to press, Nov. 1st. The pub- 
lishers are not responsible for errors 
and omissions." 

This year's edition of the Directory 
contains, besides the usual information, 
fine half-tone portraits of Cardinal 
Farley ; Archbishops Keane, Ireland, 
Weber, Prendergast, Dougherty. Shaw, 
Pitaval, Dowling, Daeger, Hayes ; 
Bishops Chatard, ' Cusack, Currier, 
Lowney, O'Reilly, Kelly, Gallagher. 
Chartrand. Turner, Gibbons, McNich- 
olas, Walsh, McGrath, Gorman, Dros- 
saerts, Byrne, Heelan, Drumm, Jean- 

mard, Rickey; and Abbot Stehle, O. 
S. B. 

Benedict XV on Catholic Education 

In his recent letter to the American 
hierarchy the Holy Father says : 

"The Catholic education of children 
and youth is a matter of equally serious 
import [as the social question], since it 
is the solid and secure foundation on 
which rests the fulness of civil order, 
faith and morality. You are indeed 
well aware, Venerable Brethren, that 
the Church of God never failed on the 
one hand to encourage most earnestly 
Catholic education, and on the other to 
vigorously defend and protect it against 
all attacks ; were other proof of this 
wanting, the very activities of the Old 
World enemies of Christianity would 
furnish conclusive evidence. Lest the 
Church should keep intact the faith in 
the hearts of little children, lest her 
own schools should compete success- 
fully with public anti-religious schools, 
her adversaries declare that to them 
alone belongs the right of teaching, and 
trample under foot and violate the na- 
tive rights of parents regarding educa- 
tion; while vaunting unlimited liberty, 
falsely so-called, they diminish, with- 
hold, and in every way hamper the lib- 
erty of religious and Catholic parents 
as regards the education of their chil- 
dren. We are well aware that your 
freedom from these disadvantages has 
enabled you to establish and support 
with admirable generosity and zeal 
your Catholic schools, nor do We pay 
a lesser meed of praise to the superiors 
and members of the religious commu- 
nity of men and women who, under 
your direction, have spared neither ex- 
pense nor labor in developing through- 
out the United States the prosperity 
and the efficiency of their schools. But, 
as you well realize, we must not so far 
trust to present prosperity as to neglect 
provision for the time to come, since 
the weal of Church and State depends 
entirely on the good condition and dis- 
cipline of the schools, and the Chris- 
tians of the future will be those only 
whom you will have taught and 



July 15 

The Church and Clerical Celibacy 

We have already in a brief note (No. 
10. p. 159), denied the slanderous report 
that the Neapolitan clergy had resolved 
in favor of abolishing sacerdotal celi- 

The Month t^Xo. 65 c >. pp. 3S0 sq.) 
administers a well-deserved rebuke to 
the London Times for having reprinted 
thf slander from the columns of a dis- 
reputable Italian newspaper. 

It was not the first time that such a 
story has appeared in the press, says 
our esteemed Hritish contemporary. 
The various anti-clerical news-agencies 
eagerly fasten upon, or readily invent 
and disseminate, any news of that kind 
that seems to reflect discredit upon the 
C hurch. Hut. judging from a papal let- 
ter mentioned in the Catholic Times, 
April 19th. addressed to a Hungarian 
Archbishop, wherein the Holy Father 
sternly rebukes certain Hungarian 
clergy who have demanded or suggested 
the abolition of celibacy; judging, also. 
from a persistent rumor, very difficult 
to verify, concerning some priests in 
Prague whose demands are even more 
violently subversive of Catholic dis- 
cipline : there seems no doubt that the 
shock of war has had its repercussions 
amongst ecclesiastics in these turbulent 
regions. It may be, furthermore, that 
association with Orthodox clergy and 
v. ith those Lniat Churches which have 
been allowed by the Holy See to retain 
a married ministry, has weakened their 
attachment to the sacred tradition of 

"These occasional outbreaks," com- 
ments the Month, "need not surprise us. 
Ml through her history the Church has 
had to fight against strong human pas- 
- for the observance of this lofty 
ideal, which so befits the ineffably holy 
hiatus and functions of the Christian 
priesthood. \> lately as the beginning 

of last century an association was 
formed in several South German States 

10 advocate the repeal of the law. and 

it required an Encyclical of I 'ope 
Gregory XVI, in 1K32. to bring the 
agitation to a close. It is, therefore, to 
Kpected that in the present general 
upheaval a few discontented spirits 

here and there — it needs no more to 
hatch a press-canard — should be found 
to complain of a dignity which their 
lack of self-control has turned into a 

For Catholic "Movies" 

The suggestion (F. R., XXVI, 11. 
168) that moving picture shows be 
given regularly in our Catholic school 
and parish halls, under the auspices of 
the pastor, to counteract the evil and 
seductive programmes of the average 
moving picture theatre, seems to me a 
most excellent one. There children and 
parents would be close to their place 
of worship, in a semi-religious atmos- 
phere. To allow children to be about 
the church premises has much power 
for good. 

There must be pecuniary profit in 
"movies," since there are so many of 
them. Why not use that profit for the 
benefit of our schools, press, parish 
libraries, etc. ? 

If Catholics had their own "movies,"' 
would it not at the same time be an 
indirect, but none the less effective, 
rebuke to non-Catholics who frequent 
hurtful ones? 


I> en ton, Tex. 


■ — The Allied peace terms to Austria 
completely annihilate what was the 
Dual Monarchy, reduce Austria to a 
fragment less in size than the State of 
New York, and compel her to agree to 
numberless humiliations. One cannot 
but recall the words uttered by Presi- 
dent Wilson on Dec. 4, 1917, only a 
year and a half ago : "We owe it to our- 
selves to say that we do not wish in 
any way to impair or re-arrange the 
Austro-I lungarian Empire. It is no 
affair of ours what they do with their 
own life, either industrially or political- 
ly. We do not purpose or desire to 
dictate to them in any way. We only 
desire that their affairs are left in their 
own hands, in all matters, great or 
small." — "What a colossal humbug- 
ing of the American people it all was!" 
indignantly exclaims the Nation (No. 




War-Time Prohibition 

Ware-time prohibition comes upon 
the country in the midst of a most un- 
happy uncertainty and confusion about 
the scope of the law and the means of 
its enforcement. It is vaguely stated 
that prohibition will be enforced under 
"the old regulations.'' What these arc;, 
nobody appears to know. The whole 
resulting mix-up is a bad send-off for 
prohibition. No one can pretend that 
the law-making end of the business has 
been properly attended to. In the case 
particularly of a law affecting personal 
habits and public morals, we are en- 
titled to definite knowledge of just 
what it is that is forbidden, and what 
are the penalties for violation of the 
statute. But of both we are left, in this 
experiment of war-time prohibition, al- 
most completely in ignorance. And even 
if a laggard Congress finally enacts an 
intelligible and appropriate law, it may 
soon fall to the ground by the auto- 
matic lapsing of the war measure itself. 
One would have to look far before 
finding a more glaring example of how 
not to do it. 

Wilson and Free Speech 

Commenting on President Wilson's 
speech before the French Academy of 
Moral and Political Sciences, in which 
he lauded free speech as the basis of 
democracy (see F. R., No. 12, p. 184), 
the Did (No. 792, p. 608) says edito- 
rially : 

"One pauses aghast at this oily 
hypocrisy. Mr. Wilson knows that 
there are hundreds of his fellow-citizens 
in prison for speaking their minds, not 
to the State but to spies set by the State 
to trap them. He knows it because he 
has just commuted the sentence of such 
a fellow-citizen — William Powell of 
Lansing. Michigan — from twenty years 
to one as punishment for saying in 
private that the stories of German 
atrocities were propaganda, that he 
could not believe in President Wilson, 
that the war was a rich man's war. 
One year of confinement in Leaven- 
worth, which, with the unearned incre- 
ment of tuberculosis, means death, and 
$5,000 fine which has already reduced 

this man's family to beggary! This is 
President Wilson's conception of free 
speech. We submit that he has made 
the French Academy of Political and 
Moral Sciences the victim of a hoax 
which would be silly if it were not 

• . ♦ ♦ 

Patriotism at Ten Thousand a Year 

We read in the Statesman, of Toron- 
to, Canada, Vol. 1, No. 46: 

"Mr. Edwards (Frontenac) caused a 
mild sensation in the House last week 
by his exposure of the sums paid to an 
Ottawa journal in the form of advertis- 
ing. In the last six years this news- 
paper received from the government 
the sum of $62,000 for advertising. 
Ten thousand a year as a steady govern- 
ment subsidy is not bad, but, as Mr. J. 
H. Sinclair pointed out, this newspaper 
earned every penny of the money — by 
defending every shady transaction in 
which the government was concerned. 
Patriotism at ten thousand a year !" 

We cannot but wonder how much of 
the "patriotism" displayed by American 
newspapers was purchased at "ten thou- 
sand a year," — more or less There was 
undoubtedly a vast lot of advertising 
patronage dispensed by our government 
in the course of the war, and it often 
struck us that independent journals got 
very little of it. 

The uses to which President Wilson's 
big slush fund and some of the money 
raised by the Liberty loans was put, 
ought to prove a grateful subject for 
congressional inquiry. 

American Catholics and Freemasonry 
To the Editor: — 

/// re your reply ( F. R., No. 12. p. 
185) to my letter on Freemasonry, I 
wish to say that I did not mean to 
imply that the Fortnightly Review 
belonged to the extremists. Yet I do 
not agree with you that the great ma- 
jority of our co-religionists are "in- 
clined rather to under-estimate than to 
exaggerate the danger." When they 
think of it at all, I believe they do so 
with grave forebodings as to what 
Masonic machinations may lead the 



July 15 

world into: but the "majority of our 
co-religionists" do not think of it at 
all. just as they do not think of any- 
thing else bearing on matters outside 
their own limited experience. 1 have 
never met the Catholic so optimistic as 
tc fancy that "Freemasonry is merely 
a bug-bear to frighten children with." 
My experience has been that (among 
those again who give it any thought) 
it is looked upon as a grave menace to 
the Church — and not only to the 
Church at large, but to the political 
and social advancement of individual 
Catholics. And this is where the bug- 
bear side of it comes in. Many Cath- 
olics failing to get what they are aft^r 
in politics or business, place the blame 
on the Freemasons, just as the vulgar 
Protestant sees the hand of the Jesuit 
in everv circumstance unfavorable to 
him. T. H. D. 

Father Mollinger 
To THE Editor : — 

Xow that through your columns we 
have learned who "Pastor Koenig" 
was. perhaps some of your readers may 
be able to inform us as to the identity 
of Father Mollinger. whose bearded 
and benevolent face is beginning to ap- 
pear almost as frequently in the ad- 
vertising columns of the Catholic press 
as the close-shaven countenances of 
Father John and Pastor Koenig. 

We are informed in the advertise- 
ments that "Father Mollinger's Herb 
Tablets are not a patent medicine, but 
a prescription composed of pure vege- 
table ingredients by a priest-physician 
who dedicated his life to Cod and to 
suffering and afflicted humanity." An- 
other advertisement describes him as 
";■!) eminent priest-physician to whom 
thousands of miracles are attributed." 
Such a record for miracles beats that 
of DlOSl canonized saints, but I'll let 
that pass. The fact is thai the Father 
Mollinger Medicine Company is so 
willing that the good priest-physician 
should have all the honor of self-sacri- 
fice that it i- not. a> might he supposed, 
giving away the tablets, but is selling 

thcni for a price. 

Who knows anything about Father 
Mollinger? I am not concerned with 
the comparative value of the medicine 
ascribed to him, but has he as clear a 
right to his clerical title as Father John 
and Pastor Koenig? Interested 


— The War Department has issued a 
warning to the public against "solicitors 
of so-called historical books and publi- 
cations of no historical value and pub- 
lished solely for commercial purposes." 

— A bill has been introduced in Con- 
gress to ascertain how much American 
soldiers have been overcharged in 
France. Why not include the "United 
States," and extend the scope of in- 
vestigation to the whole population? 

— Lately the newspapers reported 
that Sir Douglas Haig, in his final 
report on the operations of the Great 
War, did not even mention the inter- 
vention of the Americans. Now a Mr. 
Werner Allen asserts in the June Na- 
tional Review that the imperfect staff 
arrangements of the American army 
retarded their advance and prevented 
the expected great victory of the Al- 
lies ! ! ! Our British cousins are nothing 
if not grateful. 

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— The Wichita Catholic Advance 
(XXXI, 13) proudly arises to remark 
that, unlike the Chicago New World, 
which falsely claims to be "the largest 
Catholic paper in the U. S.," it (the 
Advance) "is measured by kilowats and 
not by inches." 

— The women of the United States, 
after forty years of effort on the part 
of a small minority, have won their 
fight in Congress for the right to vote. 
If, within the next forty years, they 
learn how to vote with intelligence, they 
will have beaten by more than a century 
the best record heretofore made by 

— Miss Naish, an English Catholic 
lady, writes to the London Universe 
(No. 3047) from Lourdes that in con- 
nection with the process of Bernadette 
Soubirous' canonization her body was 
exhumed, for the second time, last 
April and found to be perfectly incor- 
rupt. Bernadette has been dead about 
forty vears. 

— We received a copy of a paper pub- 
lished in South Africa, which has, as 
a sub-heading on the first page : "Pub- 
lished under the direct inspiration of 
God." We did not know that there 
were any newspapers possessing so 
great an advantage. We have seen 
some which might very well claim direct 
inspiration from the exactly opposite 
direction. — The Casket, LXVII, 26. 

— Coal is such an important factor in 
the life of the nation, says The Public 
(No. 1109), that its output and price 
cannot be left, as they have been, to the 
determination of a peculiarly selfish 
monopoly concerned only to extract 
from the public "all the traffic will 
bear." When the time for such inves- 
tigation comes, the Congressional Com- 
mittee will find some useful hints in the 
questions asked by its British counter- 
part now sitting in London. Even 
though we have no dukes, we can give 
the Britons cards and spades on "bar- 

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July 15 

— In the Nineteenth Century (June) 
Maj.-Gen. Charles Calwell insists on 

the necessity of a press censorship in 
war time and implies that, on the whole, 
the form of it from which the English 
press is not yet entirely released, has 
been wise and beneficent. Upon which 
the Saturday Review I No. 3319) curt- 
ly comments: "He surely knows that if 
the press were to let out a tithe of its 
grievances against the censorship, the 
public would come to a very different 

— Father \Y. H. Kent, commenting 
in the London Tablet | No. 4125) on 
the recent remarks of the Bishop of 
Salford concerning the study of Ger- 
man i F. A'.. No. 9. p. 134). says: 
"These ultra anti-Germans who would 
fain banish the study of German from 
English schools, are unwittingly pursu- 
ing an unpatriotic and pro-German 
policy. For so far as they succeed they 
will injure their own people and give 
an advantage to their rivals." 

— The average cost of food during 
May. 1919. as computed by the U. S. 
Bureau of Labor Statistics, was 17 per 
cent higher than in May. 1918. and 92 
per cent higher than in May, 1913. The 
highest point reached in the history of 
the Bureau was December. 1918. 
There was a sharp decline immediately 
thereafter, but prices have been ad- 
vancing steadily ever since. During 
May they were within approximately 

one per cent of what they were last 

— Mr. W. B. Wheeler, a Washington 
attorney-at-law. says in a letter ad- 
dressed to the Rev. G. Zurcher and 
published by the latter in his bi-monthly 
leaflet. Catholics and Prohibition (No. 
58). that the constitutional amendment 
in favor of prohibition does not prohibit 
the use of wine for sacramental pur- 
poses and that he will gladly give legal 
counsel in regard to the procuring of 
altar wine to any priest who may need 
it, free of charge. Mr. Wheeler's ad- 
dress is. 30 Bliss Bldg.. Washington, 

d. c; 

— The Gonzaga Union of St. Louis. 
which is affiliated wtih the Catholic 
Central Society and forms part of the 
Catholic Union of Missouri, now has a 
monthlv organ of its own in The Junior, 
published at 202 Temple Bldg. The 
first number (June 1919) is small in 
size and modest in the announcement 
of its purpose, which is to aid our 
young Catholic men to build up strong 
religious convictions and thus to qualify 
for the responsibilities that await them. 
We wish The Junior a long life and 
abundant success. 

— The F. R. has lost a life-long friend 
and occasional contributor through the 
death of the Rt. Rev. Abbot Bruno, 
O. S. B., of St. Peter's Abbey, Sask., 
Canada, who took sick suddenly on a 
confirmation tour, which he had under- 

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taken for his absent bishop, Msgr. 
Pascal of St. Albert, and died a few 
days later, June 12th, at Humboldt, 
fortified with the last Sacraments. Ab- 
bot Bruno was an able and a kindly 
man, a brilliant editor, and a true 
philanthropist. We ask our readers to 
remember him in their prayers. R. ! . I'. 

—Rccdy's Mirror (XXVIII, 25) 
quotes from an interview with General 
Pershing the following incident which, 
the General says, "illustrates the Yan- 
kee spirit." A doughboy had captured a 
German and on the way to camp dis- 
covered that the prisoner had a huge 
roll of French money. Immediately he 
conjured up visions of the delectable 
cafes of Paris and what he could do 
with that bank roll ; but he could not 
bring himself to take the roll. Instead, 
he pondered for a moment, and then, 
bringing the captive to attention, faced 
him, saluted, and asked : "Kamerad, 
kanst du craps shutzen? [Comrade, can 
you 'shoot craps'?]" 

— Readers of "A Pilgrim in Pales- 
tine," by Dr. John Finley (Scribner's) 
will be surprised to learn that one of 
the results of the Great War has been 
the fulfilment of the Arab legend that 
''not until the Nile flowed into Palestine 
would the Turk be driven from Jeru- 

salem." Dr. Finley saw the plant at 
Kantara where the Nile water is filtered 
and "started on its journey through a 
twelve-inch pipe across the desert to- 
ward Gaza. The mound of sand that 
protects it is visible a few yards from 
the railroad all the way from the Suez 
to the edge of Palestine," and "nearly 
one hundred and fifty miles has the 
water of the Nile been led to break 
forth in the places of desolation." 

— The London Saturday Review does 
not think the peace treaties will amount 
to much. "The treaties," it says (No. 
3319), "will be broken or modified, if 
you prefer the word, in a few years, 
and the Germans and Austrians will say 
they signed them under duress. Re- 
member the Black Sea clause in the 
Treaty of Paris, calmly cancelled by 
Russia fifteen years later, and the sub- 
sequent modification in the Treaty of 
Berlin. It is childish to imagine that 
any treaties made to-day will be bind- 
ing on the democracies of to-morrow. 
The sentiment of honor, which had 
some (not much) force between prin- 
ces, has none between democracies. The 
world is in ruins, there is no stable gov- 
ernment in Europe, and you might as 
well try to bind 'time's fleeting river,' 
as Austria and German v in their present 

Quincy College and Seminary 




: : IT^r 3 Sixtieth Year Opens September 10, 1919 

Only Catholics Admitted as Boarders 

For Fa formation and Year Book address 




July 15 

Literaiy Briefs 

— The learned Editor of the Bombay 
Examiuer, Fr. Ernest R. Hull, S.J.. in a notice 
of Dr. Petrovits's hook, "Devotion to the 
Sacred Heart" (, Herder), says of the author's 
conclusion in regard to the "Great Promise" : 
"His conclusion is the same as that which we 
arrived at in our own tract, now out of print. 
If the promise is authentic (which cannot be 
conclusively proved) at any rate it cannot be 
allowed any interpretation which gives a han- 
dle to superstition, unsound theology or pre- 
sumption. Then he concludes : 'Prudence and 
good judgment would seem to dictate great 
caution in speaking of the efficacy of the 
twelfth promise. Unless the Church should 
give a different interpretation, no one is justi- 
fied in going further than to state that the 
reception of the promised graces may be 
humbly expected by all who with proper dis- 
position receive Holy Communion for nine 
consecutive first Fridays of the month' (p. 
263). The author embodies in substance all 
the work of previous writers; and the result 
is the fullest, most complete and most satis- 
factory standard work on the point we have 
hitherto met with." 

Books Received 

Life of Blessed Margaret ^[ar\^ Alacoque, Religious 
of the Visitation at Paray'-le-Monial, 1647-1690. 
By Sister Mary Philip, of the ISar Convent, York. 
I'reface by the Rt. Rev. the Bishop of Leeds, viii 
ft 247 pp. l.rno. London: Sands & Co.; St. Louis, 
M .: B. Berder Book Co. $1.80 net. 

First-Fruits. A Series of Short Meditations. By 
Sister Mary Philip, of the Bar Convent, York. 
With a Preface by the Rev. J. B. Jaggar, S.J. xi 
\- 254 pp. J6mo. Same publishers. $1 net. 

Christian Ethics. A Textbook of Right Living. Bv 
J. Elliot Ross, C. S. P., Ph.D., Lecturer in Ethics 
to the Newman Club. University of Texas, xii & 
469 pp. 8to. New York. The Devin-Adair Co. 
$2.15, postpaid. 

hlariology. A Dogmatic Treatise on the Blessed Vir- 
gin Mary. Mother of Cod. With an Appendix On 
the worship of the Saints, Relics, and Images. By 
the Rt. Rev. Msgr. Joseph Pohle, Ph.D., D.D. 
Adapted and Edited by Arthur Preuss. Third, 
Revised Edition, iv & 185 pp. 12mo. B. Herder 
ik ('". $1 net. 

■ lings of the Tenth Annual Mceing of the 

irk Diocesan Federation of the Holy Name 

Society. April 27th, 1919. 27 pp. 8vo (Wrapper). 

St. Bona- enturc's Seminary Year Book, 1919. Ed- 
ited by the Dims Scotul Theological Society. Vol- 
ume III. 178 pp. 8vo. Allegany, N. Y. : Sit. 
(venture's Seminary. (Wrapper), $1. 
Official Catholu- Directory for 1919. Complete 
Edition. iv &• 116K \ xxxii & 224 & 152 pp. 
!2mo. New York: P. T. Kenedy & Sons. 

The Reasonable Limits of State Activity. l.y Wil- 
liam, Cardinal O'Conncll, Archbishop of Boston. 
.'2 pp. 16mo. Columbus, O. : The Catholic Educa- 
tional Association. 'Wrapper). 

For the Freedom of Education. An Argument 
agamM the Towner and Smith Mills. 20 pp. 8vo. 
v " In-. Mo.: Central Bureau of the Catholic 
< entral Society. (Free leaflet). 

Ml Life. the Meaning of a Religious Voca- 
tion. By Martin J. Scott, S.J. i\ ft .1 1 (, pp. l_!ni<,. 
New York: p. J. Kenedy & Sons. $1.50 net. 

the Insh Issue. By William (. M. A. Maloney, 

M. \). 66 pp. 12mo. New York: The America 

Saint Fran, it Xa:ier, Apostle of India and Japan. 
By John ( Revflle, S.J. iv ,S 91 pp. 1 61 no. New 
York: 'I hr America Press. (VVrapp 



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The Fortnightly Review 

VOL. XXVI, NO. 15 


August 1, 1919 

Spiritism and Religion 

Two important new books have lately 
appeared, which criticize Spiritism from 
the view-point of science, especially of 
theology. The first is by an Anglican, 
the Rev. E. W. Barnes. It is entitled, 
"Spiritualism and the Christian Faith" 
( Longmans ) . 

The spirits and their communications, 
lie says, give no "hint that Eternal Life 
is the crowning glory of the future 
state. Almost invariably they reflect the 
commonplace thoughts of commonplace 
minds. They are quantitative, not quali- 
tative ; they confuse eternal values and 
temporal facts. Shall we be wrong if 
we necessarily conclude that they are 
earthborn, dreams of fancies of the liv- 
ing men and women through whom they 
come?" (p. 31). 

The writer holds that the communica- 
tions are not made by evil spirits, and 
he cannot understand how anyone who 
has read Richer's "Etudes Cliniques sur 
Thystero-epilepsie," can retain any be- 
lief in diabolical possession. He points 
cut, what all but the grossly ignorant 
knew, that the present outburst of 
Spiritism, far from being "a New Rev- 
elation," is nothing but the repetition of 
a phenomenon which has occurred time 
and again in the course of history. "I 
hold that all the well-attested evidence 
on which the theory of spirit commu- 
nication is based will ultimately be ex- 
plained by a fuller knowledge of the 
interchange of consciousness between 
living persons" (p. 44). Telepathy, 
then (in which he is a firm believer), 
plus the trickery of mediums, is the ex- 
planation of the phenomena. 

A similar attitude is taken by the 
latest Catholic writer on the subject, the 
Rev. Johan Liljencrants, D.D., in his 
volume, "Spiritism and Religion" ( New 
York, The Devin-Adair Co.; $3 net). 
Dr. Liljencrants is a recent convert to 

the Catholic faith and his book is a dis- 
sertation submitted to the Faculty of 
Sacred Sciences at the Catholic Uni- 
versity of America. Four-fifths of its 
300 pages are devoted to an admirably 
condensed and comprehensive exposi- 
tion of the evidence. The author's con- 
clusion is that "we lack positive scientific 
evidence for a single phenomenon being 
of a preternatural character" (p. 257). 
He does not deny the possibility of pre- 
ternatural causation, but asserts that 
"over thirty years of careful investiga- 
tion on two continents have failed to 
produce evidence for such a contin- 
gency" (p. 273). 

The basic malice in Spiritistic prac- 
tices, according to Dr. Liljencrants, is 
to be found "in their opposition to the 
virtue of religion, in that they explicitly 
attribute to creatures what belongs to 
God alone. For our knowledge of a 
future life and of those who have al- 
ready entered it, can come only from 
God. To seek it from the spirits of the 
departed, then, is not only vain and 
useless, but is an explicit paying of 
divine honor and tribute to them." Be- 
sides this basic malice of superstition, 
he adds, the Spiritistic practices "in- 
volve a direct danger of religious per- 
version, in so far as the lucubrations of 
the mediums are accepted as revealed 
religious truths" (p. 279). 

Prof. John A. Ryan says in a brief 
introductory notice that Dr. Liljen- 
crants's book "is beyond doubt the best 
book on that subject in the English lan- 
guage." One need not agree with this 
estimate to perceive the value of the 
treatise and the necessity for those who 
dissent from its main conclusion, to re- 
establish their view on an equally high 
scientific plane. 

We should like, particularly, to hear 
Mr. J. Godfrey Raupert's estimate of 
Dr. Liljencrants's book. C. D. U. 



August 1 

A Name in the Sand 
By Hannah PLAGG Gould 

Alone I walked the ocean strand; 
A pearly shell was in my hand: 
1 stooped and wrote upon the sand 

My name, the year, the day. 
As onward from the spot I passed 
One lingering look behind 1 cast : 
A wave came rolling high and fast, 

And washed my lines away. 

And so. methought. 'twill shortly be 
With every mark on earth from me: 
A wave oi dark oblivion's sea 

Will sweep across the place 
Where I have trod the sandy shore 

Of Time. — ■ and been, to be no more, - 
Of me. my day. the name I bore, 

To leave no track nor trace. 

And yet with Him who counts the sands 
And holds the water in His hands 
1 know a lasting record stands 

Inscribed against my name. 
I 't all this mortal past here wrought. 
Of all this thinking soul has thought. 
And from these Meeting moments caught 

For glory or for shame. 

The Opal City 

By Dean Harris 


In another part of Queretaro, facing 
the attractive plazuela where rises amid 
palms and tropic flowers the statue of 
the Marquis de Aguilla, there is a long, 
low. ochre-colored building with a 
'"portal" adorning its facade. It is now 
called the "Palacio Municipal," hut to 
Mexican patriots it is something more 
than a municipal building; it is a na- 
tional shrine surrounded by an atmos- 
phere of consecration. For in this 
house the hrave wife of Dominguez, 
the friend of Hidalgo, spent weary 
years of her honored life in close con- 
finement. Arrested by the Spaniards 
while her husband was with the warrior 
priest and the volunteers in the moun- 
tains, she was imprisoned in this build- 
ing, where eventually she died. There 
is a statue to the memory of the noble 
woman in the floral square overlooked 
by tlu- historic building. 

This plaza or square is, like many 
other plazas and streets in the republic. 
( .lied [ndependencia. In the middle, 

as I have mentioned, i- a statue of the 
Marquis de la Villa del Villar de la 

Aguilla — to give him the long, sonor- 
ous title which he inherited with great 
estates. This statue is cut from onyx 
and is somewhat weather-worn now, 
but still furnishes a fair idea of the 
early Spanish grandee in his glory and 
isolation. A fountain hubhles near its 
base and a tablet states that the con- 
struction of a monument in memory of 
the Marquis was begun on the spot in 
1843 ; that the statue was dismounted 
in 1867 by a cannon shot, when the city 
was besieged by the "Liberalists," and 
was afterwards restored and re-erected. 
Queretaro has a right to honor the 
memory of this rich and benevolent 
Don. for he was one of the founders 
of her excellent educational system 
and, at his own expense, built the fa- 
mous aqueduct which brings pure and 
refreshing water from the neighboring 
mountain to the city. The work cost 
him $100,000, and when it was finished, 
he had tablets inserted recording its 
beginning and end. 

The man, however, whose name and 
personality dominate Queretaro is the 
unhappy Maximilian. Here was plan- 
ned the movement which made the ill- 
fated Austrian Archduke Emperor of 
Mexico. Here are the churches, La 
Cruz and Los Capuchinas, where pre- 
vious to their execution, were imprison- 
ed the Emperor and his aides, Generals 
Mejia and Miramon. Here also is the 
Iturbide theatre where they were tried, 
found guilty, and sentenced to death, 
and the Cerro de las Campanas, where 
they were shot, and the Church of 
Santa Rosa, under which the bodies 
were buried for a time. 

There is something profoundly pa- 
thetic in the nearness of the Llaca 
house, where the conspiracy against the 
emperor was hatched to this Church 
of Capuchinas where the sentence of 
death was pronounced. They are less 
than a hundred yards apart. The Llaca 
is a one-Story residence, the walls 
painted in rose color and the window's 
barred with iron in the familiar Mex- 
ican style. The church of the Capu- 
chinas is a magnificent structure dating 
from the palmy days of Queretaro, 
when the city was very prosperous and 




its commerce large. Maximilian was 
confined in a room of the adjoining 
monastery, and to-day a broken pant- 
in the window of that room attracts 
attention even from the heedless man 
passing by. It was in this room that 
Colonel Palacios refused $100,000 to 
assist the emperor to escape. 

The Church of La Cruz, where the 
emperor was imprisoned after his sur- 
render at the Sierra de las Campaiias, 
is on the outskirts of the city. It is 
an interesting experience to wander 
through the cool and spacious aisles and 
gaze upon a miraculous stone cross and 
on many quaint and interesting relig- 
ious paintings. Every foot of the sur- 
rounding grounds and streets is mem- 
orable, for here Liberals and Imperial- 
ists fought desperately and their blood 
moistened them many times. La Cruz 
was the key to the defence of Quere- 
taro, of which it formed a part, and it 
was a postern gate in its walls that the 
traitor or patriot Lopes opened to the 
enemy on that fatal night in 1867. 

The vast college building attached to 
the church is now a barracks. An 
attendant courteously conducted me 
through the long, echoing and vaulted 
corridors, illumined by fan-lights high 
up in the solid walls. We ascended a 
flight of stone stairs to the rooms which 
Maximilian, Mejia, and Miramon oc- 
cupied in the early hours of their 
captivity. Soldiers — Indians, Mexicans 
and half-bloods — were everywhere, 
many of them stretched on the flag- 
stones fast asleep. The Emperor's 
prison is now used as a military office, 
and includes three rooms, only one of 
which opens on the corridor. Absolutely 
bare of decoration, the place is fascinat- 
ing because it has remained architectur- 
ally unaltered since Maximilian occu- 
pied it. The walls in patches are scal- 
ing, but no paint brush ever touches 
them. The apartments remain as they 
were in the Emperor's day, but the 
furniture he used has long ago disap- 

W. R. Harris 

E. Toronto, Canada 

{To be concluded) 

A Prophecy of Leo XIII 

The Bishop of Sal ford contributes 
the subjoined remarkable letter to the 
London Tablet (No. 4098) : 

"I wonder how many will remember 
at this tragic hour the strange fateful 
prophecy of the late Pope Leo XIII 
with reference to him who was up to 
yesterday Kaiser YYilhelm II? It im- 
pressed itself so vividly on my mind at 
the time, that it has haunted my mem- 
ory ever since. The story is as fol- 
lows : — During the reign of the old 
Emperor Wilhelm, his grandsons, Wil- 
helm and Heinrich, accompanied by 
Bismarck, paid a visit to Italy, and 
whilst in Rome had an audience of 
Leo XIII. The Pope received the two 
princes privately in his room, and it 
was said that the elder of the two had 
behaved in a very rude manner to the 
Pontiff, so that as the visitors left, the 
latter, turning to his attendants, said : 
'That young man will come to a bad 
end.' The remarkable thing is that 
eventually William, as Emperor, be- 
came on most friendly terms with Leo, 
visiting him in great state on, I believe, 
three occasions, in 1889, 1893, and 
1903, the last time in circumstances of 
special pomp and splendor. In fact, 
Pope and Emperor seemed to have be- 
come good friends. I was told by an 
eye-witness, a distinguished member of 
the suite of the Kaiser, that at the close 
of the last-named interview in 1903, the 
Kaiser, after bidding farewell to the 
Pontiff, suddenly turned round and, 
impulsively throwing himself on his 
knees, asked the Holy Father's blessing 
for himself and his family. Yet it is 
surely strange that the ominous predic- 
tion of Leo XIII has been fulfilled to 
the letter, fifteen years after the speak- 
er's death, and well over thirty years 
after its utterance, when it has probably 
been almost entirely forgotten. 'Magna 
sunt enim indicia tua, Domine, et in- 
enarrabilia verba tua.' " 

— Half the world is on the wrong scent in 
the pursuit of happiness. They think it con- 
sists in having and getting, and in being 
served by others. It consists in giving and 
in serving others. — Drntnmond. 



August 1 

American Militarism Waning 
Under this title the Nation ( Xo. 2816) 
says, inter alia: 

Most gratifying are the signs that 
come from various directions of the 
abating of the militarist mania in Amer- 
ica. Particularly is there reason for 
profound thankfulness in the attitude 
of the returned soldiers. There is every 
evidence, despite the lawlessness of 
many men in uniform on May Day, 
that onr troops have returned from 
overseas with a stomach-full of soldier- 
ing, with no love for the trade and none 
too much for their officers, with the 
greatest eagerness to get out of uni- 
form, and with the minds of many open 
to new ideas. We meet on every hand 
returned men who insist that no future 
emergency could get them into uniform 
again. The San Francisco Call reports 
that the sentiment of the Seventy- 
seventh Division, in which there were 
many Western men, was largely op- 
posed to universal military service and 
to parading ; they wanted to get through 
with the whole thing. The Call is con- 
vinced, as a result of its observations 
of the returned soldiers, that "we shall 
not, and cannot have universal military 
discipline" until America is radically 
changed. Indeed, so great is the reac- 
tion from universal military service that 
the National Security League is really 
in despair about it. In a very frank 
Utter to the New York Tribune its 
publicity director reports that in all 
high school and college debates the 
proponents of universal military service 
were "defeated at the ratio of practical- 
ly two to one." He adds: "The League 
considers the results in these debates 
and the comments thereon most illumi- 
nating as an exposition of an enormous 
sentiment against universal military 
training which we will have to over- 
came." To the Tribune he makes a 
touching appeal : "We trust that you 
will keep up the fight," but the stony- 
hearted editor answers in the headline: 

"Ix-t the League do it." This deliberate 
abandonment on the part of the Tribune 
of the one thing indispensable to keep 
all future "I Inns" from onr shores, is 
certainly amazing, but not more so than 

the complete calm with which the coun- 
try received the news that the army 
estimates have been cut so severely by 
Congress that in place of an army of 
500.000 men asked by the War Depart- 
ment we are to have the beggarly one 
of 300,000. upon which we are to spend 
$7 18.000.000. instead of $1,100,000,000. 
and that after all we are not going to 
have the greatest fleet in the world. 

It is interesting, too, that the army's 
recruiting campaign by means of ap- 
peals to meetings and groups of citizens 
lias absolutely broken down ; it is the 
gossip in Washington that returned sol- 
diers have interfered. So the army has 
resorted to a new device — advertising! 
Some two hundred thousand dollars 
are being expended in proving that mili- 
tary service is not a military affair at 
all — bless your innocent heart, no ! — 
but really a university extension course 
under most experienced teachers. The 
hist page-advertisements which have 
appeared in the dailies — needless to say 
the dailies think very highly of this 
procedure — inform us that "being a sol- 
dier of the United States is the finest 
business in the world." It is obvious that 
the drafted men do not think so, or else 
it would not be necessary to advertise 
now for men to take their places ; but 
perhaps they were not aware of what 
the advertisement tells us, that the sol- 
dier "meets agreeable people, including 
lots of nice girls, at the Hostess Houses, 
ct cetera [very much ct cetera]. He 
goes to dances, if he wants to. In fact, 
he usually has a better time than a 
civilian." Comment is surely superflu- 
ous save that Secretary Baker, who has 
told Congress lie approves this girl-bait, 
has plainly reached the silly stage of his 

Most gratifying of all is the decision 
of the American Legion, which refused 
to be stampeded into endorsing univer- 
sal service at its St. Louis convention, 
to do away with all titles. Its members 
declare they will not make the mistake 
of the <i. A. R.; for them every mem- 
ber, whether he be a young Roosevelt 
or plain Jim Smith, will have the title 
of Mr. and nothing else. Satisfactory 
as all this is, it is not time to declare 




that all danger is over. The universal 
training bills are still before Congress 
and are to be pushed with all possible 
speed. Efforts are being made, more- 
over, to inculcate the spirit of militar- 
ism among the young boys. It behooves 
all opposed to Prussianism in America 
to fight vigorously all such proposals. 

m »® « • 

A Slav View 

The V. Rev. Procopius Neuzil, O. S. 
B., rector of the St. Procopius Semi- 
nary, Lisle, 111., writes to us apropos 
of the clipping from the Nation re- 
printed in our No. 14, p. 218: 

"It appears to me that, using the pro- 
nouns 'they,' 'their,' and 'them,' as he 
did, President Wilson meant not only 
the Emperor and his cabinet, or simply 
the few who controlled the Austro- 
Hungarian government, but the people. 
The Slavs, the Jugoslavs, the Czechs, 
and the Slovaks revolted against Austria 
and Hungary as the thirteen American 
colonies revolted against England a 
little over a hundred years ago. Neither 
Mr. Wilson nor the American Congress 
has in any way dictated to these na- 
tions, but left their affairs in their own 
hands. The Slavs were only too glad 
to be left alone. Had it not been for 
the world war, neither the Kaiser, nor 
the Czar, nor the King of England 
would have consented to their emanci- 
pation. The fact that the Allies, grate- 
ful for the services of the Slavs on the 
great battle fronts, let them have their 
own way, made the partition of the 
Austro-Hungarian empire inevitable. 
Whether it was for better or for worse 
remains to be seen. Meanwhile we 
need not wonder that the Slavs wished 
to be free from Austria-Hungary, 
which they hated, seeing that even the 
'big friends,' Austria and Hungary, did 
not find it advisable to cast their lots 
together. At any rate, the secession of 
the Slavs from the Austro-Hungarian 
empire was their own work. The Allies 
did little or nothing in the matter ex- 
cept that they left the Slavs alone, and 
consequently they were true to Presi- 
dent Wilson's declaration of Dec. 4th, 

About Father Mollinger 
To the Editor: — 

If the inquirer who signs himself 
"Interested" in your issue of July 15th 
really desires information about Father 
Mollinger, whose name is being abused 
by patent medicine venders, I volunteer 
the following. 

Father S. E. Mollinger was a priest 
of the diocese of Pittsburgh, Pa., and 
died there some twenty-five years ago. 
He was a convert from Judaism. He 
made a practice of blessing the sick and 
afflicted who applied to him, with the 
relics of saints, in addition to giving 
them remedies. His church was, in a 
small way, a place of pilgrimage. He 
built at his private expense a beautiful 
chapel, which he enriched with precious 
reliquaries and rare relics. He was 
reputed to be very wealthy, but this 
turned out to be false after his death. 
(Rev.) E. Mitsch 

Glen Addic. Belleville, III. 

To the Editor : — 

According to the "Schematismus der 
deutschen und deutsch-sprechenden 
Priester .... in den Ver. St. Nord- 
Amerikas," begun by the Rev. W. 
Bonenkamp, continued by Msgr. Jos. 
Jessing, and edited bv J. B. Miiller (St. 
Louis, Mo., B. Herder, 1882), the late 
Father S. E. Mollinger was born in 
Holland. Father J. N. Enzlberger, in 
his "Schematismus'' (Milwaukee, 1892) 
says he was born at Malines, Belgium. 
May 29th, 1830, came to the U. S. in 
1850, and was ordained to the priest- 
hood at Erie, Pa., April 30th, 1859. In 
1892 he was pastor of the congregation 
of the Most Holy Name of Jesus, on 
Troy Hill, Pittsburgh, Pa. He died a 
few years later. The present rector of 
the parish. V. Rev. M. F. Mueller, P.R.. 
could no doubt give additional informa- 
tion regarding Father Mollinger, who 
was quite a character and had a great 
reputation among the people of Pitts- 
burgh and neighborhood. 

A priest who knew Father Mollinger 
personally told me that he would no 
doubt, did he know of it. strenuously 
object to the manner in which his name 
and fame are being exploited. 

C. D. U. 



August 1 

How America Got Prohibition 

Archbishop Redwood, of Wellington, 
contributes to the New Zealand Tablet, 
May 15th, an interesting paper on the 
question: "Why Was National Prohibi- 
tion Enacted in the I". S. of America?" 
The Archbishop, who knows this conn- 
try well, begins by saying that the great 
majority of the American people are 
not in favor of prohibition but regard 
it as an incentive to hypocrisy and other 
worse evils. 

What. then, caused so many State 
legislatures to ratify the prohibition 
amendment ? 

Two negative causes and one positive 
influence, in the Archbishop's opinion, 
made prohibition possible. The first 
negative cause was the abuse of the 
liquor traffic, and the second, the in- 
difference of the masses. "As every 
experienced citizen knows, the basic 
characteristic of a democracy is the 
spirit of 'let-Harry-do-it.' People wake 
up only when hurt, and thus too late. 
In a constitutional nation the majority 
rule theoretically, but in fact, a militant 
and determined minority generally gets 
what it wants, especially in a land like 
America, where noise and bluster count 
for so much, and consequently a few 
can and do override the many 

"The positive dominant influence was 
the incessant and insidious work of the 
forces typified by the Anti-Saloon 
League. "Shrewd, persistent, blatant, 
bold, its members set an ideal before 
them, made it their gospel, and used 
every means, fair and foul, to achieve 
it. They stood out in word and action 
as the only true custodians of the na- 
tion'- morality They were the 

most practical hypocrites ever seen in 
America. Close students of human 
nature, they understood that the aver- 
age legislator's desire is to swim with 
the current, to be ahead of the next 
fellow in supplying what the people 
seem to wan:. With this conviction, 
the Anti-Saloon League set about creat- 
ing in the mind of the legislator an 'at- 
■ here' of prohibition, to convince 

him that the people in hi- district really 

demanded prohibition They del- 

I the legislators with letters, tele 

grams, press clippings, pamphlets, and 
matters of all sorts calculated to per- 
suade him that his constituents desired 

and demanded prohibition They 

threatened that, if he opposed prohibi- 
tion, they would go into his district and 
do their utmost to break him for ever. 
And. in many cases, they carried out 
their threats. By grossly unfair means 
(witness their most disgraceful abuse 
of fair-play regarding Cardinal Gib- 
bons) they entered into political fights 
solely for the purpose of defeating the 
man they could not control. They 
riddled with concentrated barrage some 
particular person until he was removed 

as a factor against them It is a 

far easier task to change the mind of 
100 representatives than that of millions 
•of people. Hence they opposed a 
referendum to the people. A legislator 
is a very human person, whose greatest 
desire is success as a means to continue 
in office. He is therefore most suscep- 
tible to what he deems the wishes of his 
constituents. The daily and hourly 
receipt of heaps of letters and telegrams 
demanding the enactment of certain 
legislation goes far to make him believe 
that so insistent a demand is real and 
universal. Add to this the snowball 
tendency of public officials to be in the 
'van,' and you have some of the most 
potent reasons why the amendment was 
ratified and prohibition inflicted, with- 
out referendum, on the American peo- 

We have condensed Msgr. Redwood's 
article somewhat. Of course, there were 
other, minor influences, both positive 
and negative, at work in favor of prohi- 
bition ; but the principal ones are cor- 
rectly outlined in the Archbishop's 

As for the future. Tlis Grace writes: 
"The battle is only just begun. Wait 
till the legislation framed to introduce 
and enforce prohibition begins to 

operate \ mighty revulsion of 

public opinion is to be expected." In 
this prophecy, too, we think Archbishop 
Redwood is correct. 

— One can be loyal t>> Church and State 
and yet call nonsense l>y its own name. 




Catholics and the League Covenant 

The London Universe (No. 3050), 
under the title, "The Exclusion of Cath- 
olics," comments on the systematic way 
in which the Pope, and Catholics gen- 
erally, have been excluded from the 
Peace Conference and from the agita- 
tion in favor of a League of Nations. 

The Catholics of the world, says our 
contemporary, "by the very nature of 
their religious profession, are pledged 
up to the hilt to the principles on which 
the Covenant is based" ; yet the great 
Statesman who is Pastor as well, and 
whose moral authority is supported by 
the active zeal of millions, was not at 
the Peace Conference because he was 
told he was not wanted, and "the mil- 
lions of Catholics throughout the world, 
who could have been enlisted as a solid 
force under their spiritual head, are not 
wanted either — as such." 

The official organ of the cause in 
England has treated with consistent and 
apparently purposed silence what might 
have been its most potent ally. "Those 
who know the inner history which cul- 
minated in Cardinal Bourne's letter ex- 
plaining the impracticability of official 
Catholic action in England in support 
of the League," says the Universe, 
"know what that silence really meant 
and means." 

We do not know 7 the inner history 
referred to, but there can scarcely be 
a doubt that the same reason which 
prevents official endorsement of the 
League by the English hierarchy, i. c, 
the exclusion of the Holy See from the 
Peace Conference, has much to do with 
the silence of American bishops, many 
of whom, moreover, are opposed to the 
Wilson-Clemenceau-Lloyd George mon- 
strosity because of its inherent unfair- 
ness. — a defect which Benedict XV 
would no doubt have cured, had he been 

The Universe is averse to believing 
that the cause of international righteous- 
ness for which the Pope stands, and for 
which the League Covenant pretends to 
stand, will be lost. But it warns the 
British government that the League 
plan is in great danger and may go to 
nogginstaves if, for the sake of political 

Protestantism, the co-operation of the 
Church and its earthly head is rejected 
— "just as," it significantly adds, 
"Anglo-American relations stand to- 
day in danger of being wrecked from 
the same cause." 

British Propaganda in the U. S. 

On this important topic the Rev. John 
Talbot Smith, one of our leading Cath- 
olic authors, says in the course of a 
vigorous paper contributed to the Irish 
JVorld (June 21, page 5) : 

"With the advent of that most malign 
influence in modern journalism, Lord 
Northcliffe, the American press sold 
out to British influence in everything. 
The Anglo-Saxon idea became intensi- 
fied in the Republic, later rampant, and 
at present it is toxic, through the lying 
and cajoling of the press agencies and 
the daily press. How powerful that ly- 
ing and cajoling became may be seen in 
the common belief here that England 
was not prepared for the German dec- 
laration of war, that she was taken by 
surprise, completely unprepared, and 
would have perished but for her super- 
human powers. Now that Asquith and 
Lord Haldane have declared that Eng- 
land was ready for the war, that it was 
expected for twenty years, and that the 
English armies and fleets were ready 
within twenty- four hours for action, 
the credulous public, stupefied with lies, 
can hardly believe them. 

"That public is not to be blamed. 
With the Anglo-Saxon faction lying 
and intriguing all the time, with British 
gold circulating freely through all our 
channels of publicity, with the press 
and the press agencies dominated or di- 
rected or influenced by the Northcliffes 
and London finance, with the foolish 
marriages of our heiresses to English 
peerage bankrupts, with Wall Street or 
the Morgan buccaneers now allied with 
the predatory finance of London for the 
exploitation of the world, -with Presi- 
dent Wilson, his cabinet and the dying 
Democratic party basking in British 
sunlight, it is not to be expected that 
the common people can escape the con- 
tagion of such influence and example." 


August 1 

A Call to Americans 

A "Committee of Forty-Eight" 
prominent citizens, including Robt. \\ . 
Rruere. Horace M. Kallen, and Prof. 
Chas. Zneblin. have issued a circular 
letter for the purpose of bringing about 
"a conference of Americans who are 
equally opposed to reaction and violent 
revolution.' 1 

They say that "we have come to be 
one of the worst ruled, one of the most 
completely controlled and dominated 
governments in the world — no longer 
a government by conviction and the 
vote of the majority, but a government 
by the opinion and the duress of a small 
group of dominant men. This control 
and dominance of the few has in- 
creased. Two years of ruthless censor- 
ship has added to its strength. The 
American press has not only refrained 
from printing the truth, but has wil- 
fully misinformed the American people. 
A small group of dominant men who 
control credit, dictate the decisions of 
both political parties, and either direct- 
Iv or indirectly censor and inspire the 
news. The time has come for the peo- 
ple to meet together and discuss the real 
facts of American life, the issues which 
vitally affect the welfare of individual 
crizens, and decide on some line of 
action which will meet the situation/' 

The ulterior project seems to be 
the formation of an effective political 
organization of the manual and mental 
workers of the country for industrial 

The call bears the signatures of a 
good many "radicals," but, so far as we 
can see, of no Catholic. Yet Catholics, 
it seems to us, ought to take a promi- 
nent and active part in every movement 
that tends towards a solution of the 
many political and social problems that 

arc pressing upon us. 

That a great deal along the lines of 
social reconstruction can be accom- 
plished by organization, even without 

founding an independent national party, 
.ident from the successes of the 

Non-Partisan League in North Dakota. 
which simply obtained control of. and 
used for it> own purposes, the machin- 
ery of the Republican party. 

More About Those I. W. W. Deporta- 

What became of the group of alien 
I.W.W.'s whose journey in irons across 
the continent a few months ago in the 
"Red Special" was heralded so widely 
in the press? 

Of the thirty-six persons — thirty- 
rive men and one woman — three have 
been deported, preferring this to the 
longer period of confinement which 
would have been necessary had their 
cases been reconsidered. 

For the remaining cases reconsidera- 
tion by the Department of Labor was 
secured, in consequence of which four- 
teen men were released unconditionally. 
Writs of habeas corpus were issued for 
the remaining nineteen, and hearings 
before Judge Hand in the Federal Dis- 
trict Court of New York resulted as fol- 
lows : In one instance, taken as a test 
case, the writ was sustained, freeing the 
man at once, and leading to the with- 
drawal for another reconsideration by 
the Department of Labor of ten more, 
of whom five have since been released. 
The remaining eight, including the one 
woman of the party, have been con- 
sidered individually by the court and 
are still, we believe, awaiting decision. 
(The Surrey, Vol. 42, No. 5). 

It seems then, that cases which ap- 
peared strong enough to hold the per- 
sons concerned through long months of 
confinement — six months, a year, a year 
and a half — to take them up to and past 
the Secretary of Labor, across the 
breadth of a continent and into the 
detention pen of the immigrant station, 
waiting only for ships to carry them 
off, — that these cases turned out, after 
scrutiny, to be too weak to hold at all 
in over one-half of those re-examined, 
and tinder considerable doubt in the 

How has such a situation arisen, and 
does it indicate something wrong in our 
laws and procedure that should be 
changed, to avoid so much unnecessary 
expense to the government and hard- 
ship to individuals? 

— We arc always ready to furnish such 
back numbers <>f die F. R. as we have in 




International Catholic Defense 
Now that peace has returned, the 
London Universe (No. 3051) makes 
the timely suggestion that the scheme, 
which was in contemplation shortly be- 
fore the war, for organizing Catholic 
resources in the important matter of 
Catholic defence, be again taken up. 
The idea (as our readers may remem- 
ber, for we discussed the subject on 
various occasions in the F. R.) is to 
found an international Catholic defence 
organization, with well-equipped cen- 
ters in various countries, by means of 
which any calumny against the faith, 
in any part of the world, could be swift- 
ly traced to its source and effectively 

"The scheme sounds ambitious," says 
our esteemed contemporary, "and to 
some it may appear difficult ; yet in 
reality the initial steps are simple and 
easily secured, depending primarily 
upon zeal and good will, which we do 
not doubt would be immediately forth- 
coming. An index of docketed infor- 
mation, and the exchanging and filing 
C'f Catholic newspapers, would form 
part of the routine in each country , 
while pending an entirely independent 
organization of international bureaux, 
there are already a number of suitable 
Catholic societies which might be en- 
listed for the beginnings of the work, 
c. g., in Great Britain and America, the 
Catholic Truth Society ; in Germany. 
the Volksverein ; in France, the Bonne 
Presse," to which we may add, in the 
U. S. the Catholic Central Society, 
through its Central Bureau. 

A suggstive essay on the whole sub- 
ject was published by the English Cath- 
olic Truth Society before the war, and 
we trust that its recommendations will 
again be taken in hand as a part of 
the first fruits "of international peace. 
Organized defence of our common 
faith may perhaps be one of the means, 
under God, of healing among Catholics 
much of the enmity and bitterness 
which the war brought in its train. 


— The appearance of a Motorists' Pro- 
tective League suggests a new class division 
of society in'o petroletarians and pedestrians. 

Protestant Children in Catholic 
To the Editor: — 

Apropos of the article, "Non-Cath- 
olic Children in Catholic Schools," in 
the July 1st issue of the F. R., I wish 
to state that in my twenty years' experi- 
ence as a parochial school teacher, I 
have not been able to see how we Cath- 
olics can gain any lasting benefit by 
filling up our school rooms with non- 
Catholic children. If we try thereby to 
gain prestige and the good will of non- 
Catholics, I think, we shall miss our 
purpose. In compromising with those 
of different belief, we Catholics are al- 
ways the losers. If it is the financial 
support that we are looking for, then, 
I am' afraid this money will work mis- 
chief among us. I see how one school 
is trying to outdo the other, especially 
when it comes to the "Grand Com- 
mencement Exercises." In this compe- 
tition this very same "financial support" 
plays a doubtful role. I have sat at 
commencement exercises this summer 
in this city of about 150,000 inhabitants, 
that lasted for hours and hours, where 
the expense to the school and the par- 
ents ranged from $1000 to $2000, ex- 
clusively for the commencement, which, 
of course, is advertising on a large scale. 
During some of these performances, by 
Catholic school children together with 
their non-Catholic classmates, not one 
wcrd relative to God, His saints, or re- 
ligion, or virtue, or anything of that 
for which our Catholic Church stands, 
was heard from beginning to end. The 
trouble with most of us is that we keep 
our religion hidden within our hearts 
and outwardly act as 100% heathens. 
1 have, at various times, been called an 
optimist; if there is a pessimistic side 
to this subject, I beg my guardian angel 
not to let me see it. 

In regard to the Catholic parochial 
school in Goliad, Tex., "free to Catho- 
lics and non-Catholics " I absolutely 
fail to see any sense in it. 

A Teacher 

— How about that new subscriber you 
promised to send us last year? It is still 
time to keep your promise. 



August 1 

A Masonic Candidate for the 

The New York Times, in a London 
cablegram dated June 27th. reported 
that "John W. Davis. I". S, ambassador 
to Great Britain, was appointed Senior 
Warden of the Grand Lodge of Eng- 
land at a session held in Albert Hall. 
1 his honor, unique for a foreigner, was 
conferred upon Ambassador Davis by 
the Duke of Connaught, Grand Master 
of the Lodge. Ten thousand [ ?] per- 
sons attended the ceremony." 

Further along Mr. Davis is puffed as 
"excellent presidential timber," and the 
correspondent says that "on all sides 
Davis is here [in London] mentioned 
as the Democratic nominee" in the next 
campaign to succeed Wilson. 

It will be well for honest Americans 
to watch this British boom for a man 
whose chief qualification seems to be 
that he is a high-degree Freemason. 

Catholics in the U. S. Senate 

To the discussion of this topic ( F. R., 
XXVI, No. 12. p. 189; No. 13. p. 204) 
an Idaho reader contributes the follow- 
ing note: 

I attended the church at Silver City. 
Senator Nugent's home, for three years 
but never saw him at services. 1 hear 
the same from one who knew him at 

( hir correspondent adds : 

"\\ e Idahoans are prouder of Senator 
Borah than of Senator Nugent, who 
was only a 'dark horse' in the race for 
the senatorship. Mr. Borah is not a 
Catholic, I regret to say, but he is al- 
ways ready to defend truth and justice 
and very favorable to the Catholic 

So far the net result of our inquiries 
has been that of the six U. S. senators 
nputcd to be Catholics, WaMi of Mas- 
sachusetts is a practicing Catholic, 
Kan-dell of Louisiana is reputed to be 
one, Ashursl of Arizona lias been occa- 
sionally -('li at Mass in Washington, 
while- the Catholicity of the other three 
remain- doubtful. 

Hence we were not very wide of the 
mark when we penned our original note 
in Xo. 12. 

A Guild for Priests' Housekeepers 

According to the Universe (No. 
3051), a guild has been formed in Eng- 
land for priests' housekeepers. It is 
called Guild of St. Catherine of Siena 
and was organized by the Dominican 
Tertiaries at Leicester, with the appro- 
bation of the Bishop of Nottingham. 

The following rules have been adopt- 
ed : 

I 1 ) That the Guild shall be for 
priests' housekeepers. 

(2) That members wishing to join 
shall send their names and addresses to 
the Directors of the Guild at Corpus 
Christi House, Leicester. 

( 3 ) That members shall desire to 
fulfil their duties in the spirit of service 
of Our Lord in the person of His priest. 

( 4 ) That members shall desire to 
make themselves efficient in the dis- 
charge of their duties, as do women 
taking up other branches of service for 

In connection with the Guild a train- 
ing centre will be established, at which 
members can learn any of the varied 
duties of a priest's housekeeper. 

There is a wide and fertile field for 
an American branch of this timely 
organization, and especially for a train- 
ing school of the kind St. Catherine's 
(mild intends to establish. 


go to 


408 Washington Avenue 





Let's Get Back to Freedom! 

There may be many things this coun- 
try needs, but more espionage legisla- 
tion is not one of them. Not more but 
less of that is what the situation calls 
for. Congress should repeal the exist- 
ing espionage acts. The President 
should proclaim amnesty for all persons 
sentenced, convicted or still awaiting 
trial under those laws. It is time, too, 
to pardon all those conscientious ob- 
jectors to war now in various military 
prisons. Ordinary law, as it has always 
existed, is competent to deal with 

crimes of violence This country 

should learn from the experience of 
revolutionists. The policy of "thor- 
ough" has availed nothing in the past in 
Russia, or Germany, or Spain. Where 
opinion is freest in Europe, there is the 
least trouble with violent outbreaks — 
in Great Britain and France. The thing 
to do in this country is to "take the lid 
off," to stop muzzling speech and press. 
It is the drastic suppression of opinions 
that produces explosions into revolu- 
tionary action The preventive 

measures recommended by certain 
statesmen do not prevent. The way 
to dispel discontent is to remove the 
causes thereof. And the chief cause of 
present discontent is too much strait- 
jacketing of the people's minds and 
even of their normal, innocent appetites. 
There is too much prohibition of all 
kinds. The slate should be wiped clean 
as to all war offenders. Let us get back 
to freedom and aw r ay from all the 
Prussianism that has been evoked here 
in order to destroy Prussianism else- 
where. — Wm. Marion Reedy in Reedy's 
Mirror, Vol. XXVIII, No. 24. 

Official Organs and "Miraculous 

To the Editor: — 

Referring to the note in No. 14 of 
the F. R., page 221, about a paper in 
Africa "published under the direct in- 
spiration of God," allow me to observe 
that perhaps the closest we get to that 
in this country is the Poston Pilot, — 
though, for all I know, "the largest 
Catholic paper in the United States" 
might dispute the Pilot's title. 

It is not unfair to say of most of our 
"official organs" that they assume the 
"direct inspiration" attitude, even 
though they do not make the claim in 
so many words. 

Apropos of the query regarding Fr. 
Mollinger ( F. R., XXVI, 220), have 
you noted the heading of the enclosed 
advertisement from the official organ 
of the Buffalo diocese : 

Miraculous Remedies 
Father Alollinger, 
Eminent Priest-Physician's 
Wonderful Legacy 
to Suffering Humanity. 
Celebrated Healer's Magic Prescrip- 
tions : 
How misleading to good simple- 
minded folk ! "Miraculous Remedies" ! ! 
And note the long list of them, — almost 
a quarter of a column, — for all sorts 
of diseases, from whooping cough to 
gall stones and St. Vitus Dance. They 
have not overlooked anything, appar- 

Father Mollinger may have been a 
priest, and a very good one ; but the 
way in which his remedies are adver- 
tised and exploited is open to serious 
objections. F. C. E. 

WANTED, complete back volumes of the Fort- 
nightly Review, bound or unbound. Send offer to 
Fr. Edwin, O.F.M., Mt. St. Sepulchre, Brookland 
Sta., Washington, D. C. 

St. Benedict's 

Atchison, Kansas 

For Boys and Young Men 

Conducted by the 
Benedictine Fathers 

Write for Catalogue 

Rev. 'Director 


August 1 

The K. of C. and Our Colored 

To the Editor: — 

I have been reading different views 
expressed in the F. R. on the subject 
of granting councils of K. of 0. to the 
Negroes. I am working among the 
colored people and naturally am very 
much concerned in every movement 
that would help the work. I am. how- 
ever, not at all in favor of granting to 
the colored people councils of the K. 
of C. 

The colored people have a Catholic 
Knighthood, the Knights of Peter 
Claver. True, this organization is not 
very strong and has a good many odds 
against it. But it has done well so far. 
in fact, 1 dare say the K. of C. could 
hardly have done better among the 

To my mind the difficulties the 
Knights of Peter Claver meet with are 
to be sought not in the order as such, 
but rather in the small number of 
Catholic Negroes and the peculiar con- 
dition of Catholic mission work among 
the Negroes here in the South. 

Let me ask the Knights of Columbus 
to aid their colored brethren in their 
struggle to make the Knights of Peter 
Claver a success. The Knights of 
Peter Claver is a Negro organization, 
built up by the Negro, and you do no 
Favor to the Negro if you tear down 
what he has built up himself and offer 
him a white knighthood in its stead. 
i Rev.) J. J. Steinhauer, S.V.D. 
Little R»ck. Ark. 

The St. Louis Catholic Historical 

The St. Louis Catholic Historical 
RezHew, in its April number, which ap- 
peared in July, has a paper on "Missou- 
ri's Earliest Settlement and its Name" 
by Fr. L. Kenny, S.J., in which it is 
contended, with considerable verisimili- 
tude, that the first white settlement on 
the Mississippi was made on the west 
side of the river, near the mouth of the 
River des Peres, by the early Jesuit 
Fathers, from whose presence the latter 
river derived its name. 

The Rev. John Rothensteiner, in the 
same number, by the help of unpub- 
lished letters, throws additional light on 
the relations existing between Father 
Charles Ncrinckx, the famous founder 
and superior of the Lorettine sister- 
hood, and the diocese of St. Louis. 

We regret to learn that the new 
Review is not finding the support which 
it deserves. It is well worth two dollars 
per an mon, and we urge our readers, 
especially those residing in the Missis- 
sippi Valley, to send their subscriptions 
to the Catholic Historical Societv of St. 
Louis, 209 Walnut Str., St. Louis, Mo. 

— Senator La Follette, of Wisconsin, 
said in a recent address (see The Public, 
No. 1 1 10) , that if some great playwright 
would dramatize the evidence collected 
by congressional and government inves- 
tigators of the meat packers and carry 
it to the people, it would cause a revolu- 



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— In consequence of a recent decision 
of the attorney-general of Indiana, no 
teacher wearing the garb of a nun can 
be legally employed in the public schools 
of that State. 

— We read in an Associated Press 
despatch that "the French government 
is considering action to reduce the price 
of necessaries." What is our govern- 
ment doing to bring down the H. C. L. ? 

■ — Catholic girls who wish to devote 
themselves to social service work are 
urged to communicate with the Director 
of the School of Social Work, Duquesne 
University, Vandergrift Bdg., Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. 

* — The following notice was displayed 
in a saloon just before war-time prohi- 
bition went into effect : 

"Hush, little bar-room, 
Don't you cry; 
You'll be a drug store 
By and by." 

— A new "Christian Prayer Book," 
published by the Protestant Society of 
SS. Peter and Paul and reviewed in 
Catholic Book Notes (London, No. 
247), directs the user to ask God to 
"bless the Pope" and contains Visits to 
the Holy Sacrament, the Rosary, the 
Salve Regina and Memorare, together 
with reflections on Purgatory, Penance, 
and Extreme Unction! 

— The Rev. Charles Nelson, pastor of 
Grace Chapel, Long Island City, N. Y., 
has introduced a jazz band and vaude- 
ville as parts of his Sunday service. "I 
am going to mix life with the gospels," 
he is quoted as saying (Globe-Democrat, 

July 10), "then the people will come to 
church every Sunday." It remains to be 
seen whether "the people" will take to 
what our contemporary calls the "ser- 
mon sandwich." 

— Despite the agitation against the 
use of submarines by Germany in the 
late war we find Admiral Sims advocat- 
ing the development of this barbarous 
instrument of warfare by the U. S., and 
the N. Y. Evening Post (June 3) says 
that "if another international conflict 
should occur, all participants would un- 
doubtedly use not only submarines, but 
liquid lire, poison gas, and other weap- 
ons yet to be discovered, and still more 

— The following tribute to the F. R. 
from the editorial page of the Canadian 
Freeman (July 3rd) is doubly appreci- 
ated by us because it comes from a 
quondam antagonist : "There is not a 
more scholarly little Catholic periodical 
published in America than Preuss's 
Fortnightly Review. We may not al- 
ways see eye to eye with its courageous 
editor but our admiration for his Cath- 
olic labors as editor is unqualifiedly 

— The London Saturday Review (No. 
3322) says that one of the greatest 
faults of Mr. Lloyd George is "that he 
cannot, or wiU'not, prepare the words 
of a speech, no matter how important 
the occasion. He will not even read the 
notes prepared for him by others, but 
very often takes a sound sleep before 
going to a meeting, at which he speaks 
like an inspired preacher." This ex- 
plains much. 

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August 1 

— At the annual commemoration of 

Roger Bacon held at Oxford, June 11th. 
Father Joseph Rickaby, S.J., said in the 
course of an eloquent address that, had 
the Schoolmen listened to Roger Bacon 
when he urged them to widen the hasis 
of their knowledge by experimental 
science, by the study of history, and the 
original texts of Sacred Scripture, there 
would have been no such decline of 
Scholasticism as actually took place in 
the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. 

—The Western Watchman says (Vol. 
XXXII, Xo. 11) that any international 
criminal procedure which' would involve 
the late German Emperor in personal 
accountability for the crimes committed 
in Belgium — the strongest count against 
him — "will come dangerouslv near to 
preparing the way for the arraignment 
and trial of England's present ruler for 
atrocities committed against his sup- 
posed Irish [and. we may add, Indian 
and Egyptian] subjects." 

— A woman writes to the N. Y. Even- 
ing Post to enquire how women, now 
that they have the right to vote, are to 
get their grievances and complaints be- 
fore the public, as the newspapers refuse 
to print them. She says she wrote three 
tunes to certain newspapers that the 
building in which her son worked had 
no fire escape, but not a line was ever 
published, presumably because the ac- 
cused corporation was a large and 
wealthy one that dispensed much ad- 
vertising patronage. 

— With the smoke curtain that the 
censorship and its ally, the capitalistic 
press, have thrown around Russian 
affairs, it is impossible for the ordinary 
reader to obtain a fair idea what the 
Bolsheviki and their policies really are, 
and it will probably take a long time and 
considerable fearless criticism before we 
can dispel this smoky cloud and be able 
to see the Russian revolution in its true 
colors. Meanwhile we must perforce 
content ourselves with whatever frag- 
mentary evidence we can obtain. 

^ — The Saturday Review (London, 
No. 3322) thinks that the enfranchise- 
ment of 8,000.000 women in Great Brit- 
ain means that the female now outnum- 
ber the male voters. The change, says 
our contemporary, will have results little 
dreamt of. "No government now would 
dare to insist on women giving up their 
places to the men who have fought, as 
they ought to ; no member of Parliament 
would dare to vote for any such legis- 
lation. The women wear the breeches 
now. and we are a press-and-petticoat- 
ridden nation.'' 

— The Echo justly censures the Cath- 
olic Telegraph for praising General 
A .\ ood because in a recent speech he 
complimented the Catholic Church for. 
having "always stood for law and order 
and turned its forces against the red 
Hag." — "It's about ■ time," says our 
esteemed contemporary (Vol. V, No. 
22), "for the Catholic press of the coun- 

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try to accept some of these tributes 
with some critical reservation. If by 
law and order is meant the maintenance 
of a state of affairs that will guarantee 
capitalists undiminished profits, we de- 
mur. The Church is not the bulwark 
of plutocracy." 

— The Rev. Dr. R. A. MacEachen 
informs the Catholic press that the 
Pontifical Commission of Sacred Ar- 
chaeology is preparing to excavate more 
of the ancient Roman catacombs, where- 
in so many of the early martyrs were 
buried. Before the war the Catholics 
of Europe defrayed the expenses of 
this work ; now they are reduced to 
poverty, and the Commission appeals to 
America. Dr. MacEachen, who is at 
present staying at the Catholic Univer- 
sity, Washington, D. C, is ready to 
forward contributions for this purpose 
to the Cardinal Vicar. 

— Charles E. Hughes in a recent 
speech protested against the curtailment 
of free speech during the war. "I do 
not think," he said among other things, 
"we can ever accomplish much for 
democracy by stifling the essential 
organs of democracy." Mr. Hughes did 
not open his mouth to complain about 
the supression of free speech while it 
was being suppressed. And the same 
holds true of other prominent politicians 
who now stand up for constitutional 

rights. They are strong for liberty 
when they can advocate it without dan- 

— "Consumers are unconsciously 
working harm to themselves and live- 
stock producers," says the Acting Sec- 
retary of Agriculture, "by now restrict- 
ing their consumption of meat." Yet the 
Acting Secretary speaks of "excessive 
retail prices," which "are not justified 
by the wholesale quotations," and states 
that while dressed beef at wholesale 
has declined 15 to 30 per cent, retail 
beef "has been at a standstill in many 
cities, nay, has even increased as much 
as 20 per cent on some cuts in some 
cities." We are used to harsh treat- 
ment ; but to be reproached by the gov- 
ernment because we do not quietly sub- 
mit to profiteering, is too much. 


Literary Briefs 

— "Your Neighbor and You," by the Rev. 
E. F. Garesche, S.J., has made its appearance 
in a second edition. Two new. chapters have 
been added to the former eighteen: "In a 
Little While" and "Fasting Sans Headaches." 
The book well merits a wide circulation, 
containing as it does most helpful thought 
and guidance for men and women in* every 
walk of life. Chapters like those entitled 
"Our Talk at Home," "Laymen's Retreats," 
should be read and pondered by everyone. 
(Benziger Bros.; 75 cts.). 

Quincy College and Seminary 




: ISES^ Sixtieth Year Opens September 10, 1919 <*3~f : : 

Only Catholics Admitted as Boarders 

For Information and Year Book address 




August 1 

— The well-known French litterateur Pierre 
l'Ermite (.Peter the Hermit) has been men- 
Honed repeatedly in this magazine, and some 
details concerning his activity will therefore 
DO doubt be welcome to our readers. Pierre 
I'Enntte is the pen name of the Abbe Loutil, 
Vicar of Saint Peter's at Chaillot, near Paris. 
He was born at Mohon. in 186^, and in the 
excellent bibliography oi French writers, by 
the Abbe Louis Bethleem. he is listed as 
"writer, artist, and apostle." The latter term 
no doubt refers to his efforts in Christian 
social reform. Pierre l'Ermite has for many 
years been a contributor to the well-known 
Catholic newspaper La Croix, In this publi- 
cation his novels, sketches, and dialogues 
have been printed every Sunday. Many of 
them have been reissued in book-form, under 
very engaging titles. They have the gayety 
and lightness of touch, the naive simplicity 
and sometimes the rollicking drollery of the 
typical conte of the middle ages. This is the 
verdict of the eminent critic whom we have 
just mentioned— the Abbe Bethleem. These 
works constitute the influence and the glory 
of their author, while "they render the soul 
of the reader susceptible to the highest in- 
fluences." Some of Pierre l'Ermite's novels 
have been translated into English. One of 
them, entitled "Alberta," is an eloquent 
plea in favor of rural life. "Le grand Muflo" 
presents vividly a type which is unfortunately 
quite common in France to-day,— that of the 
priest-hater and reviler of Christianity. "The 
Mighty Friend," the work best known to 
English readers, has been crowned by the 
French Academy. "The Enterprise" is a 
sodaf novel with a purpose. It turns on the 
strife of the farm with the factory, of the 
old-time land aristocracy against the wiles 
<-f "cosmopolitan Jewry." Amid poignant, 
melodramatic, and picturesque scenes it 
brings out the contrast between the benev- 
olent, simple rustic, and the opulent city man. 
h :-. in brief, a warning to the peasant to 
beware of the ways of the big cities. 

—The Rev. A. M. Micheletti's 'Constitu- 
tiones Scminariorum Clericalium ex Codice 
Piano-Benedictino Omnium Gentium Sacris 
InstiturJs Accommodatae," (Turin: Marietti; 
-45 PP-. 4 : frs. \>) is an excellent book in- 
tended for the government of clerical semi- 
naries according to the genuine ecclesiastical 
spirit and law. ,\> a preamble, the law- of 
the New Code relating to seminaries are set 
forth. Then follow the constitutions of semi- 
naries: Part I. The Officials; Part II, The 
Students, The last section treats of the 
method- of studies. An appendix of thirty- 
three useful formularies completes the work. 
The author's long experience as rector of 
Leonianum in Rome vouches for his 
thoroughness and solidity. The ideas of S. 

Charles Boiromeo are much in evident e 

throughout the book, which may be heartily 

mended to the rectors, spiritual dinc- 

and prefects of our seminaries. The 

students also can draw fruitful lessons from 
its perusal. — Fr. Chas. Augustine, O.S.B. 

— "De Censuris iuxta Codicem Iuris Ca- 
nonici." by Felix M. Capello, S.J. (Turin: 
Marietti; .207 pp., lire 5.50) is written in 
easily intelligible Latin, and the exposition, 
with a few exceptions, is as clear and plain 
as the style. Concerning the solution of 
single questions, one might differ from the 
apthor in some points, for instance, witb 
regard to peregrini (p. 11) and exempt re- 
ligious (p. \2, where he might have mentioned 
can. 616; can 1103, quoted on p. 18, has noth- 
ing to do witli the matter). The book only 
treats of censures, not of penalties in the 
strict sense, and the treatment does not 
strictly follow the order of the Code. The 
print is very legible, though somewhat mo- 
notonous. — Fr. Chas. Augustine, O.S.B. 

Books Received 

Lord, S. J. 
The America 

Armchair Philosophy. By Daniel A, 
iv & 11J pp. 12mo. 5Jew York': 

A Practical Course in Latin Composition. With Notes 
ami References to the Author's "Aids" Designed 
for Use in the Freshman Class. By James A. 
Kleist, S.J., Ph.D., St. Ignatius College, Cleve- 
land, O. 46 pp. 16mo. Chicago: Loyola University 
Press. (Wrapper). 

Year Book of the Diocese of Indianapolis 1919. 
Issued from the Chancery with the approval of 
the Rt. Rev. Joseph Chartrand, D.D., Bishop of 
Indianapolis. 96 pp. 12mo. (Wrapper). 

The Priest's Canonical Prayer. From the French 
of Rev. Charles Willi, C.SS.R., by Rev. Ferreol 
Cirardey, C.SS.R. vi & 66 pp. 1 61110. B. Herder 
Book Co. 50 cts. net. 

Sons le Poincj de Fer. Qatre Ans dans un Fau- 
bourg de Lille. Par Albert Droulers. 245 pp. 
l2mo. Paris: Blond & Cay. 1918. Fr. 3.00. 
( Wrapper). 

Quaint "lis" £taicnt a Saint-Quentin. Par Ilen- 
riette Celarie. 238 pp. 12mo. Paris: Bloud & 
Gay. 1918. Fr. 3.00. (Wrapper). 

Requiem Mass and Burial Service from the Missal 
and Ritual. Bv John T. Wynne, S.T- 38 pp. 16mo. 
N'ew York: The Home Press, 23 E. 41st Str. 
Self-covered, 5 cts.; in heavy black paper cover, 
gilt lettering, 15c; in black cloth, gilt lettering, 
3J etc.; in water grain buffing, 60 cts. 

An experienced 
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REV. J. V. Ryan, C.S.V., President 

The Fortnightly Review 

VOL. XXVI, NO. 16 


August IB, 1919 

An Australian Voice on the Peace 

The Sidney Catholic Press, Austra- 
lia's leading Catholic paper, says of the 
peace treaty (No. 1220) : 

"The Holy Father since the begin- 
ning of the war urged a peace by agree- 
ment. A peace imposed by the victors 
on the vanquished he opposed, because 
such a peace, however settled, would 
only sow the seed of future trouble. He 
expressed these views when the tri- 
umph of Germany seemed probable. 
We can, of course, understand, if we 
can not appreciate, the attitude of 
France. Rismarck made the thoughts 
of France the thoughts of revenge, and 
the thoughts of the German govern- 
ment thoughts of conquest. Now, 
France has had her revenge. She sees 
her conqueror of 1871 humiliated. Her 
lost provinces are restored. But that is 
not the end. For Clemenceau and Foch, 
in 1919, hold the opinions of the Bis- 
marck of 1871. There lies the diffi- 
culty, and not a difficulty only ; but a 
very serious menace to the future peace 
of the world. France desires to inflict 
upon Germany every humiliation, every 
indignity, and every loss that Germany 
inflicted upon her in 1870. The peace 
terms show that she has succeeded. We 
must remember that we are dealing not 
with the Hohenzollerns, but with 70,- 
000,000 Germans, besides the people of 
Austro-Hungarv. If these people are 
enslaved, because of the crimes of their 
irresponsible rulers, what chance is 
there of a democratic peace? Victory 
for Clemenceau and Foch in the Peace 
Conference, we fear, means militarism 
in Europe for many years to come, with 
a further horrible war in the offing. 

"The English people have had no 
voice in the Peace Conference. The 
peace terms have been made by the old 
Tory gang, the Balfours, the Curzons, 
and the Cecils, with Lloyd George as 
their catspaw. The Dominion represen- 

tation has been farcical. Our 'ambas- 
sadors' have figured only on the door- 
step of the conference chamber, or on 
the streets of Paris. Canada is already 
objecting to some of the clauses, for 
Canada is unwilling to get mixed up 
in future European rows, which do not 
concern her. Australia, too, is waking 
up to find that the war has only saddled 
her with a financial burden which she 
will find it difficult to bear, and that the 
peace terms and so-called League of 
Nations are entangling her in old-world 
responsibilities, the end of which no one 
can foresee." 

Translating Horace 

Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch, in an essay 
on Horatian translators in his "Studies 
in Literature," treats the old Latin poet 
much more flatteringly than did a recent 
study published by Sir Henry Newbolt. 
"Q" thinks that the best translator of 
Horace is Conington, though Theodore 
Martin surpasses him in occasional bril- 
liance. Horace's secret is most defiant 
of capture in his Odes, the Satires and 
Epistles having been imitated with 
much success by men like Bishop Hall, 
Cleveland, Oldham, Dryden, Pope, 
Goldsmith, and Cowper. In the Odes 
lies "that witchery of style which, the 
moment you lose grasp of it, is dissi- 
pated into thin air and eludes your con- 
centrated pursuit." 

Sir Arthur admits that Milton's son- 
nets, and especially Marvell's Ode on 
Cromwell's Return from Ireland, 
breathe the very spirit of Horace, and 
are equals of the best of the Latin poet's 
work ; but to sustain Horace's note he 
thinks has not yet been shown a pos- 
sibility. If it is ever to be done, he be- 
lieves that it will be through a render- 
ing of the Horatian genius "in delicate 
metres divorced from rhyme," on the 
style of Campion and of Collins's "Ode 
to Evenimr." 



August 15 

Your Judgments 

By Dante (Wright's translation') 
T i your judgments give ye not the reins 

With too much eagerness, like him who ere 
The corn be ripe, is fain to count the grains: 
For 1 have seen the hriar through the winter 

snow s 
Look sharp and stiff — yet on a future day 
Hi^h on its summit hear the tender rose. 

The Opal City 
By Dean 1 Iakris 
III i Conclusion) 

It was from the Convent of the Ca- 
puchinas — now a private residence — 
that Maximilian and his two generals 
were led to death to the "Cerro de las 
Campanas — the Hill of the Hells." on 
the morning of June 19, 1867. Half- 
way between the Hill and the Convent 
was an adobe wall against which the 
Emperor and his companions were 
placed, and a firing squad stationed 
eighteen feet in front of them. 

Maximilian had asked and obtained 
as a favor that he might he shot through 
the heart, that his mother, when his 
body was brought to Austria, might 
view the face of her son unmutilated. 
He and his generals were attended to 
the last by their confessor, Father 
Soria, who wrote that the last words 
spoken by Maximilian before his death 
were: '*! forgive all, and 1 ask that all 
may forgive me. ! pray my blood may 
be the last to be poured out for the 
good of Mexico." Miramon and Mejia 
were killed by the fire first, and a 
second volley was ordered to put an 
end to the Emperor's life. 

There is a tradition among the peo- 
ple of Queretaro, that Mejia assured 
the Emperor the day before the execu- 
tion that hi> wife, the Empress Carlotta, 
had died in Vienna. This the General 
told him to comfort him in his last 
hours, and Maximilian believed him, 
if nsoling himself with the hope of 

meeting her in the world beyond the 

grave. Hi> body wa^ embalmed, en- 
closed in a rose-wood coffin with metal 
. and sent to Austria to be buried 
at Miramar. 

The |»l;i< •<• "t' execution was for some 

-. '-ar> marked by throe stone pillars en- 
closed by an iron railing. A beautiful 

memorial chapel, built by the Ducal 
House of Austria, now covers the 
ground where the unhappy Emperor 
sank to his death. 

The United States government, 
through its Secretary of State, asked 
that the life of the Emperor be spared 
and banishment substituted, but the 
request was ignored. Many prominent 
and wealthy Mexicans pleaded in vain 
with the President, Benito Juarez, to 
stay the execution. The romantic Prin- 
cess Salm-Salm, then touring Mexico, 
went on horseback one hundred and 
thirty miles, across a rough country, 
to San Luis Potosi, where Juarez had 
his headquarters, and implored the 
dictator to spare the life of Maximilian ; 
but in vain. 

During the siege of Queretaro the 
Empress Carlotta sailed for Europe, 
and after appealing in vain to Napoleon 
III for help, and for the intervention 
of the Supreme Pontiff, Pius IX, the 
broken-hearted woman became mad 
and until the day of her pathetic death 
never regained possession of her reason. 
For nearly fifty years she was tenderly 
watched and waited upon in a castle 
near Rruges. 

In the National Museum, Mexico 
City, are the full-length portraits in oil 
of the Emperor and Empress, and of 
the fatalist Napoleon III. Here, too, 
are the state coach brought from Cha- 
pultepec, the landau of the Empress, 
the silver table service, and many inter- 
esting -memorials and souvenirs of the 
young and fair Carlotta, when she 
reigned a queen surrounded by the valor 
and beauty of the Empire of Mexico 
and the Ducal House of Ilapsbttrg. 

They are one and all pathetic memo- 
rials of days of pleasure and humilia- 
tion, painful reminders of the insecu- 
rity and mutability of high hopes and 
aspirations, warning the proud and the 
ambitious that "The paths of glory lead 
but to tlu- grave.'* 

Queretaro is full of relics of Max- 
imilian. The city was alwas loyal to 
him. Mere are the gold-plated keys, 
very massive and deftly made, that 
were presented to him when he made 
Ins first imperial entry to the romantic 




city; and here, loo, are the table, the 
chairs, the pens, used at the court 
martial which met in the Theatro Itur- 
bide and sentenced him to death. They 
are all — these souvenirs of the dead 
Imperialist — fascinatingly interesting, 
but profoundly sad with a suggestion 
of glory gone and hopes buried. 

The State of Queretaro is rich in 
arable land, but agriculture languishes. 
The Federal and local governments 
have infused no enterprise into the 
great landholders and the tillers of the 
soil are without energy. The city large- 
ly depends for its support and prosper- 
ity on the agricultural districts sur- 
rounding it. Its chief manufactures 
are the weaving of rebosos (the cotton 
shawl worn by ordinary women) and 
the cutting of opals, both cottage indus- 
tries. In the poorer quarters of the 
city almost every house is equipped with 
a loom and members of the family 
alternate in the weaving of the brightly 
colored yarns. Queretaro rebosos are 
of a superior make and in the pictur- 
esque market square they are spread on 
the ground for the inspection of cus- 

The opal-workers bring the stone 
from the mountains and break the opals 
from the enveloping ore with tweezers. 
It is very interesting to watch the pro- 
cess. They wrench the rock away from 
the gem with reckless energy, but with 
a skill and deftness of touch which long 
practice has made perfect. The rough 
opal is fixed with wax on the end of 
a stick and ground smooth on a small 
grindstone. The polish is produced by 
sandpaper and fawn skin. The process 
is amazingly crude, but the results are 
beautiful. The opal-worker is conceded 
to be a master of his art if he turns out 
twenty gems in a day. 

The opals which are found in con- 
siderable quantities and of brilliant 
tints in the surrounding mountains arc 
said to be superior to any mined in 
Asia or America. They are classified 
as white, yellow, red, brown, blue, 
green, and gray. These Queretaro 
opals exhibit a beautiful display of 
colors when turned over in the hand, 
and the dealers are accustomed to show 

them upon black paper, which contrasts 
with the play of light and shade. The 
finest opals are believed to come from 
Australia and from Hungary, simply 
because those from Queretaro are so 
little known. This land, however, pro- 
duces fine varieties, and among them 
the wonderful fire-opal, distinguished 
by its fire-red reflections. The common 
opal has no color reflection from with- 
in. It is the opal of silicified wood and 
is known as wood-opal. Among the 
great variety of opals found here is the 
hyalite, a white transparent species. 
Then there are others of fine water and 
many varieties of hue appearing in 
veins of feldspathic porphyry. These 
are also found in trachytic rock with 
specimens showing a white ground and 
with a play of delicate green and red 
tints, while others have a dark ground, 
from which the light reflects its rays 
extremely red. Within quite recent 
years, an opal of the finest water, 
nearly eleven inches in length and five 
in width, from Queretaro was exhibited 
in San Francisco. It was valued at 
$10,000. The best stones are found on 
the Esperanza estate, about one hun- 
dred miles from Queretaro. They are 
opals of great variety and rare delicacy 
of hue. They are mostly of violet tint, 
but also occur in dark blue colors, 
throwing out focal fire of great intens- 
ity. W. R. Harris 
East Toronto, Canada 

— The San Francisco Monitor (XLI, 
10) wonders what may be the purpose 
of our government in sending an ar- 
mada of 175 fighting ships from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific coast, "after a 
war to end war by disarmament and a 
just peace." Evidently, it is the fear of 
Japan. "If Japan should go to war to 
retain Shantung," says our contempo- 
rary, "her first blow would fall on the 
western coast of America. At the same 
time Great Britain might find a good 
excuse to strike on our Eastern coast. 
Then the U. S. might rue the day it 
compelled democratic Germany to dis- 
arm so that now it is not permitted even 
to put down insurrection on its own 



August 15 

Concerning a Prophecy of Leo XIII 
The remarkable letter of the Bishop 
of Sal ford, as quoted in the F. R. 
i XXVI, 15. 227). seems to be based 
upon indistinct memories rather than 
definite reports. There is another ver- 
sion of the event, more kindly to the 
one-time Emperor William 11 and. I 
believe, more in accordance with the 
truth of history. The incident occurred 
in 188 c \ shortly after the youthful Wil- 
liam's accession to the throne of the 
< ierman Empire. The old chancellor. 
Prince Bismarck, was still the power 
behind the throne. The Emperor and 
his brother Henry were engaged in a 
round of visits to the Courts of Europe. 
Pope Leo XIII entertained a vague 
hope that his words would have a far- 
reaching influence for good on the 
pliant mind of the young sovereign. 
Germany was at the very head of the 
march of progress. Great things might 
result from the meeting of the two most 
powerful sovereigns, the old wise Pope 
and the young well-meaning and enter- 
prising Emperor. The interview occur- 
red, but was marred, not by any ''rude 
manner" of William, as the Bishop of 
Sal ford states, but by the impertinence 
of Count Herbert Bismack, the son of 
the old Chancellor. 

I will give the contemporaneous ac- 
count of one who certainly knew, as 
preserved in the New Review, of Lon- 
don, August, 1889. The article is un- 
signed, but is entirely trustworthy, as 
coming from some Vatican source. 
After describing the feverish haste 
manifested by William in all things, the 
writer comes to the meeting of Pope 
and Kaiser : — 

"Therv is something almost touching in the 
way in which tlu- jroung Emperor was- jock- 
eyed by Counl Herbert Bismarck Muring the 
to the Pope. X" incident in his brief 
reign — always excepting the way lie out- 
raged the respect due to his fathers memory 

— created a wow impression than the ap 

• affront which he put upon the Holy 

r. But its true significance, or rather 

i'- bearing upon the personal relations of 

Emperor, Pope, and Herbert Bismarck, has 

ii'. t been hither'') quite understood outside 
the Vatican. From a Ho-er acquaintance 
with the f;ji -is. now tor th<- first time authen- 
tically set forth on fir«-t hand authority, it 
•- that the painful incident which to. k 

place at the Vatican was none of his contriv- 
ing. Count Herbert Bismarck, wdio personal- 
ly conducted his Sovereign to Vienna and to 
Rome, did not wish that the Kaiser and the 
Pope should have any opportunity for inti- 
mate or private conversation. With a charac- 
teristic combination of cunning and audacity 
he contrived to gain his end, while apparent- 
ly allowing the Kmperor to take his own 

The interview with the Pope was fixed to 
take place in private, and it was arranged 
that it should last half an hour. Count Her* 
bert settled with Ilerr Schlozer, the German 
ambassador, that the Emperor's watch should 
be ten minutes late. The Holy Father was 
kept waiting till nearly a quarter past one, 
a discourtesy for which the Emperor should 
not be made responsible. As Count Herbert 
had delayed the arrival of the Emperor, he 
expedited that of Prince Henry. Accom- 
panied by the Prince and Herr Schlozer, he 
pressed his way through to the private apart- 
ment of the Pope, immediately adjoining the 
chamber in which the Emperor and the Pope 
were conversing. 

The astonished major-domo was addressed 
impressively by the German Foreign Minis- 
ter: "A Prussian Prince cannot be kept wait- 
ing in an ante-chamber," said he. 

"But," replied the major-domo, apologet- 
ically, "this is not an ante-chamber, it is the 
private apartment of His Holiness. I cannot 
interrupt the audience; you must wait until 
His Holiness — •" "No," said Herbert Bis- 
marck, "it must be now or never. If the 
Prince is not admitted immediately we shall 
at once leave the palace." Suiting the action 
to the word, he strode forward to throw 
open the door which led to the Pope's cham- 
ber. Prince Henry stood looking ill at ease 
and somewhat foolish. The major-domo 
hesitated for a moment as to whether to 
risk a fracas, and then deciding that it was 
best to avoid scandal, opened the door. 
Prince Henry's entrance abruptly closed the 
imperial audience which had only lasted ten 
or twelve minutes instead of thirty; in other 
words, it had hardly begun. The studied in- 
solence of young Herbert Bismarck made a 
painful impression on those wdio witnessed 
il. His father, it was remarked, would never 
have been so brutal. The Chancellor can be 
violent, arrogant, and brutal but only on 
occasions, lie was bred in the old school of 
diplomacy, and he would not have conde- 
scended to bullying major-domos and jockey- 
ing his princes. It is a curious circumstance 
and worthy i>f note, that after this little 
drama had been enacted the Count, talking 
to the ambassador in German, which he im- 
agined no one present understood, chuckled 
over the skill with which he had shortened 
the audience. The ambassador rubbed his 
hands with glee. It was, no doubt, a clever 
trick, but a I rick in which the Emperor played 
the part of tool. It is a fate which often 
befalls those who imagine that they are 




carrying all before them by the sheer force 
Ot* their own initial velocity. . . . The Pope, 
who is a keen judge of character, is said to 
have passed a most unfavorable judgment on 
the Emperor William, and to have prophesied 
that his reign would end in disaster." 

This prophecy was made hy Pope 
Leo XI II thirty years ago. To-dav we 
.see it fulfilled to the letter. Leo's words 
were surely words of peace. How dif- 
ferent the course of history might have 
been, if the ruler of the German people 
and the foremost sovereign of the world 
had always been guided by the mild 
principles of the great Prince of Peace. 
(Rev.) John Rothensteiner 
St. Louis. Mo. 


Why Parish "Movies" Fail 
Lather R. Vernimont's suggestion 
(F. R., XXVI. 14. p. 218) to produce 
clean ''movies" under Catholic auspices 
in parish and school halls has been tried 
in four parishes I know of, — and found 
wanting. I myself, when stationed in 
the city of Dubuque, purchased two 
machines, one for motion pictures and 
stereopticon views, and the other for 
stereoscopic and post-card projections. 
The attendance at first was good, but 
soon diminished so that we hardly 
cleared enough to pay the rental for 
the slides and reels. 

Inquiry among the people brought out 
the fact that they considered the pic- 
tures "too tame." The taste for good 
pictures must first be cultivated. At 
present our people want sensational and 
trashy films. For instance, pictures of 
the late prize-fight would draw a fair 
crowd. Also reels of cowboy and In- 
dian life, and pictures of the war, no 
matter whether true or false. The main 
thing is that there be plenty of shooting, 
murder, "spooning," marital infidelity, 
etc. You cannot make expenses with 
films representing scenes from the lives 
of the saints or anything else which is 
clean, good, and instructive. Old and 
young, parents as well as children, de- 
sire "exciting features," as they call 
them, and insist on having them not- 
withstanding any "tame" production in 
the parish hall. 

I Rev). Aug. Bomiiolt 
Garner, fa. 

German Catholics After the War 
The different Catholic social organi- 
zations of Germany have issued an ap- 
peal to the Catholics of the world, in 
which, among other things, they say : — 

Relying on the assurances of our oppo- 
nents and in expectation of a just though 
hard and painful peace, we laid down our 
arms. What is now placed before us as a 
peace offer means, not an end of the distress 
of the war. but a prolongation of it during 
men's lifetime; it robs us of all political 
freedom and vital strength, of every possi- 
bility of industrial progress, of every pros- 
pect of a fitting development of our culture- 
power among the whole of the human race, 
in colonies, missions, and foreign commerce. 

The Catholics of Germany carried on the 
war in the honorable conviction that it was 
a just war of defence. They endeavored 
during the war to avoid everything which 
might disturb the spiritual associations of 
peoples and the unity of the Catholics. Their 
only consolation in and after the war was 
the hope that the idea of Christian justice 
and peace would triumph in a new people's 

So much the deeper and more depressing 
must be our feeling now that we are un- 
deceived. In the Paris treaty we find not 
the spirit of Christian morals and of the 
love of peace, but the most open desire for 
power, the spirit of unrestrained revenge 
and violence, from which can spring only the 
seed of new and distastrous dissensions. . . . 

Let the power of the Catholic Faith and 
the unity of Catholic sentiment prevail in 
these dark days, so that the coming peace 
may not be a reproach to honor and truth, 
but rather may faithfully bring us what was 
so often promised, and thus prepare the way 
for a happy alliance of all mankind. 

The Ave Maria (N. S., Vol. X, No. 
5) sympathetically comments on this 
touching appeal as follows : "There is 
pathos for all who are capable of feel- 
in the appeal .... The situation de- 
scribed though indeed critical, is 

not so hopeless as it would appear. The 
spirit of revenge is weakening, and in 
time will be wholly subdued. The peace- 
thoughts of the Vicar of the Prince of 
Peace are now shared by many who 
hitherto refused to entertain them. 
Prayer will effect reconciliation, and 
patience will have its reward. It is 
significant that, with full realization of 
the evils that have befallen their coun- 
try, German Catholics arc still hopeful 
of the ultimate triumph of Christian 
forces in the world." 



August 15 

Producing Bolshevists 
Commenting on the case of the de- 
ported and maltreated alien I. W. W., 
to which we referred in our last issue, 
Miss Kate Holladay Claghorn, member 
of the staff of the X. V. School of 
Social Work and of the Carnegie Cor- 
poration for the Study of Methods of 
Americanization says in the Surrey 
I Vol. LX . No. 5) :' 

It may naturally be asked why these 
people have not protected themselves 
against this sort of trouble by becom- 
ing citizens? We do not always realize 
the hindrances in the way of going 
through this process. A workingman 
rinds it difficult to take the time from 
his work for the long waiting in the 
court that is usually required. Migra- 
tory workers, like the western lumber- 
men and sailors, are not always able to 
establish a residence. Again admission 
to citizenship is discretionary with the 
examining judge. He may set up a 
standard of requirement so difficult 
that the ordinary workingman cannot 
meet it. He may also impose require- 
ments that will exclude special classes. 
The record in one of the cases now 
under consideration shows that the 
alien in question applied for first pa- 
pers but was refused them, one reason 
stated being his membership in the I. 
\V. \Y. So he is first prevented from 
becoming a citizen, then ordered de- 
ported as an alien, for his membership 
in an organization, which, whatever its 
sins, is still permitted to exist under 
the law. 

Furthermore, the foreigner is not 
sure of protection as a citizen even 
after he has obtained citizenship. His 
C4 rtiticate of naturalization may be an- 
nulled and his citizenship cancelled 
through court proceedings, as has 
actually happened in a number of cases. 
I i one of these (U. S. vs. Swelgin, 
noted in the IT. S. Immigration Bulletin 
for July 1. l r M8, and commended to 
officers of the Immigration Service for 
attention; the naturalized citizen was 
deprived of his citizenship on the 

ground thai bis certificate of natural- 
ization wrai procured by "fraud and 
ption/' in that he was not attached 

to the principles of the Constitution of 
the United States, nor "well disposed 
to the good order and happiness of the 
same" nor "is he of good moral char- 
acter" and that he "has been and now 
is a member of the organization known 
and entitled Industrial Workers of the 

Even birth within the country may 
not always protect a man. In one of 
the thirty-six cases .here discussed, the 
deportee claims rhat he was born in 
Cleveland, Ohio. This is disputed by 
the government. 

It seems, then, that with the present 
trend of official practice and opinion an 
immigrant cannot in any way make 
certain of establishing himself here 
with the full rights of a citizen to free 
thought and speech, or to free associa- 
tion for the improvement of his con- 
dition. If this movement is furthered 
in the interest of "Americanization," or 
for the destruction of "Bolshevism," 
we may well doubt whether it will 
secure the results intended. Will not 
this chasing of aliens from pillar to 
post, this suspicion of pernicious de- 
signs on their part against society, 
result in producing the very thing we 
fear — a band of bitter enemies to a 
community that can so persecute and 
misunderstand them ? 

Ex-Supreme Court Justice Hughes 
has given a much better recipe for cur- 
ing political and industrial unrest, when 
he says that "there is one thing that 
will disarm the agitator, and that is . . . 
the demonstration that democracy is 
not only a name but a way of life," and 
that the salvation of a democracy is 
"wherever there is fairness and justice 
and not a prating of fairness and 

l ust ice." 


— The I'artito Populare (Popular 
Party) of Italy, at a congress recently 
held in Bologna, announced its inten- 
tion to "combat capitalistic Liberalism" 
and to substitute for the present wage 
system a "more humane and more 
Christian plan," under which "capital 
will be reduced to its purely material 
role and labor will receive the fruits 
which it produces." 




Need of a Concerted Policy in Regard 
to the School Question 

A prominent representative of the 
French-speaking Catholics of New Eng- 
land writes to us : 

"Pardon my taking the liberty of 
telling you how right you were when, 
in the second June number of the F. R. 
(p. 186) you deplored the fact that 
there has hitherto been 'nothing in the 
way of authoritative guidance from the 
hierarchy as to what should be done' 
in regard to the menacing attitude of 
the State towards our Catholic schools. 
In New England, I believe, no two 
bishops have taken exactly the same 
attitude. Only the other week H. E. 
Cardinal O'Connell raised his voice in 
a letter which the Ligue de Kalliment 
Francais en Amerique is about to pub- 
lish in leaflet form for circulation 
among French-speaking Catholics. Of 
course, this is the opinion of one bishop 
only, and it seems to us that a collective 
letter of the American episcopate would 
have much greater force. You will see 
from a marked copy I am sending you 
of the Canado-Americain that the editor 
had arrived at pretty much the same 
conclusion as that expressed by your- 

The paper in question, under date of 
April 25, in an editorial leader said 
among other things : 

"In awaiting the determination of a 
general policy by the American hier- 
archy, it seems to us that the French- 
speaking Catholics should not split their 
forces by following the ideas of any 
one bishop in preference to those of 
another. By throwing our influence as 
a group in any particular direction, 
simply because such and such a bishop 
leans that way, we should run the risk 
of conflicting with neighboring bishops 
who hold different opinions. Until all 
the bishops come to an understanding 
in the matter, it will be advisable for us 
to do nothing. If the religious liberty 
of our schools is threatened, it is for 
the bishops to act, and for Catholic 
laymen to support them rather than to 
forestall their action." 

The need of concerted action on the 
part of the hierarchy with regard to the 

school question is becoming more 
urgent from day to day. No doubt our 
bishops at their quasi-plenary-council, 
to be held in September, will outline a 


The Fish Trust 

Boston, Mass., because of the domi- 
nating position of its port, determines 
the price of fish for the whole country. 
By organizing a gigantic "fish trust," 
seventeen persons have been able, prac- 
tically without any resisting power on 
the part of the consumer, to dictate 
ever rising prices, until the housewife 
in the hinterland of Massachusetts and 
even in far Missouri, wanted to know 
whether the Food Administration was 
fooling her in recommending a greatly 
increased consumption of fish and at 
the same time allowing the price of that 
article to rise sky-high ! However, by 
one of those "revolutionary" acts of 
which the most stolid Americans are 
occasionally capable, Judge Sanderson, 
in the Suffolk Superior Criminal Court, 
a few weeks ago, pronounced jail sen- 
tences on the members of this trust, 
rinding them guilty of conspiracy to 
raise the price of fish in war-time and 
creating a monopoly of the fish business 
throughout New England. 

Starting as the Bay State Fishing 
Company in 1905 with a capital of half 
a million dollars, the corporation dur- 
ing the war transformed itself into a 
new company with a capital of eight 
million ; and later one of the principal 
promoters formed the Atlantic Cost 
Fisheries, with a capital of twelve mil- 
lion to operate south of the New Eng- 
land coast, thus 1o prevent any effective 
competition that might have arisen 

The case, which has been appealed, 
shows the helplessness of the public to 
prevent the growth of these gigantic 
combinations, so long as they remain 
"within the law." 

— Have you renewed your subscription for 
1919? The address label will sbow. Please 
attend to the matter if you have not yet 



August 15 

The Tyranny of the Packers 
Only i»\rt oi the Federal Trade Coin- 
mission's report on the packer tyranny 
has been published. The worst is yet 
to come. Recdy's Mirror ( XXYIJI. 28) 
sums up the situation aptly as follows: 
The packers are more powerful than 
the government. The combination 
taxes the poor man's breakfast, dinner 
and supper table and the clothes on his 
hack and the shoes on his feet. Its 
profits stagger the imagination. Its 
power pervades the nation. Govern- 
mental departments can do nothing the 
combination does not approve. The 
press has to put the soft pedal on 
'"exposures" while carrying advertising 
that celebrates the philanthropic 
achievements of the engrossers and 
forestallers of the people's food. The 
packers have land privilege, incorpora- 
tion privilege, privilege in the nation's 
highways. They control both production 
and distrihution. They direct the great 
warehouses and storage plants and the 
vendors from peddlers' carts. They 
take their rake-off on the drug store 
soda fountain and they get their hit off 
every banjo string. The) have their 
profit in everything that is put up in 
cans. They own ship lines and chains 
oi city butcher shops. They deal in 
every kind of grain that is edible in 
any form. If they have competitors 
in any line the competition exists only 
• in sufferance. Often the competitors 
are only disguised subordinates of the 

What will he the result of the revela- 
tions in the Trade Commission's rc- 
port? "Possibly," says Mr. Reedy, 
"nothing more than large, fat contribu- 
tion-, by the packers to the campaign 
fund- in the next presidential election." 
Is there any popular indignation over 
the revelations? "Not so as you can 
notice it." he says. "The average cit- 
izen pays and -ays 'What'- the use "1 
kicking?' lb- doesn't care to listen to 

any remedy because any real remedy 
would prevent his doing what the pack- 
have hern diitl are doing if he erer 

gets a chance. Hi- besl approved rem 

il to get into the big game himself, 
to become, if be can, an exploiter in 

some way, large or small, instead of 
one of the exploited. He thanks God 
he's alive, and lets it go at that. He 
would stand for anything that ob- 
structs 'the career open to talent' or 
that violates the sanctity of property, 
though he has neither talent nor prop- 
erty, lie and his sons have gone forth 
and overthrown a kaiser, but he and 
they would not lift a linger against the 
packer potentates of plutocracy. 'J low 
long, O Lord, how long?' " 

The passage we have italicized in 
Mr. Reedy's comment contains the key 
to the situation. The spirit of greed 
and exploitation possesses practically 
the whole nation, and as long as it is 
not exorcised by the spirit of justice 
and charity, and an adequate social 
sense, there is no hope of betterment. 

A Protestant Preacher's Appeal For 
a Christian Daily Newspaper 

The Christian Cynosure, of Chicago 
( Vol. I J I, Xo. 4), publishes an appeal 
in favor of a Christian daily newspaper 
from the Rev. J. Clover Monsma, 
whose address is 5843 Archer Ave., 
Chicago, 111. 

Mr. Monsma begins by saying that 
among the thousands of daily newspa- 
pers published in this country not one, 
so far as he knows, is positively Chris- 
tian in character, and that, as the daily 
newspaper is the most powerful agency 
for the control of public opinion, Chris- 
tians are neglecting a great opportunity. 
Worse than that, the worldly daily 
newspaper is continually undoing the 
work of the Church and the Sunday 
school by iilling the minds of young and 
old with vile images and wrong ideas. 

The only effective cure, he says, is a 
Christian daily paper and he exhorts 
all those who favor the establishment 
of such a paper, to drop him a postal 
raid and tell him so. 

It is encouraging to know that honest 
Protestants, too, are beginning to feel 
the need of a Christian daily press, and 
we sincerely hope Mi-. Monsma will 
succeed in making a start in Chicago, 
which city, as he rightly says, "would 
be the logical point of distribution for 
9V»ch a paper" in the middle West. 




The Fight Against Tobacco 

Henry Ford has donned war paint. 
H is latest crusade is against the "little 
white slaver," by which he means the 
cigarette, which, according to him and 
the authorities he skillfully brings 
together in his pamphlet, "The Case 
against the Little White Slaver," is the 
cause of untold mischief, misery, and 

Mr. Ford quotes Thomas A. Edison 
to show that "cigarette-smoking causes 
violent action on the nerve centers, 
producing degeneration of the cells of 
the brain, which degeneration is perma- 
nent and uncontrollable." Mr. Edison 
employs no person who smokes ciga- 
rettes. Mr. Ford's plea is made prin- 
cipally to the American boy on the basis 
of assertions which, he says, have 
been scientifically demonstrated : that 
non-smokers are more efficient ; that the 
brains of cigarette smokers act more 
slowly ; that the minds of many boys 
are wrecked by tobacco ; that it en- 
slaves them ; that it injures them moral- 
ly ; that it increases disease and mor- 
tality ; that it is direct kin to alcohol 
and opium. He finds that this import- 
ant vice of civilization costs the United 
States more than a billion dollars a year. 

Mr. Ford fails to mention in his case 
against "the little white slaver" that the 
light against tobacco is not new, but, 
in fact, several hundred years old. As 
early as 1640. a King of England 
summed up the evils of tobacco thus : 
"Tobacco is the lively image and patron 
of Hell, and furthermore, he that picks 
tobacco sayeth he cannot leave it ; thus 
it doth bewitch him and it is also like 
Hell in the very substance of it because 
it is a stinking loathsome thing and so 
is Hell." In seventeenth-century Eng- 
land, however, tobacco was regarded 
as essential to the health of children. 
Boys at Eton had to smoke every morn- 
ing and were whipped if they did not. 

Quixotic as the crusade against to- 
bacco smoking may seem at present, 
especially after the increased consump- 
tion of tobacco — particularly of ciga- 
rettes — in the army, it is, as the Surrey 
rightly says (Vol. 42, No. 8), a signifi- 
cant indication of the modern tendencv 

to regard habit- forming and health- 
destroying drugs as a public menace 
which requires state and social regula- 
tion. The hygienic aspects of tobacco, 
however, are not yet sufficiently cleared 
up. Many statements in Mr. Ford's 
pamphlet cannot be scientifically dem- 
onstrated. Let us have more real light 
on the subject ! 


De-Lousing the American Intellect 

An American correspondent lately 
furnished the press with a two-column 
list of "Things Which Were Not So" 
in the Great War. He mentions the 
battle at Chateau-Thierry, the Ameri- 
can troops at Sedan, the sky filled with 
Yankee aeroplanes, the German ma- 
chine gunners chained to their guns, 
American soldiers in cages wheeled 
through Germany, and a few more of 
the "pep" reports furnished for Ameri- 
can consumption. 

The Little Rock (Ark.) Guardian 
(Vol. IX, No. 5) comments on this rev- 
elation as follows : 

"Just as Barnum said, we American 
people fell for the most of it. It was 
efficient press work. Yes — probably 
so — but just now, since we are all wise 
to the 'publicity office.' may we not get 
back to saner minds and rid them of 
undesirable tenants. Every thing and 
body is now d do used, why not delouse 
the American intellect and free it from 
its bluff bacteria, which is so injurious 
to proper and just feelings. Hatred is 
of that growth in need of application 
of some Christian disinfectant. Let us 
be spared of its poisonous infections. 
The time when hatred would do any 
good is passed, if indeed there ever was 
such a time. The soldier boys all have 
1o submit to a physical delousing, then 
let us civilians submit also to an intel- 
lectual delousing and get rid of itching 
fakes and bluffs and cleanse ourselves 
of un-Christian hatred." 

— Tt is still time to keep that promise you 
made lo yourself last year to help the RE- 
VIEW along by sending in a new subscriber. 

— Force never changes ideas. If there be 
erroneous ideas about what Americanism is, 
they should be removed not by force, but by 



August 15 

Indecency in Fashions 
The London Universe (No, 3050) 
([notes a titled British lady as saving, 
in the course of a strong plea for 
decency in fashions, thai male applaud- 
ers of female shamelessness are in a 
decided minority and that most men 
disapprove out of respect for "their 
mother's sex." 

What a pity that this pars maior et 
senior of the male population does not 
make its voice heard in protest against 
the revolting freaks in female fashions 
now in evidence all around ns ! To do 
so frequently and loudly would seem to 
be an important duty of all good Cath- 
olics, who. moreover, hoth men and 
women, as our contemporary points 
out, can find a far higher motive than 
that suggested by this English lady in 
the religious origin of old-time Chris- 
tian chivalry towards women, — namely 
Catholic veneration for the Blessed 
Virgin Mary. Mother of God. in whose 
person 4 the Divine Regenerator of 
society "exalted" woman out of the 
degradation and humiliation in which 
paganism had kept her. Thus they will 
he inspired by respect for the Virgin 
Mother's sex. In Mary, a perfect 
model of humble-minded modesty. 
Christian wives and maidens have a 
solid motive for making a determined 
stand and flatly refusing to swim with 
the muddy stream of certain vogues. 
This will be a real contribution towards 
true social reform. 

The North Dakota Experiment 
The demands and proposals of the 
Xon-I'artisan League, which have re- 
cently been enacted into law-; in the 
State of North Dakota, provide for a 
system of State-owned mills, elevators, 
\\are-house>. and marketing; a State 
bank in which all State funds are de- 
posited and which will do a general 

banking busini — , extend loans to farm- 
era at low rates, refraining from col- 
lg interest on these loans in case 
of crop failure; a State-owned associa- 
tion, which will advance money for 
home building on condition of a small 
initial payment ; State-owned and op- 

erated lignite mines ; and a new tax 
code which exempts from taxation 
farm implements and improvements. 

The A T atioii calls these measures 
revolutionary. They may be so called 
without undue straining of language ; 
yet, as Dr. Ryan has pointed out in the 
Catholic Charities Review (III, 4), not 
one of them can be condemned as 
necessarily in conflict with either good 
morals or sound economic practice. 
"None of them inflicts injustice upon 
any person or class of persons, nor un- 
duly restricts the economic opportunity 
of individuals," assuming that the new 
measures will prove in practice, as they 
are designed to be in theory, helpful to 
the large and important groups of per- 
sons on whose behalf they have been 
enacted. In Dr. Ryan's words, "there 
is no intrinsic reason why these meas- 
ures should not all work out success- 
fully. Everything will depend on the 
manner in which they will be admin- 
istered. . . . To denounce them as So- 
cialistic will prove nothing and change 
nothing. The fair and prudent course 
is to take them for what they are, 
namely, very radical reforms in the 
interest of the farming class, and to 
observe carefully their practical opera- 
tion and effects." 



go to 


408 Washington Avenue 





Curbing the Packers 

The support given from all sides to 
the Kenyon bill, now before Congress, 
for the control of the packing industry, 
shows that the people will not allow 
themselves to be fooled any longer. We 
see from the Survey (XLII, 18) that, 
as a matter of fact, frvo bills have been 
introduced, one by Senator Kendrick 
and one by Senator Kenyon. They are 
not antagonistic, but the last named 
goes further in the regulation of the 
packing industry. Its chief aim is that 
of separating the meat business from 
the grocery business and the innumer- 
able other businesses which have threat- 
ened to make the great Chicago packing 
houses monopoly sources of supply for 
the retail trade. There is to be a strict 
system of licenses, such as has been 
recommended by the Federal Trade 
Commission, for the purpose of remov- 
ing the stockyards from the control of 
the packers; of limiting the packers' 
control over industries producing unre- 
lated food products ; of putting refrig- 
erator cars on the basis of common 
carriers and making them part of the 
carrying system of the country ; and of 
establishing throughout the country 
storage and marketing facilities that 
will permit competition with packers' 
branch houses. 

The bill was drafted after months 
of careful study and has the approval 
of bodies concerned with the cost of 
living on the one hand and the prosper- 
ity of farming on the other. The pack- 
ers complain that this measure is "rev- 
olutionary" ; but the American people 
are no longer afraid of revolutionary 
measures to curb profiteers. 


Mr. Wilson's Capitulation 

One explanation that has been given 
of Mr. Wilson's concessions to French. 
British, and Italian Imperialism and 
of his lamentable compromise on his 
principles is that he feared to precipi- 
tate a revolution in France if he retired 
from the peace conference. "It is pos- 
sible." savs Mr. Robert Dell in a letter 
to The Dial (No. 793), "that the ex- 
p'anation has some foundation and, if 

Mr. Wilson had such a fear, there was 
some justification for it. But it is not 
a sufficient reason for his capitulation, 
for, if the fear be justified, the French 
government at any rate would have 
yielded rather than allow Mr. Wilson 
to withdraw. And Mr. Wilson's capit- 
ulation has only made the revolution 
more certain. Had he stood firm and